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Afm 2005 Afm 2005 Presentation Transcript

  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl Summer Characterization Open Houses Technique Time Date Location Thermal analysis (TGA, DTA, DSC) 9:45 AM June 8 250 MRL Bldg. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM/STEM) 9:45 AM June 15 114 MRI Bldg Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 9:45 AM June 22 541 Deike Bldg. Analytical SEM 11:00 AM June 22 541 Deike Bldg. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 9:45 AM June 29 250 MRL Bldg. Dielectric Characterization (25 min lecture only) 9:45 AM July 6 250 MRL bldg. High temperature sintering lab (20 min lecture only) 10:15 AM July 6 250 MRL Bldg. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) 9:45 AM July 13 114 MRI Bldg TEM sample preparation 11:00 AM July 13 114 MRI Bldg Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM/EBSD) 9:45 AM July 20 250 MRL Bldg. Chemical analysis (ICP, ICP-MS) 9:45 AM July 27 541 Deike Bldg. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 9:45 AM August 3 114 MRI Bldg Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) 9:45 AM August 10 541 Deike Bldg. Particle Characterization 9:45 AM August 17 250 MRL X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA) 9:45 AM August 24 114 MRI Bldg Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 11:00 AM August 24 114 MRI Bldg NOTE LOCATIONS: The MRI Bldg is in the Innovation Park near the Penn Stater Hotel; MRL Bldg. is on Hastings Road. More information: www.mri.psu.edu/mcl
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl Materials Characterization Lab Locations Bldg Telephone MRL 863-7844 MRI 865-0337 MRI Bldg: Hosler 865-1981 XPS/ESCA, SIMS, E&ES 863-4225 TEM, HR-TEM, FE- Auger, AFM, XRD MRL Bldg: Hosler Bldg: SEM, XRD, OIM, DTA, SEM, ESEM, FE- DSC, TGA, FTIR, Penn Stater SEM, EPMA, ICP, Hotel Raman, AFM, Powder, E&ES Bldg: ICP-MS,BET, SAXS dielectric, prep, shop, SEM IC, UV-Vis Route 322 Steidle Bldg: Atherton Street Nanoindenter (322 Business) I-99 Park Ave. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ave. 0 0 0 0 0 Park 0 Beaver 0 0 Stadium 0 0 0 Centre 0 0 Porter Road Community Univ Shortlidg Hospital 0 0 Burrowes Road ersi ty D e Pollock Road Road rive North Hastin Deike Bldg: gs Ro ad College Ave.
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl Atomic Force Microscopy Vince Bojan AFM / XPS / Auger / SIMS Analyst August 3, 2005
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Jeff Shallenberger Raafat Malek Evangelos Manias
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl OUTLINE ― an overview of the technique ―discussion of MCL instrument capabilities ― applications ― AFM vs. SEM ― how to get started ― resources ― a brief lab tour / instrument demonstration
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a subset of “Scanning Probe Microscopies” (SPM) The radius of this tip can vary from 1 angstrom (STM) to 1 micron For AFM, tip radii range from 1-20 nm. A Practical Guide to Scanning Probe Microscopy, Howland & Benatar
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl OTHER SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPIES • SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY (STM) • LATERAL FORCE MICROSCOPY (LFM) • MAGNETIC FORCE MICROSCOPY (MFM) • ELECTRIC FORCE MICROSCOPY (EFM) • CHEMICAL FORCE MICROSCOPY (CFM) • NEAR-FIELD SCANNING OPTICAL MICROSCOPY (SNOM OR NSOM) • SCANNING CAPACITANCE MICROSCOPY (SCM) • BALLISTIC ELECTRON EMISSION MICROSCOPY (BEEM) • SCANNING THERMAL MICROSCOPY • PHOTON SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY • ELECTROCHEMICAL STM AND AFM • FORCE MODULATION MICROSCOPY • SURFACE POTENTIAL MICROSCOPY
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl HISTORY • SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE DEVELOPED BY BINNIG, ROHRER, GERBER AND WEIBEL AT IBM IN ZURICH • 1982 NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS FOR THE STM • AFM DEVELOPED IN 1986 BY BINNIG, QUATE AND GERBER IN AN IBM / STANFORD COLLABORATION
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) - G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, C. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1982, 49, 57. COURTESY R. MALEK, MCL
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl TYPICAL AFM LAYOUT or mirr PSD las er A B C D DI MULTIMODE cantile v er (A+B) - (C+D) (kept constant during scanning) sample scanner scanner x,y- z- Drive voltage gives height information (constant deflection) COURTESY R. MALEK
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl MCL MICROSCOPES DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS DIMENSION 3100 (MRI BLDG.) MULTIMODE (MRL BLDG.) BETTER HI-MAGNIFICATION LARGE SAMPLE CAPABILITY IMAGING
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl DIMENSION 3100 MULTIMODE (MRI) (MRL) HEIGHT 11 mm 5mm WIDTH 100 mm 12mm VERTICAL 6.4 MICRONS 5.5 MICRONS FEATURE SIZE 250nm – 100 10nm – 160 SCAN SIZE MICRONS MICRONS SAMPLE AIR & LIQUID AIR & LIQUID ENVIRONMENT
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl SAMPLE PREPARATION CONDUCTIVE AND NON-CONDUCTIVE SAMPLES SURFACE CLEANING SOMETIMES NECESSARY SAMPLE MOUNTING MAY REQUIRE SOME EFFORT VERTICAL RESOLUTION: DEPENDS ON INHERENT SCANNER RESOLUTION, ELECTRONIC RESOLUTION, COMBINED EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL, MECHANICAL & ACOUSTIC NOISE…..TYPICALLY SUB ANGSTROM TO SEVERAL ANGSTROMS LATERAL RESOLUTION: DEPENDS ON TIP RADIUS AND GEOMETRY, PIXEL DENSITY, TIP/SAMPLE INTERACTION FORCES, COMBINED ELECTRONIC, MECHANICAL, AND ACOUSTIC NOISE SOURCES, AND THE DEFINITION OF LATERAL RESOLUTION…..TYPICALLY A FEW TO 10S OF nm
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl CONTACT VS. TAPPING MODE DIMENSION 3100 MICROSCOPE BOTH METHODS SCAN THE SURFACE WITH A CONSTANT FORCE
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CONTACT AND TAPPING MODES CONTACT ADVANTAGES •HIGH SCAN SPEEDS •VERY ROUGH SAMPLES CAN SOMETIMES BE SCANNED MORE EASILY DISADVANTAGES •LATERAL FORCE DISTORTION •CAPILLARY FORCES FROM ADSORBED WATER CAN BE HIGH •HIGH LATERAL AND NORMAL FORCES CAN DAMAGE SOFT SAMPLES TAPPING ADVANTAGES •HIGHER LATERAL RESOLUTION ON MOST SAMPLES •LOWER FORCES AND LESS DAMAGE TO SOFT SAMPLES IMAGED IN AIR •LATERAL FORCES VIRTUALLY ELIMINATED DISADVANTAGES •SLOWER SCAN SPEEDS THAN CONTACT MODE
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl Contact Mode Cantilever (Si3N4) 0.32 0.12 CANTILEVERS NOT DRAWN TO SCALE 0.06 0.58 COURTESY R. MALEK, MCL
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl TAPPING MODE CANTILEVER
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl TEMPERED GLASS TOPOGRAPHIC IMAGE
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl MEASUREMENT OF LATERAL AND VERTICAL FEATURES
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl AVERAGE ROUGHNESS CALCULATION
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl PIXEL HEIGHT DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS HIGHEST (YELLOW) 4.1 nm 7.5 nm 10 nm LOWEST (MAROON)
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl NANOWIRE UNIFORMITY
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl HOT-END SnO2 COATING ON A GLASS BEER BOTTLE 10 CTU 20 CTU 30 CTU
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl CARBON NANOTUBES
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl PHASE IMAGING IN TAPPING MODE amplitude Extender phase Electronics phase
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl K. E. Strawhecker and E. Manias, AFM of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Crystals Next to an Inorganic Surface 8475 Macromolecules 2001, 34, 8475-8482
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl MEASUREMENT OF INTERMOLECULAR FORCES VIA FORCE-DISTANCE CURVES
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl CHEMICAL FORCE MICROSCOPY F-D curve for a Si3N4 cantilever and mica surface as a function of pH C.B. Prater, P.G. Maivald, K.J. Kjoller, M.G. Heaton, “Probing Nano-Scale Forces with the Atomic Force Microscope” DI application note
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl TIP SHAPE ISSUES TIP RADIUS AND GEOMETRY INFLUENCE LATERAL RESOLUTION, AND THE ABILITY TO FOLLOW SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl TIP IMAGING COURTESY E. MANIAS
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl AFM VS. SEM AFM ADVANTAGES • QUANTITATIVE LATERAL AND VERTICAL MEASUREMENTS • NO NEED FOR SHARP EDGES OR SPECIAL SURFACE CHARACTERICTERISTICS TO GENERATE GOOD TOPOGRAPHIC CONTRAST IN IMAGES • MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED IN AMBIENT AIR, LIQUID, VACUUM, OR OTHER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS • ELEVATIONS AND DEPRESSIONS ARE EASILY DISTINGUISHED • SAMPLE PREP CAN OFTEN BE NON-DESTRUCTIVE • ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH MATERIAL PROPERTY DIFFERENCES SUCH AS STIFFNESS, ELASTICITY, COMPLIANCE, FRICTION, ADHESION, MAGNETIC FIELDS, CARRIER CONCENTRATION, TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION, SPREADING RESISTANCE, AND CONDUCTIVITY SEM ADVANTAGES • QUALITATIVE ELEMENTAL INFORMATION VIA X-RAYS & BACKSCATTERED ELECTRONS • ABILITY TO IMAGE UNDERCUTS OR CONVOLUTED STRUCTURES • LARGER DEPTH OF FIELD AND LATERAL SCAN RANGE • RELATIVELY FAST ACQUISITION OF IMAGES
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl Images from DI Veeco Metrology application note “SEM and AFM: Complementary Techniques for High Resolution Surface Investigations”, by Russell, Batchelor, and Thornton.
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl DATA PROCESSING TYPICAL OPERATIONS INVOLVE: • Removing tilt, drift, scanner offsets and distortions • Altering contrast, brightness, colors • Magnify or reduce the vertical scale • Curvature or edge enhancement algorithms • Retouch areas of bad data • Filtering “environmental noise” • Introduce artificial light sources • Fourier Transform • 3-dimensional rendering • Low-Pass/High-Pass Filtering • Surface parameters such as roughness, skewness, or kurtosis • Cross sectional analyses • Bearing analyses
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl COMMON IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHIMS CAN INTRODUCE SIGNIFICANT DISTORTIONS INTO THE DATA
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl RESOURCES Veeco metrology http://www.veeco.com/ MatSE 597D http://zeus.plmsc.psu.edu/~manias/MatSc597/ Do a GOOGLE search on “scanning probe microscopy”
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl SO HOW DO I GET AFM MEASUREMENTS MADE??? • CONTACT VINCE BOJAN (vjb2@psu.edu) OR BOB HENGSTEBECK (bhengstebeck@mri.psu.edu AT THE MRI BLDG. FOR THE DIMENSION 3100 LARGE-SAMPLE AFM. • CONTACT DR. RAAFAT MALEK (rqm@psu.edu) FOR THE MULTIMODE AFM AT THE MRL BLDG. • IF YOU HAVE JUST A FEW MEASUREMENTS, MCL STAFF MEMBERS CAN MAKE THE MEASUREMENTS FOR YOU, AND ALSO HELP YOU INTERPRET THE DATA • IF YOU HAVE LOTS OF SAMPLES, YOU CAN BE TRAINED TO RUN THE MICROSCOPE YOURSELF • AFTER TRAINING, RESERVE TIME ON THE AFM CALENDAR TRAINED, COMPETENT USERS GET ACCESS ON EVENINGS & WEEKENDS •
  • Materials Characterization Lab www.mri.psu.edu/mcl MCL WEB PAGE http://www.mri.psu.edu/mcl/index.asp MCL ONLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM http://www.mri.psu.edu/mcl/online.asp