Oleh: ZA’IM AHMAD Kolej Undang2, Kerajaan & Pengajian Antarabangsa 0134402805 @ 049284215 [email_address]
DEFINITION <ul><li>What is residivisme </li></ul><ul><li>Recidive + ism - from Latin </li></ul><ul><li>term “recidivism” i...
<ul><li>As a measure of public safety, recidivism is defined as a new criminal referral.  </li></ul><ul><li>referral is a ...
Rsividivism di Kalangan Pesalah <ul><li>Homicide </li></ul><ul><li>Aggravated assault </li></ul><ul><li>Assault </li></ul>...
Recidivists Profile <ul><li>Umur </li></ul><ul><li>Lokasi sosial </li></ul><ul><li>Latar belakang keluarga (jenayah) </li>...
Law enforcement <ul><li>In terms of law enforcement,  </li></ul><ul><li>recidivism refers to any case in which a criminal ...
<ul><li>many people talk about recidivism in the sense of failing to stick with an alcohol or drug treatment program.  </l...
<ul><li>In the criminal sense,  </li></ul><ul><li>Recidivism is a serious problem.  </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes of all levels...
Sebab mengulang <ul><li>It results from the concatenation of failures:  </li></ul><ul><li>failure of the individual to liv...
BEHAVIOR THEORY <ul><li>Antara para sarjana yang memberikan idea dalam teori ini adalah Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Guthrie...
Teori Pembelajaran Sosial <ul><li>dikemukakan oleh Albert Bandura  </li></ul><ul><li>iaitu tabiat dan tingkah-laku kita ad...
Teori Pembelajaran Sosial <ul><li>Terdapat dua jenis faktor pengukuh.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>faktor di luar diri kita - ia...
Teori Kognitif <ul><li>Antara para sarjana yang telah memberikan idea dalam teori ini adalah Koffka, Kohler, Lewin, Piaget...
Teori pembelajaran tingkah laku <ul><li>mengandaikan bahawa pembelajaran adalah kesan daripada tindak balas persekitaran. ...
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Residivisme Bab 1 Syr5013

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SSYM5013 Pencegahan Residivism

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Residivisme Bab 1 Syr5013

  1. 1. Oleh: ZA’IM AHMAD Kolej Undang2, Kerajaan & Pengajian Antarabangsa 0134402805 @ 049284215 [email_address]
  2. 2. DEFINITION <ul><li>What is residivisme </li></ul><ul><li>Recidive + ism - from Latin </li></ul><ul><li>term “recidivism” is used generally to refer to repetitions of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>act of a person repeating </li></ul><ul><li>undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior </li></ul><ul><li>usually used in a negative context, to discuss socially unacceptable or morally questionable behavior which is repeated despite punishment or training to discourage the behavior </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>As a measure of public safety, recidivism is defined as a new criminal referral. </li></ul><ul><li>referral is a law enforcement report to a juvenile department alleging one or more felony and 1 or misdemeanor acts </li></ul><ul><li>Recidivism, in a criminal justice context, can be defined as the reversion of an individual to criminal behavior after he or she has been convicted of a prior offense, sentenced, and (presumably) corrected </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rsividivism di Kalangan Pesalah <ul><li>Homicide </li></ul><ul><li>Aggravated assault </li></ul><ul><li>Assault </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual (rape) </li></ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul><ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>property </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Recidivists Profile <ul><li>Umur </li></ul><ul><li>Lokasi sosial </li></ul><ul><li>Latar belakang keluarga (jenayah) </li></ul><ul><li>Longest time (live same place, held same job) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological (treated on outside, saw in prison) </li></ul><ul><li>Substance abuse , treated substance abuse </li></ul>
  6. 6. Law enforcement <ul><li>In terms of law enforcement, </li></ul><ul><li>recidivism refers to any case in which a criminal repeats a crime, despite being punished for it with fines or jail time. The term may be employed for mild crimes, like petty theft, or major ones, like child molestation or murder. Many critics of penal systems look at their rates of recidivism to see whether or not they are effective. A high recidivism rate suggests that a penal system may not be doing its job. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>many people talk about recidivism in the sense of failing to stick with an alcohol or drug treatment program. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these programs have high rates of recidivism because they are related to chemical and physical additions, which can be very difficult to treat. </li></ul><ul><li>Without a conscious effort and a good treatment program, a participant will ultimately slide back into the addition. People may use the term more generally to talk about falling back into bad habits as well, although people usually do not apply the term to themselves. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In the criminal sense, </li></ul><ul><li>Recidivism is a serious problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes of all levels are hurtful for the victims, and most people would like the avoid them. As a result, administrators in a penal system like to believe that people will not repeat crimes after they have been punished for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Such a repetition suggests the need for new approaches such as therapy or support programs designed to prevent recidivism. </li></ul><ul><li>Especially with juvenile offenders, there is also a genuine desire for the criminal to go on to lead a life without crime, which can be difficult when crime is the only thing that someone is familiar with. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sebab mengulang <ul><li>It results from the concatenation of failures: </li></ul><ul><li>failure of the individual to live up to society’s expectations – or </li></ul><ul><li>failure of society to provide for the individual; a consequent failure of the individual to stay out of trouble; failure of the individual, as an offender, to escape arrest and conviction; failure of the individual as an inmate of a correctional institution to take advantage of correctional programs – or </li></ul><ul><li>failure of the institution to provide programs that rehabilitate; and additional </li></ul><ul><li>failures by the individual in continuing in a criminal career after release. </li></ul>
  10. 10. BEHAVIOR THEORY <ul><li>Antara para sarjana yang memberikan idea dalam teori ini adalah Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Guthrie, Hull, Tolman dan Skinner. </li></ul><ul><li>Menurut teori yang berorientasikan tingkah laku ini, pembelajaran boleh membentuk tingkah laku yang boleh menyokong ke arah perubahan kendiri. </li></ul><ul><li>Konsep teori ini adalah merangsang gerak balas, pengubahsuaian tingkah laku, kecekapan asas dan kemahiran penuh dalam sesuatu pembelajaran. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaedah latihan dan pengukuhan dipraktikkan dalam pembelajaran tersebut. Teori ini sebenarnya lebih kepada perubahan tingkah laku seseorang itu dalam membentuk persekitaran pembelajaran. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Teori Pembelajaran Sosial <ul><li>dikemukakan oleh Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>iaitu tabiat dan tingkah-laku kita adalah kita tiru dan kita pelajari daripada interaksi kita dengan masyarakat </li></ul><ul><li>Menurut teori pembelajaran sosial, kaedah pembelajaran adalah secara berinteraksi dan pemantauan terhadap orang lain daripada segi sosial. Selain itu, pembelajaran adalah interaksi antara manusia, persekitaran dan tingkah laku. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Teori Pembelajaran Sosial <ul><li>Terdapat dua jenis faktor pengukuh. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>faktor di luar diri kita - iaitu perkara yang kita alami secara langsung akibat perilaku kita, sebagai contoh ialah pujian atau kutukan yang kita terima selepas kita melakukan sesuatu. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faktor yang datang daripada sistem yang ada dalam diri kita sendiri - Sistem seperti konsep-diri dan estim-diri ada dalam jiwa tiap-tiap manusia. Sistem itu mempengaruhi sikap, tabiat dan perilaku kita. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Teori Kognitif <ul><li>Antara para sarjana yang telah memberikan idea dalam teori ini adalah Koffka, Kohler, Lewin, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne. </li></ul><ul><li>Teori kognitif menyatakan manusia mempunyai keupayaan mental untuk mengelola, menyusun dan mengeluarkan semula pengalaman mereka. </li></ul><ul><li>Konsep teori ini ialah menggunakan prinsip ulangan dan menggunakan perbandingan analogi dan aplikasi. </li></ul><ul><li>Teori ini lebih kepada penggunaan pemikiran seseorang bertujuan membentuk struktur kognitif dalam ingatan dan menyusun segala pengalaman dan menyimpannya dalam ingatan. Ia adalah suatu proses mental dalaman. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Teori pembelajaran tingkah laku <ul><li>mengandaikan bahawa pembelajaran adalah kesan daripada tindak balas persekitaran. </li></ul><ul><li>bagi mengesahkan teori ini, tingkah laku positif dan negatif akan disusuli dengan ganjaran atau dendaan. </li></ul><ul><li>jika tingkah laku berkenaan diikuti, ganjaran yang melimpah-ruah seperti pujian, makan percuma, potensi kerjaya dan sebagainya akan diperolehi. Jika tidak diikuti, tindakan kekerasan menjadi pilihan seperti dendaan, diberi amaran ataupun dibuang sekolah. Pembelajaran kognitif adalah hasil daripada proses mental. Ingatan jangka masa pendek dan panjang yang tersimpan di minda separa sedar berperanan membekalkan maklumat untuk membuat keputusan. </li></ul>
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