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Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki

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Workshop Bridging the Gap between Web 2.0 and Semantic Web (SemNet), ESWC 2007

Workshop Bridging the Gap between Web 2.0 and Semantic Web (SemNet), ESWC 2007

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  • 1. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki Bridging the Gap between Web 2.0 and Semantic Web Christoph Lange Jacobs University Bremen (formerly International University Bremen) June 7, 2007 Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 1
  • 2. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Wikis for Science Current scientific wikis: Wikipedia (partly) PlanetMath (domain-specific) ... Easy to create and link knowledge items ⇒ wikis also suitable for non-public research projects Scientific services currently not available Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 2
  • 3. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Semantic Wikis Conventional wikis do not understand the knowledge graph they contain Semantic wikis address this problem: usually: 1 page = 1 real-world concept pages and links typed with terms from ontologies Semantic wikis are appropriate base system for community-authored knowledge models: support stepwise formalisation workflow offer enhanced navigation and search Examples: Semantic MediaWiki [KVV06], IkeWiki [Schaffert06], . . . Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 3
  • 4. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Semantic Services for Science Foster collaboration in a scientific community – e. g.: suggesting topics of interest to learners manage dependencies during development Both issues solved on the semantic web, but not in semantic wikis Wiki extensions for learning exist [Reinhold06], but do not utilise knowledge contained in the wiki pages! Why are semantic wikis not semantic enough? Because they are not really built on ontologies! Ontologies are optional mostly; ontology support is too generic ⇒ model generic ontology of (scientific) domain knowledge, design services on top of that abstraction layer Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 4
  • 5. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion SWiM, a Semantic Wiki for Mathematics SWiM prototype: IkeWiki [Schaffert06] + OMDoc [Kohlhase06] editing, presentation, navigation; partly ontology-based Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 5
  • 6. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Structural Semantic Markup Structural semantic markup: common way to represent scientific knowledge Markup languages available for: Mathematics: Content MathML, OpenMath, OMDoc, . . . Physics: PhysML Chemistry: CML Geodata: GML, SensorML, MarineML, ESML, . . . From top to bottom (roughly): less structures, more data For OMDoc, e. g., there are services for learning assistance, semantic search, publishing, theory management, proof verification, . . . Technology transfer in progress [HKS06] Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 6
  • 7. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Scientific Knowledge Representation Three levels of scientific knowledge [Kohlhase06]: Objects symbols, numbers, equations, molecules, . . . Statements axioms, hypotheses, measurement results, examples; relationships: “proves”, “defines”, “exemplifies”, . . . Theories collections of interrelated statements, determine context: “What does the symbol h mean?” Successfully applied to mathematics (OMDoc), transferred to physics [HKS06] Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 7
  • 8. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Bringing Ontologies into Play Markup language for expressing scientific knowledge available Make it semantic web aware – formalise it in an ontology! Partly done for OMDoc; further steps: extending, generalising imports Theory lives in contains-1 Concept depends on Statement Symbol defined by Definition Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 8
  • 9. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Where is the Knowledge in a Wiki? Semantic wiki: One page = one concept SWiM: One page = one statement or theory (small, reusable pages, but not too small) Semantic Web tools need more explicit representation of the knowledge (extract from markup!) Example A wiki page: Extracted RDF triples (= graph): proves <omdoc> Proof Theorem <proof id="pyth-proof" type type for="pythagoras"> proves ... pyth-proof pythagoras </proof> </omdoc> <pyth-proof, rdf:type, omdoc:Proof> <pyth-proof, omdoc:proves, pythagoras> (omdoc:* → OMDoc document ontology) Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 10
  • 10. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Learning Assistance Added value analysis [KM07] for the “core problem” of helping a scholar to understand a topic. setting: Course modules (= theories) connected by prerequisite links (= theory imports) 1 show navigation bar with direct links from current topic to other topics, grouped by type sacrifice: indirect prerequisites not accessible directly 2 explore direct and indirect prerequisites (via reasoning) sacrifice: too many irrelevant links Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 11
  • 11. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Learning from the Community New core problem: pre-select relevant prerequisite links! 1 Do it the social way: record what other users clicked sacrifice: What if my needs are different from others’ ? 2 Give a better, personalised estimate! Single-user context: determine user’s previous knowledge (user model) [M+ 06] Use the community power: find out to which sub-community the user belongs e. g. concerning communities of practice [Müller07] Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 12
  • 12. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Mission Implement prototypes of these services and evaluate them in long-term case studies. Science Our group is working on the cross-domain integration of scientific markup languages test SWiM+ in a heterogeneous environment, particularly dependency management Education General Computer Science course from fall 2007 Convert and import lecture notes evaluate learning assistance Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 13
  • 13. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion The Big Picture Easy Editing Search Proof for … 1 1 z −2 ? 2 pythagoras ∫−∞ e d ? partial-diff-eqn ¿ proton 1.------- --------- 2.------- --------- SWiM+ Publishing Learning Assistance Change Management <xml> ... </xml> Note: many services are independent from a particular scientific domain! Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 14
  • 14. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Related Work se(ma)2 wi [Zinn06]: Semantic MediaWiki . . . . . . fed with OMDoc-formatted knowledge from ActiveMath e-learning environment Categories and learning metadata are used . . . . . . but structural semantic got lost A Formulae in presentational LTEX, untyped links Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 15
  • 15. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Managing Dependencies: Support the Community Recall the use case: Stein’s theory R depends on Ton’s theory G. Ton makes a change; Stein should be informed about that. 1 Tell Stein: a page your page depends on has been changed. benefit: better than “recent changes” sacrifice: Stein himself must figure out whether the change broke something 2 Find out whether Ton changed the semantics of G (just ask him) sacrifice: Ton has to classify his change. Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 16
  • 16. State of the Art Problem Statement SWiM Knowledge Representation Services Conclusion Managing Dependencies Previous sacrifices: users themselves must reason too much 1 Automatically compute “long-range effects” of changes locutor [Müller06] can! can also do some required fixes <xml> ... Integrate it into the backend! </xml> Ch. Lange (Jacobs University Bremen) Towards Scientific Collaboration in a Semantic Wiki June 7, 2007 17