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sTeX+ – a System for Flexible Formalization of Linked Data
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sTeX+ – a System for Flexible Formalization of Linked Data

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I-Semantics 2010

I-Semantics 2010

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  • 1. S EX+ – a System for Flexible Formalization of Linked T Data Andrea Kohlhase and Michael Kohlhase and Christoph Lange ch.lange@jacobs-university.de Computer Science Jacobs University Bremen, Germany September 1, 2010 Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 1 September 1, 2010
  • 2. SAMS: A Case Study for Semantic Authoring• SAMS: Safety Component for Autonomous Mobile Systems [FHL+ 08]• develop a safety component for autonomous mobile service robots and to get it certified as SIL-3 standard compliant • Follow the V-Model Discipline1 Implement in Misra-C2 Verify safety properties in Isabelle3 ¨ Submit to Certification Agency (TUV) • Document Collection SAMSDocs A (Word, LTEX) • Idea: turn documents into Linked [Closed] Data Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 2 September 1, 2010
  • 3. Linked Data in Software Engineering: MotivationInformation needs in a software engineering project:Programmer: Symbol: defined where? Specification: how much already implemented? Proof: already verified?Project Manager: Has the code been verified? (needs high-level figures) Changes since last certification? Affected parts? Who is in charge of what? How can one employee be replaced?Certifier: Get an overview Follow links through specification and implementation What needs to be re-certified? All: Whom to ask for details about something?Goal: Answer questions from distributed document collection• Partially formalize LTEX documents A (S EX+) T• Linked Data also works in the [enterprise] intranet [Ser08] (it’s just an architecture after all) Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 3 September 1, 2010
  • 4. AAgenda: From LTEX to Linked Data1 SAMSDocs were available as LTEX A (state of the art for technical writing)2 A We had a semantic extension of LTEX: S EX T (formalizing mathematics)3 Too rigid w.r.t. existing layout, no support for project-specific metadata4 “S EX+”: identify objects, define ad hoc metadata vocabulary, annotate objects T with these metadata terms RDF5 Output targets: PDF and OMDoc+RDFa XHTML+MathML+RDFa6 Offer interactive services in XHTML+MathML+RDFa documents Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 4 September 1, 2010
  • 5. S EX, a Semantic Variant of TEX/LTEX T A• Problem: Need content markup formats for semantic services, but A Mathematicians write LTEX• Idea: Enable the author to make structure explicit and disambiguate meanings • use the TEX macro mechanism for this (well established) • the author knows the semantics best (at least she understands) • the burden is is alleviated by manageability savings (MKM on TEX/LTEX) A• Definition 1 (S EX Approach) Semantic pre-loading of TEX/LTEX documents. T A • Introduce semantic macros: e.g. union{a,b,c} a∪b∪c • Mark up discourse structure: (largely invisible) e.g. begin{sproof}[id=Wiles,for=Fermat]. . . end{sproof} • Generate PDF and OMDoc from that A (via LTEXML [Mil]) http://trac.kwarc.info/sTeX/ Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 5 September 1, 2010
  • 6. S EXIDE: Integrated S EX Development Environment T T http://stexide.googlecode.com [JK10] Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 6 September 1, 2010
  • 7. The Formalization Workflow with sTeX Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 7 September 1, 2010
  • 8. Coping with SAMS Practices in S EX I T• Problem: vanilla S EX is not enough for this project T The SAMS has its own structures (but want to preserve appearance)• Example 2 (Definition tables) Definitions in tables (OMDoc only allows sequences of definitions) Idea: Extend S EX to S EX-SD with custom macros and environments to cope. T T Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 8 September 1, 2010
  • 9. Coping with SAMS Practices in S EX II T• Idea: Tabular environment that only outputs definitions to OMDoc A (LTEXML bindings) Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 9 September 1, 2010
  • 10. Non-Logical Relations in SAMSDocs • The V-Model introduces relations between document fragments • formalize V-Model vocabulary: • refines • implements • describesUse • ...• Idea: Mark up these secondary (non-logical) relations as OMDoc metadata• OMDoc allows flexibly extensible metadata [LK09]: • annotate relations via RDFa (RDF in XML) • specify their meaning via ontologies (also expressible in OMDoc)• Example 3 SemVMrel[cd=reqspec,refid=R12,rel=refines] generates the RDFa metadata < l i n k r e l =” s v m : r e f i n e s ” h r e f=” . . / r e q u i r e m e n t s s p e c#R12” /> Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 10 September 1, 2010
  • 11. The S EX-SD Vocabulary Extensions Classified T Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 11 September 1, 2010
  • 12. AVocabulary Extensions Without LTExml HackingDual role of S EX: T• define modular, domain-specific vocabularies• . . . and use them to annotate documentsSo far: mathematical theories (“vocabularies” of mathematical symbols) use semantic macros for symbols in formulae (otherwise fixed vocabulary of mathematical structures)Now (S EX+ ): ontologies (RDF vocabularies) T annotate documents with metadata Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 12 September 1, 2010
  • 13. Defining RDF Vocabularies in S EX+ T b e g i n { module } [ i d= c e r t i f i c a t i o n ] metalanguage [ . . / background / r d f s ]{ r d f s } % m e t a d a t a p r o p e r t y w i t h domain : k e y d e f { document }{ h a s S t a t e } symdef { s t a t e −doc−r d } [ 1 ] { r d . #1} symdef { t u e v }{ t e x t {T”UV}} b e g i n { d e f i n i t i o n } [ f o r=h a s S t a t e ] A document d e f i [ h a s S t a t e ] {% h a s s t a t e } $ x $ , i f f t h e p r o j e c t manager d e c r e e s i t s o . end{ d e f i n i t i o n } b e g i n { d e f i n i t i o n } [ f o r=s t a t e −doc−r d ] A document h a s s t a t e d e f i n i e n d u m [% s t a t e −doc−r d ] { r d . $ x $} , i f f i t has been s u b m i t t e d to $ x $ f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . end{ d e f i n i t i o n } our ad hoc vocabulary so far b e g i n { d e f i n i t i o n } [ f o r=t u e v ] The $ t u e v $ ( T e c h n i s c h e r ” U b e r w a c h u n g s v e r e i n ) i s aWe want something that w e l l −known c e r t i f i c a t i o n a g e n c y i n Germany . end{ d e f i n i t i o n }• . . . is more scalable and reusable end{ module } A than hand-crafted LTExml % Usage bindings importmodule [ . . / onto / c e r t ]{ c e r t i f i c a t i o n }• . . . translates to a real RDFS/OWL b e g i n { document } [ h a s S t a t e= $ s t a t e d o c r d { t u e v } $ ] . . . ontology (via OMDoc, or directly) end{ document } Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 13 September 1, 2010
  • 14. Our Infrastructure http://kwarc.info/LinkedLectures/ [DKL+ 10] Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 14 September 1, 2010
  • 15. Finding a Substitute for an Employee via the V-Model• Harvest the RDFa from OMDoc into a RDF triple store (standard)• Ask the following Query to a SPARQL endpoint PREFIX vm : <h t t p : / /www . sams−p r o j e k t . de / o n t o l o g i e s / V e r s i o n M a n a g e m e n t #> PREFIX omdoc : <h t t p : / / omdoc . o r g / o n t o l o g y #> # OMDoc PREFIX semVM : <h t t p : / /www . sams−p r o j e k t . de / o n t o l o g i e s /V−model#> PREFIX dc : <h t t p : / / p u r l . o r g / dc / e l e m e n t s /1.1/ > # Dublin Core PREFIX xsd : <h t t p : / /www . w3 . o r g /2001/ XMLSchema#> # XML Schema d a t a t y p e s SELECT ? p o t e n t i a l S u b s t i t u t e N a m e WHERE { ? document vm : r e s p o n s i b l e < . . . / e m p l o y e e s # A l i c e > ; omdoc : h a s P a r t ? o b j e c t . { ? o b j e c t semVM : r e f i n e s ? r e l a t e d O b j e c t } UNION { ? o b j e c t omdoc : o c c u r s I n D e f i n i t i o n O f ? r e l a t e d O b j e c t } ? o t h e r D o c u m e n t omdoc : h a s P a r t ? r e l a t e d O b j e c t ; dc : d a t e ? date ; vm : r e s p o n s i b l e ? p o t e n t i a l S u b s t i t u t e . FILTER ( ? o t h e r D o c u m e n t > ”2009−01−01” ˆˆ x s d : d a t e ) ? p o t e n t i a l S u b s t i t u t e f o a f : name ? p o t e n t i a l S u b s t i t u t e N a m e . }• Present the result to the user. Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 15 September 1, 2010
  • 16. RDFa and MathML Annotations as Anchors for InteractiveServices/MashupsHere: an example in mathematical lecture notesIn SAMSDocs: e.g. information on the processing state of a document Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 16 September 1, 2010
  • 17. Conclusions• Software engineering documents: Contracts, Requirements, Mathematical Models, Manuals• Wanted to exploit these structures as Linked Data• Formalized them from LTEX to S EX+ making project-specific semantic A T structures explicit• We can define RDF vocabularies and annotate documents in the same language document and ontology co-development (reduces formalization barriers)• We obtain OMDoc+RDFa output, and further . . . Plain RDF: SPARQL queries: How much is implemented/verified? How to replace an employee? What needs to be re-certified? XHTML+MathML+RDFa: hook interactive (lookup) services right into the annotations• Ongoing work: stabilize the setup (current focus: CS/math lecture notes) Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 17 September 1, 2010
  • 18. Catalin David, Michael Kohlhase, Christoph Lange, Florian Rabe, NikitaZhiltsov, and Vyacheslav Zholudev.Publishing math lecture notes as linked data.In Lora Aroyo, Grigoris Antoniou, Eero Hyv¨nen, Annette ten Teije, Heiner oStuckenschmidt, Liliana Cabral, and Tania Tudorache, editors, The SemanticWeb: Research and Applications (Part II), number 6089 in Lecture Notes inComputer Science, pages 370–375. Springer Verlag, 2010.Udo Frese, Daniel Hausmann, Christoph L¨th, Holger T¨ubig, and Dennis u aWalter.The importance of being formal.In Hardi Hungar, editor, International Workshop on the Certification ofSafety-Critical Software Controlled Systems SafeCert’08, volume 238 ofElectronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, pages 57–70, September2008.Constantin Jucovschi and Michael Kohlhase.sTeXIDE: An integrated development environment for sTeX collections.In Serge Autexier, Jacques Calmet, David Delahaye, Patrick D. F. Ion,Laurence Rideau, Renaud Rioboo, and Alan P. Sexton, editors, IntelligentComputer Mathematics, number 6167 in LNAI. Springer Verlag, 2010.Christoph Lange and Michael Kohlhase. Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 17 September 1, 2010
  • 19. A mathematical approach to ontology authoring and documentation.In Jacques Carette, Lucas Dixon, Claudio Sacerdoti Coen, and Stephen M.Watt, editors, MKM/Calculemus Proceedings, number 5625 in LNAI, pages389–404. Springer Verlag, July 2009.Bruce Miller. ALaTeXML: A LTEX to XML converter.Web Manual at http://dlmf.nist.gov/LaTeXML/.seen September2011.Fran¸ois-Paul Servant. cLinking enterprise data.In Christian Bizer, Tom Heath, Kingsley Idehen, and Tim Berners-Lee, editors,Linked Data on the Web (LDOW), number 369 in CEUR WorkshopProceedings, Aachen, April 2008. Christoph Lange: S EX+ T 17 September 1, 2010