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Ontology Integration and Interoperability (OntoIOp) – Part 1: The Distributed Ontology Language (DOL)

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OASIS Symposium at ISWC 2011

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Ontology Integration and Interoperability (OntoIOp) – Part 1: The Distributed Ontology Language (DOL)

  1. 1. Motivation Standard Example Roadmap Ontology Integration and Interoperability (OntoIOp) – Part 1: The Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) OASIS Symposium @ ISWC 2011 Till Mossakowski, Oliver Kutz, Christoph Lange Universität Bremen, Germany 2011-10-24Mossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 1
  2. 2. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapInteroperable Assistive Technology Assistive technology increasingly relies on communication among users, between users and their devices, and among these devices. Making such ICT accessible and inclusive is costly or even impossible We aim at more interoperable devices, services accessing these devices, and content delivered by these services . . . at the levels of data and metadata data models and data modelling methods metamodels as well as a meta ontology languageMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 2
  3. 3. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapThe Big Picture of Interoperability Knowledge Infrastructure Service-Oriented Smart Environment Architecture Concepts/Data/Individuals Service Target (Device) Device rabil r ity fo Ontology Service Description Target Description inte ppings rope ma Ontology Language/Logic Service Descr. Language Target Descr. Language Data Concepts/Data/Individuals processes Service accesses Target (Device) Device represented in terms of satisfies conforms to Models Ontology refers to Service Description Target Description written in written in written in Metamodels Ontology Language/Logic Service Descr. Language Target Descr. Language Knowledge Software Agents Hardware For now we focus on the “content”/ “knowledge” columnMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 3
  4. 4. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapDOL (Distributed Ontology Language) In practical applications, one ontology language and one logic doesn’t suffice to achieve semantic integration and interoperability Part 1 of the OntoIOp standard provides a meta-language (DOL) for: logically heterogeneous ontologies modular ontologies formal and informal links between ontologies/modules annotation and documentation of ontologies DOL will have a formal semantics and concrete XML, RDF and text serializations We leave services and devices to future parts of the standardMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 4
  5. 5. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapWhy a Standard? DOL is now being developed as ISO Working Item 17347 within ISO TC 37 (Terminology and other language and content resources) / SC 3 (Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content) by a project team (= us) and experts from ≈ 15 countries In practice, interoperability can only be achieved via standards (cf. Christian Galinski @ OASIS 2009) formulate consensual rules under participation of major stakeholders (here: ontology language communities) improve suitability of products, processes and services facilitate communication reduce complexity (and thus costs) increase quality via certificationMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 5
  6. 6. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapRequirements I DOL should be generally applicable, open, and extensible DOL shall be a logic-agnostic metalanguage DOL should have user- and machine-readable serializations DOL should have a well-defined formal, logic-based semanticsMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 6
  7. 7. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapThe Onto-Logical Translation Graph OBOOWL OBO 1.4 bRDF EL QL RL RDF PL OWL RDFS DDLOWL RDFSOWL grey: no fixed expressivity green: decidable ontology languages yellow: semi-decidable ECoOWL FOL= orange: some second-order constructs red: full second-order logic CL ECoFOL Rel-S F-logic subinstitution CASL theoroidal subinstitution simultaneously exact and FOLms= model-expansive comorphisms HOL model-expansive comorphismsMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 7
  8. 8. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapRequirements II DOL should allow for expressing logically heterogeneous ontologies (and literal reuse of existing modules) DOL should allow for expressing links between ontologies DOL Common Common OWL Logic Logic ontology ontology language interpretation translation import import DOL DOL OWL-XML CLIF ASK-IT Ontologies: DOLCE • Transportation Foundational • Tourism Ontology • Personal SupportMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 8
  9. 9. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapRequirements III DOL should allow for writing down ontologies and ontology links as implicitly as possible and as explicitly as needed DOL should allow for rich annotation and documentation of ontologiesMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 9
  10. 10. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapConformance Criteria DOL should work with any existing or future ontology language (if the latter conforms!) We shall establish the conformance of OWL, Common Logic, RDFS, F-logic, UML class diagrams, and OBO Conformance of a logic (directly or by translation): semantic conformance > entailment conformance Conformance of a serialization: XML conformance > RDF conformance > text conformance > standoff markup conformance Conformance of a document (“Is this document a DOL ontology?”) Conformance of an application: A DOL-conforming application produces DOL-conforming documents!Mossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 10
  11. 11. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapExample: A Heterogeneous Time Ontologylogic OWL logic CommonLogicspec TimeOWL = spec TimeCL = TimeRIF then Class: TemporalEntity . (forall (t1 t2) ObjectProperty: before (or (before t1 t2) Domain: TemporalEntity (before t2 t1) Range: TemporalEntity (= t1 t2))) Characteristics: Transitive endend Existing and future DOL features relevant here:logic RIF literal inclusion of existing languagesspec TimeRIF = TimeOWL then Group ( modular reuse Forall ?t1 ?t2 ?t3 XML and RDF serializations (before(?t1 ?t3) :- further link types before(?t1 ?t2) before(?t2 ?t3)) documenting translations explicitlyend rich annotations and documentationMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 11
  12. 12. Motivation Standard Example RoadmapRoadmap Current development is done via mailing list and file repository. Later, we will more and more follow the formal ISO procedures. Now (Oct–Dec 2011): WD (Working Draft) in preparation of the CD (Committee Draft) ballot from Dec 2011: experts review and prepare formal vote on CD; discussions at meetings in Feb 2012 and Jun 2012 Aug 2013: DIS (Draft International Standard) Feb 2015: FDIS (Final Draft International Standard) Aug 2015: IS (International Standard) http://ontolog.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?OntoIOpMossakowski/Kutz/Lange (OASIS; U. Bremen) OntoIOP Part 1: Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2011-10-24 12

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