Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language – a perfect match
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The Distributed Ontology Language is a meta-language for integrating ...

The Distributed Ontology Language is a meta-language for integrating
ontologies written in different languages. Our notion of “distributed”
comprises logical heterogeneity within ontologies, modularity and reuse,
and links across ontologies in different places of the Web. Not only
can ontologies be distributed across the Web, but DOL's supply of
supported ontology languages can also be extended in a decentral way.
For this functionality, DOL builds on the Linked Open Data (LOD)
principles. But DOL also contributes to LOD use cases. Many current
LOD applications are limited by the weak expressivity of the RDF and
RDFS languages commonly used to express data and vocabularies.
Completely switching to a more expressive language would impair
scalability to big datasets. DOL addresses the scalability and
expressivity requirements by allowing to represent each aspect of a
dataset in the most suitable language and keeping these different
representations connected. This is particularly useful in geographic
information systems, where big datasets (e.g. Linked Geo Data, the LOD
version of OpenStreetMap) need to be integrated with formalisations of
complex spatial notions (e.g. in the first-order language Common Logic).

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Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language – a perfect match Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language – a perfect match Christoph Lange1 1Project ‘‘Formal Mathematical Reasoning in Economics’’, School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, UK http://cs.bham.ac.uk/~langec 2013-09-20 Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 1
  • 2. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion “Hello, World!” –2011 Ph.D. (Jacobs University, with M. Kohlhase): Enabling Collaboration on Semiformal Mathematical Knowledge by Semantic Web Integration [Lan11] 2011/12 Univ. Bremen, with John Bateman, Till Mossakowski: Ontology Integration and Interoperability (OntoIOp) ↝ Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) 2012/13 Univ. Birmingham, with M. Kerber, C. Rowat: Formal Mathematical Reasoning in Economics (ForMaRE) [KLR] 2013– Univ. Bonn/Fraunhofer IAIS with S. Auer: Enterprise Information Systems, Linked Open Data Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 2
  • 3. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Overview Linked (Open) Data basic principles Linked Geo Data on the Web logic and limitations The Distributed Ontology, Modelling and Specification Language (DOL) basic principles LOD conformance (distributed ontology level) LOD conformance (logic graph) Geo Use Cases for DOL Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 3
  • 4. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Linked Data: Basic Principles Linked Data: a set of best practices for publishing machine-comprehensible structured data on the Web [Ber06; Wik10]: 1 Use URIs to identify things. 2 Use HTTP URIs (i.e. URLs) so that these things can be referred to and looked up. 3 Provide useful information about the thing when its URI is dereferenced, using standard formats such as RDF (Resource Description Framework) 4 Include links to other, related URIs. Linked Data puts the Semantic Web vision to work. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 4
  • 5. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Linked Data: Benefits Linked Data enables . . . decentralised, collaborative management of big datasets, low-overhead information retrieval, and scalable reasoning. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 5
  • 6. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Linked Open Data: Significance (2011) As of September 2011 Music Brainz (zitgist) P20 Turismo de Zaragoza yovisto Yahoo! Geo Planet YAGO World Fact- book El Viajero Tourism WordNet (W3C) WordNet (VUA) VIVO UF VIVO Indiana VIVO Cornell VIAF URI Burner Sussex Reading Lists Plymouth Reading Lists UniRef UniProt UMBEL UK Post- codes legislation data.gov.uk Uberblic UB Mann- heim TWC LOGD Twarql transport data.gov. uk Traffic Scotland theses. fr Thesau- rus W totl.net Tele- graphis TCM Gene DIT Taxon Concept Open Library (Talis) tags2con delicious t4gm info Swedish Open Cultural Heritage Surge Radio Sudoc STW RAMEAU SH statistics data.gov. uk St. Andrews Resource Lists ECS South- ampton EPrints SSW Thesaur us Smart Link Slideshare 2RDF semantic web.org Semantic Tweet Semantic XBRL SW Dog Food Source Code Ecosystem Linked Data US SEC (rdfabout) Sears Scotland Geo- graphy Scotland Pupils & Exams Scholaro- meter WordNet (RKB Explorer) Wiki UN/ LOCODE Ulm ECS (RKB Explorer) Roma RISKS RESEX RAE2001 Pisa OS OAI NSF New- castle LAAS KISTI JISC IRIT IEEE IBM Eurécom ERA ePrints dotAC DEPLOY DBLP (RKB Explorer) Crime Reports UK Course- ware CORDIS (RKB Explorer) CiteSeer Budapest ACM riese Revyu research data.gov. ukRen. Energy Genera- tors reference data.gov. uk Recht- spraak. nl RDF ohloh Last.FM (rdfize) RDF Book Mashup Rådata nå! PSH Product Types Ontology Product DB PBAC Poké- pédia patents data.go v.uk Ox Points Ord- nance Survey Openly Local Open Library Open Cyc Open Corpo- rates Open Calais OpenEI Open Election Data Project Open Data Thesau- rus Ontos News Portal OGOLOD Janus AMP Ocean Drilling Codices New York Times NVD ntnusc NTU Resource Lists Norwe- gian MeSH NDL subjects ndlna my Experi- ment Italian Museums medu- cator MARC Codes List Man- chester Reading Lists Lotico Weather Stations London Gazette LOIUS Linked Open Colors lobid Resources lobid Organi- sations LEM Linked MDB LinkedL CCN Linked GeoData LinkedCT Linked User Feedback LOV Linked Open Numbers LODE Eurostat (Ontology Central) Linked EDGAR (Ontology Central) Linked Crunch- base lingvoj Lichfield Spen- ding LIBRIS Lexvo LCSH DBLP (L3S) Linked Sensor Data (Kno.e.sis) Klapp- stuhl- club Good- win Family National Radio- activity JP Jamendo (DBtune) Italian public schools ISTAT Immi- gration iServe IdRef Sudoc NSZL Catalog Hellenic PD Hellenic FBD Piedmont Accomo- dations GovTrack GovWILD Google Art wrapper gnoss GESIS GeoWord Net Geo Species Geo Names Geo Linked Data GEMET GTAA STITCH SIDER Project Guten- berg Medi Care Euro- stat (FUB) EURES Drug Bank Disea- some DBLP (FU Berlin) Daily Med CORDIS (FUB) Freebase flickr wrappr Fishes of Texas Finnish Munici- palities ChEMBL FanHubz Event Media EUTC Produc- tions Eurostat Europeana EUNIS EU Insti- tutions ESD stan- dards EARTh Enipedia Popula- tion (En- AKTing) NHS (En- AKTing) Mortality (En- AKTing) Energy (En- AKTing) Crime (En- AKTing) CO2 Emission (En- AKTing) EEA SISVU educatio n.data.g ov.uk ECS South- ampton ECCO- TCP GND Didactal ia DDC Deutsche Bio- graphie data dcs Music Brainz (DBTune) Magna- tune John Peel (DBTune) Classical (DB Tune) Audio Scrobbler (DBTune) Last.FM artists (DBTune) DB Tropes Portu- guese DBpedia dbpedia lite Greek DBpedia DBpedia data- open- ac-uk SMC Journals Pokedex Airports NASA (Data Incu- bator) Music Brainz (Data Incubator) Moseley Folk Metoffice Weather Forecasts Discogs (Data Incubator) Climbing data.gov.uk intervals Data Gov.ie data bnf.fr Cornetto reegle Chronic- ling America Chem2 Bio2RDF Calames business data.gov. uk Bricklink Brazilian Poli- ticians BNB UniSTS UniPath way UniParc Taxono my UniProt (Bio2RDF) SGD Reactome PubMed Pub Chem PRO- SITE ProDom Pfam PDB OMIM MGI KEGG Reaction KEGG Pathway KEGG Glycan KEGG Enzyme KEGG Drug KEGG Com- pound InterPro Homolo Gene HGNC Gene Ontology GeneID Affy- metrix bible ontology BibBase FTS BBC Wildlife Finder BBC Program mes BBC Music Alpine Ski Austria LOCAH Amster- dam Museum AGROV OC AEMET US Census (rdfabout) Media Geographic Publications Government Cross-domain Life sciences User-generated content http://lod-cloud.net Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 6
  • 7. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Linked Open Data: Significance (2011) As of September 2011 Music Brainz (zitgist) P20 Turismo de Zaragoza yovisto Yahoo! Geo Planet YAGO World Fact- book El Viajero Tourism WordNet (W3C) WordNet (VUA) VIVO UF VIVO Indiana VIVO Cornell VIAF URI Burner Sussex Reading Lists Plymouth Reading Lists UniRef UniProt UMBEL UK Post- codes legislation data.gov.uk Uberblic UB Mann- heim TWC LOGD Twarql transport data.gov. uk Traffic Scotland theses. fr Thesau- rus W totl.net Tele- graphis TCM Gene DIT Taxon Concept Open Library (Talis) tags2con delicious t4gm info Swedish Open Cultural Heritage Surge Radio Sudoc STW RAMEAU SH statistics data.gov. uk St. Andrews Resource Lists ECS South- ampton EPrints SSW Thesaur us Smart Link Slideshare 2RDF semantic web.org Semantic Tweet Semantic XBRL SW Dog Food Source Code Ecosystem Linked Data US SEC (rdfabout) Sears Scotland Geo- graphy Scotland Pupils & Exams Scholaro- meter WordNet (RKB Explorer) Wiki UN/ LOCODE Ulm ECS (RKB Explorer) Roma RISKS RESEX RAE2001 Pisa OS OAI NSF New- castle LAAS KISTI JISC IRIT IEEE IBM Eurécom ERA ePrints dotAC DEPLOY DBLP (RKB Explorer) Crime Reports UK Course- ware CORDIS (RKB Explorer) CiteSeer Budapest ACM riese Revyu research data.gov. ukRen. Energy Genera- tors reference data.gov. uk Recht- spraak. nl RDF ohloh Last.FM (rdfize) RDF Book Mashup Rådata nå! PSH Product Types Ontology Product DB PBAC Poké- pédia patents data.go v.uk Ox Points Ord- nance Survey Openly Local Open Library Open Cyc Open Corpo- rates Open Calais OpenEI Open Election Data Project Open Data Thesau- rus Ontos News Portal OGOLOD Janus AMP Ocean Drilling Codices New York Times NVD ntnusc NTU Resource Lists Norwe- gian MeSH NDL subjects ndlna my Experi- ment Italian Museums medu- cator MARC Codes List Man- chester Reading Lists Lotico Weather Stations London Gazette LOIUS Linked Open Colors lobid Resources lobid Organi- sations LEM Linked MDB LinkedL CCN Linked GeoData LinkedCT Linked User Feedback LOV Linked Open Numbers LODE Eurostat (Ontology Central) Linked EDGAR (Ontology Central) Linked Crunch- base lingvoj Lichfield Spen- ding LIBRIS Lexvo LCSH DBLP (L3S) Linked Sensor Data (Kno.e.sis) Klapp- stuhl- club Good- win Family National Radio- activity JP Jamendo (DBtune) Italian public schools ISTAT Immi- gration iServe IdRef Sudoc NSZL Catalog Hellenic PD Hellenic FBD Piedmont Accomo- dations GovTrack GovWILD Google Art wrapper gnoss GESIS GeoWord Net Geo Species Geo Names Geo Linked Data GEMET GTAA STITCH SIDER Project Guten- berg Medi Care Euro- stat (FUB) EURES Drug Bank Disea- some DBLP (FU Berlin) Daily Med CORDIS (FUB) Freebase flickr wrappr Fishes of Texas Finnish Munici- palities ChEMBL FanHubz Event Media EUTC Produc- tions Eurostat Europeana EUNIS EU Insti- tutions ESD stan- dards EARTh Enipedia Popula- tion (En- AKTing) NHS (En- AKTing) Mortality (En- AKTing) Energy (En- AKTing) Crime (En- AKTing) CO2 Emission (En- AKTing) EEA SISVU educatio n.data.g ov.uk ECS South- ampton ECCO- TCP GND Didactal ia DDC Deutsche Bio- graphie data dcs Music Brainz (DBTune) Magna- tune John Peel (DBTune) Classical (DB Tune) Audio Scrobbler (DBTune) Last.FM artists (DBTune) DB Tropes Portu- guese DBpedia dbpedia lite Greek DBpedia DBpedia data- open- ac-uk SMC Journals Pokedex Airports NASA (Data Incu- bator) Music Brainz (Data Incubator) Moseley Folk Metoffice Weather Forecasts Discogs (Data Incubator) Climbing data.gov.uk intervals Data Gov.ie data bnf.fr Cornetto reegle Chronic- ling America Chem2 Bio2RDF Calames business data.gov. uk Bricklink Brazilian Poli- ticians BNB UniSTS UniPath way UniParc Taxono my UniProt (Bio2RDF) SGD Reactome PubMed Pub Chem PRO- SITE ProDom Pfam PDB OMIM MGI KEGG Reaction KEGG Pathway KEGG Glycan KEGG Enzyme KEGG Drug KEGG Com- pound InterPro Homolo Gene HGNC Gene Ontology GeneID Affy- metrix bible ontology BibBase FTS BBC Wildlife Finder BBC Program mes BBC Music Alpine Ski Austria LOCAH Amster- dam Museum AGROV OC AEMET US Census (rdfabout) Media Geographic Publications Government Cross-domain Life sciences User-generated content P20 Turismo de Zaragoza Yahoo! Geo Planet YAGO World Fact- book El Viajero Tourism WordNet (W3C) WordNet (VUA) VIVO VIVO Indiana VIVO Cornell URI Burner UniRef UniProt UMBEL UK Post- codes legislation data.gov.uk Uberblic UB Mann- heim TWC LOGD Twarql transport data.gov. uk Traffic Scotland theses. fr Thesau- rus W totl.net Tele- graphis TCM Gene DIT Taxon Concept Sudoc statistics data.gov. uk ECS South- ampton EPrints SSW Thesaur us Smart Link semantic web.org Semantic XBRL SW Dog Food US SEC (rdfabout) Sears Scotland Geo- graphy Scotland Pupils & Exams WordNet (RKB Explorer) UN/ LOCODE Ulm ECS (RKB Explorer) OS Eurécom ERA ePrints DBLP (RKB Explorer) UK CORDIS (RKB Explorer) CiteSeer ACM riese Revyu research data.gov. ukRen. Energy Genera- tors reference data.gov. uk Recht- spraak. nl Last.FM (rdfize) RDF Book Mashup PSH Product Types Ontology Product DB Poké- pédia patents data.go v.uk Ox Points Ord- nance Survey Openly Local Open Cyc Open Corpo- rates Open Calais OpenEI Open Election Data Project Open Data Thesau- rus OGOLOD Janus AMP Ocean Drilling Codices New York Times ndln my Experi- ment Italian Museums medu- cator MARC Codes List Weather Stations London Gazette LOIUS Linked Open Colors Linked MDB LinkedL CCN Linked GeoData LinkedCT Linked Open Numbers LODE Eurostat (Ontology Central) Linked EDGAR (Ontology Central) lingvoj Lichfield Spen- ding Lexvo LC DBLP (L3S) Linked Sensor Data (Kno.e.sis) Good- win Family National Radio- activity JP Jamendo (DBtune) Italian public schools ISTAT Immi- gration iServe IdRef Sudoc Piedmont Accomo- dations GovTrack GovWILD Google Art wrapper gnoss GeoWord Net Geo Species Geo Names Geo Linked Data GEMET STITCH SIDER Project Guten- berg Medi Care Euro- stat (FUB) EURES Drug Bank Disea- some DBLP (FU Berlin) Daily Med CORDIS (FUB) Freebase flickr wrappr Fishes of Texas Finnish Munici- palities ChEMBL FanHubz Event Media Eurostat EUNIS EU Insti- tutions ESD stan- dards EARTh Enipedia Popula- tion (En- AKTing) NHS (En- AKTing) Mortality (En- AKTing) Energy (En- AKTing) (En- AKTing) CO2 Emission (En- AKTing) EEA SISVU educatio n.data.g ov.uk E So am Didactal ia DDC data dcs Music Brainz (DBTune) Classical (DB Tune) Last.FM artists (DBTune) Portu- guese DBpedia dbpedia lite Greek DBpedia DBpedia data- open- ac-uk SMC Journals Pokedex Airports NASA (Data Incu- bator) Metoffice Weather Forecasts Climbing data.gov.uk intervals Data Gov.ie data bnf.fr Cornetto reegle Chronic- ling America Chem2 Bio2RDF Calames data.gov. uk Brazilian Poli- ticians BNB UniSTS UniPath way UniParc Taxono my UniProt (Bio2RDF) SGD Reactome PubMed Pub Chem PRO- SITE ProDom Pfam PDB OMIM MGI KEGG Pathway KEG Glyc KEGG Enzyme KEGG Drug KEGG Com- pound InterPro Homolo Gene HGNC Gene Ontology GeneID Affy- metrix BibBase FTS BBC Wildlife Finder BBC Program mes BBC Music Alpine Ski Austria Amster- dam Museum AGROV OC AEMET US Census (rdfabout) http://lod-cloud.net Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 6
  • 8. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Logic of Linked Open Data: RDF RDF = Resource Description Framework Movie Description (using schema.org) Movie Avatar Person James Cameron August 16, 1954Science fiction../movies/. . . type nam e director genre trailer type name birthDate Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 7
  • 9. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Logic of Linked Open Data: RDF RDF = Resource Description Framework Movie Description (using schema.org) @prefix schema: <http://schema.org/> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . :avatar a schema:Movie ; schema:name "Avatar" ; schema:genre "Science fiction" ; schema:trailer <../movies/...> ; schema:director [ a schema:Person ; schema:name "James Cameron" ; schema:birthDate "1954-08-16"^^xsd:date ] . Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 7
  • 10. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Linked Geo Data Sets Dataset Source #triples (late 2012) LinkedGeoData OpenStreetMap 2 ⋅ 1010 DBpedia Wikipedia 1 ⋅ 109 GeoNames — 1.5 ⋅ 108 Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 8
  • 11. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion LinkedGeoData http://linkedgeodata.org/ OpenStreetMap data as RDF linked to GeoNames, DBpedia and others GeoKnow FP7 project (http://geoknow.eu, 2012–) provides tools and methods to easily integrate and process data across a wide range of data sources on the Web of Data. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 9
  • 12. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Semantic Web Geo Standards W3C Basic Geo Vocabulary (points using WGS84 coordinates) GeoRSS Simple (lines, rectangles, polygons), GeoRSS GML (Geographic Markup Language) GeoOWL ontology (reuses more flexible GML notions) NeoGeo Geometry Ontology (→ later) GeoSPARQL: RDF data insertion and query (→ later) Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 10
  • 13. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Limitations of RDF for Geo Data GeoSPARQL, a non-ontological extension to the SPARQL RDF query language [BK12] SELECT ?a WHERE { ?a a ex:Attraction; geo:hasGeometry ?ageo . FILTER(geof:within(?ageo, "POLYGON(( -77.089005 38.913574, -77.029953 38.913574, -77.029953 38.886321, -77.089005 38.886321, -77.089005 38.913574 ))"^^sf:wktLiteral)) } Note: WKT = “Well-known text” Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 11
  • 14. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Advantages and Disadvantages of RDF Disadvantage Low expressivity (binary predicates, no quantifiers) Advantage An RDF graph downloaded from its URI does not entail more than one can find there [Hay04]. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 12
  • 15. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Logic of Linked Open Data: RDF?? RDF data and RDFS vocabularies do not suffice for complex formal models – so . . . ? Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 13
  • 16. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Logic of Linked Open Data: RDF?? RDF data and RDFS vocabularies do not suffice for complex formal models – so . . . ? ☀ make your stuff available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license ☀☀ make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) ☀☀☀ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV instead of Excel) ☀☀☀☀ use URIs to denote things, so that people can point at your stuff ☀☀☀☀☀ link your data to other data to provide context [12] Who says it needs to be RDF? Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 13
  • 17. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Think URIs, not RDF! How to achieve an integration of . . . ? complex formal models (expressive logics) big datasets (scalability before expressivity) Ad hoc extensions of RDF exist (e.g. for CSPs in product range specification at Renault [BSP11]) My approach systematically base expressive logics beyond RDF and OWL on the URI foundation of LOD thus enable large-scale data/knowledge integration Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 14
  • 18. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Different Representations at one URI http://sws.geonames.org/2944388/ HTML RDF/XML Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 15
  • 19. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Different Representations at one URI II $ wget --header=’Accept: text/html’ -O /dev/null↩ -S http://sws.geonames.org/2944388/ $ wget --header=’Accept: application:rdf+xml’ ... HTTP Content Negotiation [The06] RDF/XML is most widely understood by LOD clients HTML is most widely understood by humans . . . but one can extend this to other formats! Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 16
  • 20. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion The Big Picture of Interoperability Ontology Ontology Language/Logic Knowledge Software Agents written in Concepts/Data/Individuals represented in terms of Service Description Service Descr. Language written in Service satisfies processes refers to Target (Device) accesses Service-Oriented Architecture Smart Environment Target Description conforms to Device Target Descr. Language written in Ontology Ontology Language/Logic Concepts/Data/Individuals Service Description Service Descr. Language Service Target (Device) Target Description Device Target Descr. Language Knowledge Infrastructure mappingsfor interoperability Hardware Data Models Metamodels For now we focus on the “content”/ “knowledge” column Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 17
  • 21. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion The OntoIOp Initiative OntoIOp (Ontology Integration and Interoperability) initiative head: Till Mossakowski started in 2011 with ISO, now continued with OMG Request for Proposals to be issued this autumn proposals due Dec. 2014 50 experts participate, ∼ 15 have contributed Relevant communities represented: different ontology languages and logics conceptual and theoretical foundations technical foundations applications: manufacturing, business rules, model-driven software engineering Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 18
  • 22. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) “distributed” means . . . logically heterogeneous modular interlinked: interpretations, equivalences, alignments decentrally maintained DOL: a logic-agnostic meta-language for onto- logies, modeling and specification [MKL12; Lan+12] supports ontologies in several relevant languages framework can be decentrally extended with new languages, logics, serializations, translations Tool support: Hets: syntax check, theorem proving, model finding Ontohub: web-based repository engine http://ontoiop.org Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 19
  • 23. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion LOD Conformance (Distr. Onto. Level) use URIs to name things (actually IRIs: Unicode!) concrete syntax uses prefixes to abbreviate URIs many DOL constructs (e.g. interpretations, alignments) must have names, . . . others (e.g. extensions) may have names. also useful for external annotation use URIs to refer to other things . . . but implementations should be prepared for external ontologies not to be LOD-conforming! need a catalog to map “identifier URI” to “retrieval URL” http://project.org/onto# ↦ http://project.org/repo/onto-v1.3.owl Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 20
  • 24. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion LOD Conformance (Basic Onto. Level) need to refer to symbols within ontologies: rename symbols in a basic ontology restrict a basic ontology to some signature Are symbol names URIs? “semantic web” languages (e.g. OWL): yes Common Logic: sometimes CASL, TPTP, . . . : no DOL injects prefix bindings into basic ontologies: verbatim fragments, as well as referenced remote ontologies In the basic ontology, bindings are applied . . . as if declared inside (sem. web languages) to all globally-scoped identifiers (other languages) Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 21
  • 25. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion LOD Conformance (Logic Graph) ontology languages, logics, serializations, translations identified by URI we maintain a central “OntoIOp Registry”; others may decentrally extend it OntoIOp Registry is a (small) linked open dataset see, e.g., http://purl.net/dol/languages/OWL2/DL (nicer with http://linkeddata.uriburner.com; soon in Ontohub) Agents can easily find out what an ontology language can be translated to. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 22
  • 26. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion The OntoIOp Registry (Subset) Common Logic SROIQDL-LiteR CLIF XCL Manchester Syntax OWL 2 XML RDF / XML Turtle OWL 2 DL RDF RDFS Common Logic RDFS RDF OWL 2 QL OWL 2 RL OWL 2 EL DL-RL EL ++ Serializations Ontology Languages Logics supports serialization sublanguage of induced translation exact logical expressivity translatable to sublogic of Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 23
  • 27. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Reusing Linked Open Datasets %prefix( productdb: <http://productdb.org/ean/> pizza: <http://www.co-ode.org/ontologies/pizza/pizza.owl#> )% ontology SmartFreezer = { pizza: hide along proj:SROIQtoRDF and productdb: then language lang:RDF syntax ser:RDF/Turtle : { productdb:4001724819806 pizza:hasTopping [ a pizza:TomatoTopping ], [ a pizza:MozzarellaTopping ] . } with translation trans:RDFtoOWL2DL then { pizza: then syntax ser:OWL2/Manchester : { Individual: productdb:4001724819806 Types: pizza:hasTopping exactly 2 } Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 24
  • 28. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Reusing Linked Open Datasets %prefix( productdb: <http://productdb.org/ean/> pizza: <http://www.co-ode.org/ontologies/pizza/pizza.owl#> )% ontology SmartFreezer = { pizza: hide along proj:SROIQtoRDF and productdb: then language lang:RDF syntax ser:RDF/Turtle : { productdb:4001724819806 pizza:hasTopping [ a pizza:TomatoTopping ], [ a pizza:MozzarellaTopping ] . } with translation trans:RDFtoOWL2DL then { pizza: then syntax ser:OWL2/Manchester : { Individual: productdb:4001724819806 Types: pizza:hasTopping exactly 2 } Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 24
  • 29. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Reusing Linked Open Datasets %prefix( productdb: <http://productdb.org/ean/> pizza: <http://www.co-ode.org/ontologies/pizza/pizza.owl#> )% ontology SmartFreezer = { pizza: hide along proj:SROIQtoRDF and productdb: then language lang:RDF syntax ser:RDF/Turtle : { productdb:4001724819806 pizza:hasTopping [ a pizza:TomatoTopping ], [ a pizza:MozzarellaTopping ] . } with translation trans:RDFtoOWL2DL then { pizza: then syntax ser:OWL2/Manchester : { Individual: productdb:4001724819806 Types: pizza:hasTopping exactly 2 } Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 24
  • 30. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Reusing Linked Open Datasets %prefix( productdb: <http://productdb.org/ean/> pizza: <http://www.co-ode.org/ontologies/pizza/pizza.owl#> )% ontology SmartFreezer = { pizza: hide along proj:SROIQtoRDF and productdb: then language lang:RDF syntax ser:RDF/Turtle : { productdb:4001724819806 pizza:hasTopping [ a pizza:TomatoTopping ], [ a pizza:MozzarellaTopping ] . } with translation trans:RDFtoOWL2DL then { pizza: then syntax ser:OWL2/Manchester : { Individual: productdb:4001724819806 Types: pizza:hasTopping exactly 2 } Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 24
  • 31. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion DO-ROAM: Ontology-driven Map UI Data and Onto. driven Route-finding Of Activity-oriented Mobility web service (http://do-roam.org, [Cod+11]) places tagged w/ terms from aligned OWL onto’s map-based UI w/ multiling. labels ↔ onto. terms DOL port in progress: coherently represent aligned ontologies as one distr. onto. maintain labels as annotations inside ontology Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 25
  • 32. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion DO-ROAM in DOL: Complex Alignments, Multilingual Labels %prefix( do-roam: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/> activ: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/↩ Ontology/activities.owl#> tags: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/↩ Ontology/tags.owl#> )% language lang:OWL2/DL alignment do-roam:ActivitiesToTags : activ: to tags: = activ:Restaurant = ∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_restaurant, %% "=" is equivalence as defined in the Alignment API activ:ChargingStation = ∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_charging_station ⊔ (∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_fuel ⊓ ∃ tags:has_k_fuel:electricity . tags:yes), ... ontology do-roam:ActivityTranslation = activ: hide along proj:SROIQtoRDF then language lang:RDF syntax ser:RDF/YAML : do-roam:config/locales/de.yml Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 26
  • 33. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion DO-ROAM in DOL: Complex Alignments, Multilingual Labels %prefix( do-roam: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/> activ: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/↩ Ontology/activities.owl#> tags: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/↩ Ontology/tags.owl#> )% language lang:OWL2/DL alignment do-roam:ActivitiesToTags : activ: to tags: = activ:Restaurant = ∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_restaurant, %% "=" is equivalence as defined in the Alignment API activ:ChargingStation = ∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_charging_station ⊔ (∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_fuel ⊓ ∃ tags:has_k_fuel:electricity . tags:yes), ... ontology do-roam:ActivityTranslation = activ: hide along proj:SROIQtoRDF then language lang:RDF syntax ser:RDF/YAML : do-roam:config/locales/de.yml Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 26
  • 34. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion DO-ROAM in DOL: Complex Alignments, Multilingual Labels %prefix( do-roam: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/> activ: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/↩ Ontology/activities.owl#> tags: <https://raw.github.com/doroam/planning-do-roam/master/↩ Ontology/tags.owl#> )% language lang:OWL2/DL alignment do-roam:ActivitiesToTags : activ: to tags: = activ:Restaurant = ∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_restaurant, %% "=" is equivalence as defined in the Alignment API activ:ChargingStation = ∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_charging_station ⊔ (∃ tags:has_k_amenity . tags:v_fuel ⊓ ∃ tags:has_k_fuel:electricity . tags:yes), ... ontology do-roam:ActivityTranslation = activ: hide along proj:SROIQtoRDF then language lang:RDF syntax ser:RDF/YAML : do-roam:config/locales/de.yml Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 26
  • 35. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion NeoGeo: Connecting RCC to RDF NeoGeo (http://geovocab.org/) integrates Region Connection Calculus (RCC; 1st-order logic theory of spatial relations) with RDF [Har+13]: data in context! Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 27
  • 36. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion NeoGeo: Connecting RCC to RDF II Part of RCC semantics can be mapped to OWL Rest covered in SWRL (OWL + FOL rules) full first order theory obtained from composition table, . . . more expressive than composition table accommodate open (OWL) vs. closed (RCC) world assumption (concrete domain) detect inconsistent RCC assertions Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 28
  • 37. Introduction Linked (Open) Data Distributed Ontology Language Use Cases Conclusion Conclusion Linked Open Data (LOD): best practice for publishing data on the Web Distributed Ontology, Modelling and Specification Language (DOL): meta-language for logically heterogeneous, modular, interlinked ontologies LOD and DOL: a perfect match DOL scales thanks to LOD principles LOD gets semantics beyond RDF thanks to DOL Web of Data has many geo use cases DOL enables spatial reasoning over datasets Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 29
  • 38. References References I 5 star Open Data. Apr. 3, 2012. url: http://5stardata.info/ (visited on 2013-09-18). T. Berners-Lee. Design Issues: Linked Data. July 27, 2006. url: http: //www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html (visited on 2010-01-20). R. Battle and D. Kolas. “Enabling the geospatial Semantic Web with Parliament and GeoSPARQL”. In: Semantic Web 3.4 (2012), pp. 355–370. url: http://www.semantic-web- journal.net/content/enabling-geospatial- semantic-web-parliament-and-geosparql. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 30
  • 39. References References II F. Badra, F.-P. Servant, and A. Passant. “A Semantic Web Representation of a Product Range Specification based on Constraint Satisfaction Problem in the Automotive Industry”. In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Ontology and Semantic Web for Manufacturing, Extended Semantic Web Conference. (Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, May 29, 2011). Ed. by A. García Castro, C. Toro, L. Ramos, and L. Schröder. CEUR Workshop Proceedings 748. Aachen, 2011, pp. 37–50. url: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-748/. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 31
  • 40. References References III M. Codescu, G. Horsinka, O. Kutz, T. Mossakowski, and R. Rau. “DO-ROAM: Activity-Oriented Search and Navigation with OpenStreetMap”. In: GeoSpatial Semantics (GeoS) -- 4th International Conference. GeoSpatial Semantics (GeoS) -- 4th International Conference. (Brest, France, May 12–13, 2011). Ed. by C. Claramunt, S. Levashkin, and M. Bertolotto. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6631. Springer, 2011, pp. 88–107. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 32
  • 41. References References IV A. Harth, J. Salas, A. Rula, B. Villazón-Terrazas, J. Škrbec, and C. Fortuna. Modelling and Processing Contextual Aspects of Data. Deliverable D2.3. PlanetData Network of Excellence, 2013. url: http://www.planet- data.eu/sites/default/files/D2.3.pdf. P. Hayes. RDF Semantics. W3C Recommendation. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Feb. 10, 2004. url: http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt- 20040210/. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 33
  • 42. References References V M. Kerber, C. Lange, and C. Rowat. ForMaRE. Formal Mathematical Reasoning in Economics. url: http:// cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projects/formare/ (visited on 2013-02-10). C. Lange, T. Mossakowski, O. Kutz, C. Galinski, M. Grüninger, and D. Couto Vale. “The Distributed Ontology Language (DOL): Use Cases, Syntax, and Extensibility”. In: Terminology and Knowledge Engineering Conference (TKE). (Madrid, Spain, June 20–21, 2012). Ed. by G. Aguado de Cea, M. C. Suárez-Figueroa, R. García-Castro, and E. Montiel-Ponsoda. 2012, pp. 33–48. arXiv: 1208.0293 [cs.AI]. url: http://oeg- lia3.dia.fi.upm.es/tke2012/proceedings. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 34
  • 43. References References VI C. Lange. “Enabling Collaboration on Semiformal Mathematical Knowledge by Semantic Web Integration”. PhD thesis. Jacobs University Bremen, 2011. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 35
  • 44. References References VII T. Mossakowski, O. Kutz, and C. Lange. “Three Semantics for the Core of the Distributed Ontology Language”. In: Formal Ontology in Information Systems. 7th International Conference (FOIS 2012). (Graz, Austria, July 24–27, 2012). Ed. by M. Donnelly and G. Guizzardi. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications 239. (The paper has won the best paper award. Also published at IJCAI 2013 track on Best Papers in Sister Conferences.) Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2012, pp. 337–352. url: http://interop.cim3.net/file/pub/OntoIOp/ Publications/FOIS_2012/paper.pdf. Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 36
  • 45. References References VIII O. Thereaux. Content Negotiation: why it is useful, and how to make it work. Feb. 21, 2006. url: http://www.w3.org/blog/2006/02/content- negotiation/. Wikimedia Foundation, ed. Linked Data. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. June 18, 2010. url: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Linked_Data&oldid=459835053 (visited on 2010-08-11). Lange Linked Open (Geo)Data and the Distributed Ontology Language 2013-09-20 37