Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical Knowledge
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Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical Knowledge

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EECS Seminar, Jacobs University, 2008

EECS Seminar, Jacobs University, 2008

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  • 1. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical Knowledge Summary of my work at DERI (Apr–Oct 2008) EECS Seminar Christoph Lange Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany KWARC – Knowledge Adaptation and Reasoning for Content October 14, 2008 Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 1 October Knowledge
  • 2. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook My Home: Mathematical Knowledge Management Ph. D. student with Prof. Michael Kohlhase Our group does “Mathematical Knowledge Management” dealing with mathematical knowledge formality ranges from human-friendly to computer-verifiable My Project Collaboration on semiformal knowledge Using semantic web technologies (a semantic wiki, in particular) Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 2 October Knowledge
  • 3. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook What I Wanted to Learn About the Semantic Web engineering ontologies for scientific documents user interfaces for annotating and browsing relation of social interaction to knowledge Where? At DERI, they do this (and more) Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 3 October Knowledge
  • 4. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook DERI (Digital Enterprise Research Institute) Largest semantic web research institute worldwide (130 members) Applied Research eLearning semantic reality (sensor networks, ubiquitous computing) web services industrial applications Semantic Information Systems and Language Engineering Social Software Foundational Research data intensive infrastructures information mining and retrieval reasoning and querying Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 4 October Knowledge
  • 5. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Before: SWiM, a Semantic Wiki for Mathematics Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 5 October Knowledge
  • 6. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Ontologies for Mathematical Documents (1) Previous State notDef I had a basic ontology that modelled structures of renders- mathematical knowledge; mainly statements (definition, Symbol theorem, proof, examples) sym used in SWiM for navigation, queries, internal uses- uses- Symbol Symbol bookkeeping fmp ex fmp ex fmp ex contains contains symDef symDef symDef contains cd cd cd Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 6 October Knowledge
  • 7. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Ontologies for Mathematical Documents (1) Previous State notDef I had a basic ontology that modelled structures of renders- mathematical knowledge; mainly statements (definition, Symbol theorem, proof, examples) sym used in SWiM for navigation, queries, internal uses- uses- Symbol Symbol bookkeeping fmp ex fmp ex fmp ex Next Challenge contains contains Semi-formal knowledge often comes in documents that also contain text symDef symDef symDef There is a document structure (chapter, section, contains cross-reference), and a rhetorical structure, both of cd cd cd which can be independent from the mathematical structure. Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 6 October Knowledge
  • 8. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Ontologies for Mathematical Documents (2) Getting the Model Right rhetorical ont. document ont. ↔ annotation ont. ↔ mathematical ont. (following the SALT approach) A SALT (Semantically Annotated LTEX) semantic authoring framework for creating scientific publications Implementation Expansion of the ontology Rules for extracting these concepts from OMDoc documents to RDF Krextor XML→RDF extraction library Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 7 October Knowledge
  • 9. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook User Interfaces for Annotating and Browsing Improved Annotation Support More and easier annotation support in the editor toolbars for easy selection of types of mathematical knowledge from phrase to theory level deleting annotations auto-completion of link targets (prepared) Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 8 October Knowledge
  • 10. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook User Interfaces for Annotating and Browsing Improved Annotation Support More and easier annotation support in the editor toolbars for easy selection of types of mathematical knowledge from phrase to theory level deleting annotations auto-completion of link targets (prepared) Rhetorical Annotation and Visualisation improved and extended syntax for annotating SALT-/RST-like rhetorical structures in OMDoc A using the SALT ontology within the host language OMDoc, not LTEX ideas for an editing interface visualisation of rhetorical relations and blocks implemented → active documents Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 8 October Knowledge
  • 11. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Annotation Sections in the editor Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 9 October Knowledge
  • 12. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Annotation The toolbar Sections in the editor (Implementation by Gordan Ristovski) Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 9 October Knowledge
  • 13. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Visualisation of Rhetorical Structures Rhetorical Blocks (SALT) Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 10 October Knowledge
  • 14. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Visualisation of Rhetorical Structures Rhetorical Blocks (SALT) Rhetorical Relations (SALT, implementing RST) (Implementation by Jana Giceva) Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 10 October Knowledge
  • 15. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Argumentation about Mathematical Knowledge Idea Need for structured wiki discussions, well-defined workflow for solving problems with knowledge in a wiki My Case a wiki page is an item of mathematical knowledge, e. g. a theorem issues discussed will be quite specific: e. g. “This theorem is hard to understand” (or wrong, or inadequately presented, . . . ) Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 11 October Knowledge
  • 16. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Argumentation about Mathematical Knowledge Idea Need for structured wiki discussions, well-defined workflow for solving problems with knowledge in a wiki My Case a wiki page is an item of mathematical knowledge, e. g. a theorem issues discussed will be quite specific: e. g. “This theorem is hard to understand” (or wrong, or inadequately presented, . . . ) Related Topic There is also argumentation within artifacts of scientific knowledge, but so far I focused more on argumentation about them. Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 11 October Knowledge
  • 17. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Resource Edit Discussion History Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 12 October Knowledge
  • 18. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Resource Edit Discussion History Issue Alice 2008–05–30 [Idea][Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] It’s hard to find out how to improve content (= resources) in wikis Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 12 October Knowledge
  • 19. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Resource Edit Discussion History Issue Alice 2008–05–30 [Idea][Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] It’s hard to find out how to improve content (= resources) in wikis Agree Bob 2008–05–31 Indeed, besides automated approaches it’s hard to get focused feedback from users. Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 12 October Knowledge
  • 20. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Resource Edit Discussion History Issue Alice 2008–05–30 [Idea][Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] It’s hard to find out how to improve content (= resources) in wikis Agree Bob 2008–05–31 Indeed, besides automated approaches it’s hard to get focused feedback from users. Idea Claire 2008–06–01 [Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] So let’s make wiki discussions semantic! Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 12 October Knowledge
  • 21. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Resource Edit Discussion History Issue Alice 2008–05–30 [Idea][Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] It’s hard to find out how to improve content (= resources) in wikis Agree Bob 2008–05–31 Indeed, besides automated approaches it’s hard to get focused feedback from users. Idea Claire 2008–06–01 [Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] So let’s make wiki discussions semantic! Argument Dave 2008–06–02 [Agree][Disagree] We could take types from an argumentation ontology for the posts. Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 12 October Knowledge
  • 22. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Resource Edit Discussion History Issue Alice 2008–05–30 [Idea][Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] It’s hard to find out how to improve content (= resources) in wikis Agree Bob 2008–05–31 Indeed, besides automated approaches it’s hard to get focused feedback from users. Idea Claire 2008–06–01 [Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] So let’s make wiki discussions semantic! Argument Dave 2008–06–02 [Agree][Disagree] We could take types from an argumentation ontology for the posts. Argument Eric 2008–06–03 [Agree][Disagree] And every discourse should be connected to resources corresponding to the wiki page, and there should be domain-specific Idea and Issue subclasses. Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 12 October Knowledge
  • 23. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Resource Edit Discussion History Issue Alice 2008–05–30 [Idea][Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] It’s hard to find out how to improve content (= resources) in wikis Agree Bob 2008–05–31 Indeed, besides automated approaches it’s hard to get focused feedback from users. Idea Claire 2008–06–01 [Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] So let’s make wiki discussions semantic! Argument Dave 2008–06–02 [Agree][Disagree] We could take types from an argumentation ontology for the posts. Argument Eric 2008–06–03 [Agree][Disagree] And every discourse should be connected to resources corresponding to the wiki page, and there should be domain-specific Idea and Issue subclasses. Agree Anonymous 2008–06–04 That’s great, then the wiki could assist with the realisation of an approved idea. And old decisions would be documented. Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 12 October Knowledge
  • 24. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Resource Edit Discussion History Issue Alice 2008–05–30 [Idea][Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] It’s hard to find out how to improve content (= resources) in wikis Agree Bob 2008–05–31 Indeed, besides automated approaches it’s hard to get focused feedback from users. Idea Claire 2008–06–01 [Argument][Agree][Disagree][Decision] So let’s make wiki discussions semantic! Argument Dave 2008–06–02 [Agree][Disagree] We could take types from an argumentation ontology for the posts. Argument Eric 2008–06–03 [Agree][Disagree] And every discourse should be connected to resources corresponding to the wiki page, and there should be domain-specific Idea and Issue subclasses. Agree Anonymous 2008–06–04 That’s great, then the wiki could assist with the realisation of an approved idea. And old decisions would be documented. Decision Christoph 2008–06–05 So let’s do it! (Available in SWiM) Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 12 October Knowledge
  • 25. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Domain-Specific Argumentation Assumptions Possible problems depend on the type of knowledge item Possible solutions depend on the type of knowledge item and the type of problem Standard problems have standard solutions, with which software can assist Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 13 October Knowledge
  • 26. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Domain-Specific Argumentation Assumptions Possible problems depend on the type of knowledge item Possible solutions depend on the type of knowledge item and the type of problem Standard problems have standard solutions, with which software can assist Survey (tinyurl.com/5qdetd) Common issues: wrong, incomprehensible, uncommon style, underspecified, redundant, truth uncertain Common solutions: directly improve affected knowledge item, split it When issues remain unresolved, it’s mostly due to insufficient restructuring support Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 13 October Knowledge
  • 27. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Domain-Specific Argumentation (Example) User Interface Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 14 October Knowledge
  • 28. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Domain-Specific Argumentation (Example) hasDiscussion forum1 theorem (IkeWiki ontology) has_container exemplifies post1: Issue (Incomprehensible) example responseTo has_reply resolvesInto post2: Idea (ProvideExample) positionOn knowledge post3: Agree items (OMDoc ontology) on wiki pages post4: Disagree onIdea post5: Agree onIssue withPositions post6: Decision physical structure argumentative (SIOC) discussion page structure RDF Graph User Interface Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 14 October Knowledge
  • 29. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook General Argumentation on Social Media Sites developing an argumentation module for SIOC (ontology for Semantically Interlinking Online Communities) joint work with Uldis Boj¯rs (SIOC) and Tudor Groza (SALT) a use cases, model, guidelines for usage implementation and evaluation to be done refers_to supports/ Statement Argument challenges agrees_with/ subClassOf disagrees_with/ subClassOf neutral_towards arises_from Issue Idea Elaboration Example Evaluation Justification proposes_solution_for elaborates_on decides Position supported_by Decision Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 15 October Knowledge
  • 30. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook OpenMath Case Study lightweight mathematical ontology engineering (http://wiki.openmath.org) no rhetorical structures, no documents but still a lot of structures to annotate! definitions, formal properties, examples, notations local argumentation small group of knowledge engineers (domain experts) specialised editors: structured definitions, formulas, metadata evaluation needed Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 16 October Knowledge
  • 31. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Summary What I hope(d) to learn – to use it for mathematical knowledge management: engineering ontologies for scientific documents ! user interfaces for annotating and browsing ! relation of social interaction to knowledge ! Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 17 October Knowledge
  • 32. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Summary What I hope(d) to learn – to use it for mathematical knowledge management: engineering ontologies for scientific documents ! user interfaces for annotating and browsing ! relation of social interaction to knowledge ! What I hope to contribute to the semantic web: mathematics as a complex use case pointing out limits of the semantic web an ontology for a complex domain, with document structure, mathematical structure, and rhetorical structure domain-specific argumentation Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 17 October Knowledge
  • 33. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Further Work Active Documents Interactive editing and previewing of notations Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 18 October Knowledge
  • 34. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Further Work Active Documents Interactive editing and previewing of notations Argumentation Study relationship between argumentation within and about documents Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 18 October Knowledge
  • 35. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Further Work Active Documents Interactive editing and previewing of notations Argumentation Study relationship between argumentation within and about documents Ontologies 1 Scalable metadata syntax and semantics for OMDoc → import metadata vocabularies as theories 2 Document these vocabularies in OMDoc 3 Model them in OMDoc 4 Export them back to the semantic web Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 18 October Knowledge
  • 36. Introduction Ontologies/Annotation Argumentation Case Study Summary Outlook Further Work Active Documents Interactive editing and previewing of notations Argumentation Study relationship between argumentation within and about documents Ontologies 1 Scalable metadata syntax and semantics for OMDoc → import metadata vocabularies as theories 2 Document these vocabularies in OMDoc 3 Model them in OMDoc 4 Export them back to the semantic web Semantic Web Empowering MKM Lange (Jacobs University) Annotating Rhetorical and Argumentative Structures in Mathematical 14, 2008 18 October Knowledge