Energy Auditing Techniques for  Small Commercial Facilities                             2010                         8    ...
Learning Objectives•   Understand lighting concepts and terms•   Understand lamp efficiencies•   Know where find lamp/ball...
Why is Lighting Important?•   Represents 35% of electric energy in CA commercial buildings.•   For some facilities can be ...
Directional vs. Ambient Lighting2009             Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities   7...
Spectral Power Distribution• Describes color distribution of light source across visible spectrum• Vertical scale is power...
Lighting Concepts    Term                                         Units•   Luminous Flux                                Lu...
Luminous Flux• Total amount of light emitted by  a source in all directions• Measured in lumens• Used to rate the output o...
Efficacy•   A measure of lamp (and ballast) performance•   Describes system conversion efficiency of power to light•   Is ...
Lamp Life• Total operating time that ½ of test set remains burning• Tested under consistent temperatures and time/start   ...
Light Source Chromaticity• Refers to Correlated Color  Temperature (CCT)• Measurement of coolness or  warmness of a light ...
Underwriters Laboratory• Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an independent, not-  for-profit product safety testing an...
Incandescent Lamps•   Efficacy                                      6-24 l/w•   Kelvin temperature                        ...
Halogen Lamps•    Efficacy                                     8-35 l/w•    Kelvin temperature                           2...
Fluorescent Lamps•   Efficacy                                            60-100 l/w•   Kelvin temperature                 ...
Ballast Issues• Component that regulates electricity to the lamp       – Provides required voltage for lamp start-up      ...
Fluorescent Lamp Types•   T (Tubular)•   U-shape•   Circline•   Flat•   2D•   Compact2009               Energy Auditing Te...
T-12 Fluorescents• About 60 l/w with magnetic ballasts• Changing to T-8s with electronic ballasts is a 20-40%  improvement...
Identifying Magnetic Ballasts• Use the flicker checker• Much easier than opening fixture• Under electronic ballasts       ...
Cold Cathode Fluorescent• Operate at a much higher voltage and lower  current than conventional fluorescent lamps.• The hi...
Compact Fluorescent Lamps• Strengths       –   High efficacy       –   Compact size       –   Long lamp life       –   Goo...
High Intensity Discharge Sources• Used to light surfaces some distance from source• Applications       –   Street lights  ...
Metal Halide Lamps•   Efficacy                                     50-110 l/w•   Kelvin temperature                       ...
High Pressure Sodium Lamps•   Efficacy                         50-120 l/w•   Kelvin temperature               2100-2200•  ...
Light Emitting Diodes•   Efficacy                        20-60 l/w*•   Kelvin temperature              3000K-4500K•   Colo...
Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Operation                                                                      Hard Plastic  ...
Lamp Comparison Matrix                                            Source        Efficacy     Lamp Life                  Co...
Daylighting•   Efficacy                                           80-250 l/w•   Kelvin temperature                        ...
De-Lamping Opportunities• Efficient lighting systems often provide more light       –   New lamps and ballasts may provide...
Scheduled Controller/Sweep• Controlled through building  automation system (BAS)• Ideal for spaces with regular use• Best ...
Time Clocks• Allows lights to run in a  space for a limited time• Essentially a timed switch• Simple controller• Inexpensi...
Passive InfraRed Sensor Attributes       http://www.wattstopper.com/pdf/Sensor_Broch_Final.pdf2009                        ...
Data from Occupancy Controls Garage Example       8       7       6       5       4       3       2       1       0       ...
Data from Daylighting Controls Grocery Store Example2009        Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial...
Summary of Lighting Opportunities• Change out inefficient lighting       –   Replace incandescent lamps       –   Replace ...
Other Lighting Issues• Consider light system performance       –   Consider luminaire efficiency not just lamp efficacy   ...
Key Points to Remember•   Relative lighting efficacies•   Where to find light system wattages•   How to calculate Lighting...
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Laney lighting pec

  1. 1. Energy Auditing Techniques for Small Commercial Facilities 2010 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9/20 9/22 9/24 9/26 9/28 9/30 10/2 10/4Ryan Stroupe, Pacific Energy CenterJim Kelsey P.E., kW EngineeringRichard Young, Food Service Technology Center Lighting Systems
  2. 2. Learning Objectives• Understand lighting concepts and terms• Understand lamp efficiencies• Know where find lamp/ballast wattages• Understand lighting power density from T-24• Understand appropriate applications for different sources• Understand light quality concerns• Understand lighting control strategies• Understand O&M opportunities• Understand energy saving calculations for lighting2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 3Energy Auditor Role and Activities• Survey and catalog lighting systems in a facility• Recognize efficiency opportunities• Distinguish over-illumination or under-illumination• Asses other light quality issues• Compare space to code compliant LPD• Recommend lighting control strategies• Use light meters and monitoring equipment2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 4
  3. 3. Why is Lighting Important?• Represents 35% of electric energy in CA commercial buildings.• For some facilities can be nearly 50% of electric energy use.• Many DR strategies are related to lighting.• Less of a focus for facility engineers and commissioning providers2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 5Intention of Lighting Systems• Illuminate spaces for specific tasks• Illuminate surfaces or objects www.nlm.nih.gov2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 6
  4. 4. Directional vs. Ambient Lighting2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 7Lighting System Components• Luminaire – The complete lighting unit• Lamp – The light source; bulb• Ballast – Power regulator• Reflector – Component that directs/distributes light• Diffuser/Lens/Louver – Shields eye from glare – Evens out light distribution2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 8
  5. 5. Spectral Power Distribution• Describes color distribution of light source across visible spectrum• Vertical scale is power• Horizontal scale is wavelength Source: Philips Lighting2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 9Inverse Square Law• Resultant illuminance is inversely I proportional to the square of E= distance from source to surface D2• Double distance from source = ¼ E= Target Illuminance (fc) illuminance I= Source Intensity (cd) D= Distance from Source to Target• Applies only to point sources 2H H 100 fc 25 fc2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 10
  6. 6. Lighting Concepts Term Units• Luminous Flux Lumens• Illuminance Foot-candle/Lux• Power watts• Efficacy lumens/watt• Lighting Power Density watts/ft2• Lamp Life hours• Lumen Depreciation given as a % of initial lumens• Correlated Color Temperature Kelvin degrees• Color Rendering Index 0-100 scale (unit-less)• Ballast Factor given as % of luminous output2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 11Unit Sphere and Steradian• One candle source• One foot radius with 1’- 0” x 1’- 0” opening• One meter radius with 1 meter x 1 meter opening2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 12
  7. 7. Luminous Flux• Total amount of light emitted by a source in all directions• Measured in lumens• Used to rate the output of lamps2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 13Illuminance• The density of light falling on a surface• Requires an area unit• Measured in lumens per ft2 (footcandles)• Also measured in lux (lumens per meter2)2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 14
  8. 8. Efficacy• A measure of lamp (and ballast) performance• Describes system conversion efficiency of power to light• Is light output over input power• Units are lumens/watt• Varies by lamp (and ballast) type Light out Power in2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 15Lighting Power Density• A measure of the power intensity of lighting systems• Is lighting power over the area of a room or building• Units are watts/square foot• Energy code provides limits by space use or building type Light power Area2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 16
  9. 9. Lamp Life• Total operating time that ½ of test set remains burning• Tested under consistent temperatures and time/start – 77F° – 3 hrs/start for fluorescents – 10 hrs/start for HID sources – 12 hr/start data available from some manufacturers – Number of starts adversely affect lamp life; longer runs than test will allow lamps to outlast their rated life expectancy.• Measured in hours2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 17Lumen Depreciation• Given as a percentage of initial lumens• Factors include lamp aging and dirt accumulation2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 18
  10. 10. Light Source Chromaticity• Refers to Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)• Measurement of coolness or warmness of a light source• Measured in degrees Kelvin (º K)• The higher the chromaticity, the cooler the source appears2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 19Color Rendering Index (CRI)• Method of determining how well a light source renders colors reflected by objects• Used to compare color performance for light sources of the same color temperature• 0-100 point scale2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 20
  11. 11. Underwriters Laboratory• Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an independent, not- for-profit product safety testing and certification organization.• Look for the UL label to insure that the lighting products you purchase are safe to install• Testing includes – Risk of fire – Electric shock – Injury to persons2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 21Lamp Types• Incandescent• Halogen• Fluorescent• High Intensity Discharge – Metal halide – Mercury vapor – High Pressure Sodium – Low Pressure Sodium• Induction lamps• Light Emitting Diodes• Neon2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 22
  12. 12. Incandescent Lamps• Efficacy 6-24 l/w• Kelvin temperature 2700K°• Color Rendering Index 100• Lamp life 750-2000 hours• Lumen depreciation <20%• Start to full brightness immediate• Re-strike time immediate• Dimming ability Yes• Strengths – First cost – – Color rendering Instant on This lamp type is – Very good lumen maintenance – Ease of dimming a good candidate – Not ambient temperature dependent• Weaknesses for replacement! – Low efficacy – Short lamp life – High lamp surface temperature – Limited color2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 23Incandescent Lamp Operation• Resistive load; electricity passes through a filament• 90% of energy applied produces heat• Light becomes redder with dimming• Lamp life is reduced at higher wattages• Best applications: – Where lamp/fixture may be damaged – Extremely cold or hot environments – Residential Spectral power distribution2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 24
  13. 13. Halogen Lamps• Efficacy 8-35 l/w• Kelvin temperature 2900K°• Color Rendering Index 100• Lamp life 2000-6000 hours• Lumen depreciation <5%• Start to full brightness immediate• Re-strike time immediate• Dimming ability Yes• Strengths – Directional source – First cost – Color rendering – Instant on – Excellent lumen maintenance – Ease of dimming – Not ambient temperature dependent• Weaknesses – Low efficacy – Relatively short lamp life – High lamp surface temperature – Limited color2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 25Tungsten Halogen Cycle Filament in quartz capsule surrounded by halogen gas and operates at higher temperature2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 26
  14. 14. Fluorescent Lamps• Efficacy 60-100 l/w• Kelvin temperature 2700-7500K°• Color Rendering Index 50-98• Lamp life 7500-30,000 hours• Lumen depreciation 10-30%• Start to full brightness 0-5 seconds• Re-strike time immediate• Dimming ability Yes, with proper ballast• Strengths – High efficacy – Long lamp life – Wide range of colors – Very good lumen maintenance – Cool lamp surface temperature – Area source• Weaknesses – Sophisticated lamp/ballast combination – Does not perform well in hot/cold environments – Has warm-up time – Older technologies hum and flicker2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 27Fluorescent Lamp Operation• Low pressure, gas discharge source where light is produced by fluorescence of phosphor coating when excited by UV radiation from mercury arc.• Ballast is required• Comes in wide variety of shapes• Light becomes bluer with dimming• Best applications: – Ambient lighting – Where energy use is a concern – Where lights on on for long periods – Day lit environments Spectral power distribution2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 28
  15. 15. Ballast Issues• Component that regulates electricity to the lamp – Provides required voltage for lamp start-up – Limits current to lamp during operation• Types – Electromagnetic (magnetic) • Steel or iron core • 60hz output • May hum • Older ballasts (before 1973) may have PCBs – Electronic • More energy efficient (10-25% better than magnetic) • Solid state components • 20-40Khz output • Reduced flicker • Quiet operation • Easier to install • Lighter weight2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 29Ballast Features• Number of lamps powered (up to 4 lamps on one ballast)• Start time – Rapid start – Instant start – Programmed start• Dimming capabilities• Parallel wiring (will still work if one lamp fails in a two lamp fixture)• Ballast Factor – Relative luminous output of a lamp(s) operated on a ballast with respect to the same lamp(s) driven on a reference ballast – Used to describe ballasts that under- or over-drive lamps2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 30
  16. 16. Fluorescent Lamp Types• T (Tubular)• U-shape• Circline• Flat• 2D• Compact2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 31Fluorescent Lamp NomenclatureF32T8/835/HO• F32T8 •HO –HO High output – Fluorescent –RS Rapid start – 32 input power in watts –ES Energy saving – Tubular lamp type –CW Cool white – 8 1/8” inches in diameter or 1” –WW Warm white• 835 –SS Super Saver – 80-89 CRI –ECO Ecologic – 3500 Kelvin Temp –D Daylight Note: Lamp coding may vary by manufacturer2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 32
  17. 17. T-12 Fluorescents• About 60 l/w with magnetic ballasts• Changing to T-8s with electronic ballasts is a 20-40% improvement in efficacy• Larger T-12 lamp prevents light from exiting fixture• Still accounts for nearly 50% of all fluorescents in US This lamp type is a good candidate for replacement!2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 33High Efficiency, 3rd Gen. or Super T-8s• Excellent efficacy up to 95 l/w at mean life• Good lumen maintenance 93% at 12,000 hrs• Long lamp life in excess of 18,000 hours• CRI 80 or better This new fluorescent lamp type is the only T-8 linear fluorescent that qualifies for PG&E’s Deemed Incentive Program2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 34
  18. 18. Identifying Magnetic Ballasts• Use the flicker checker• Much easier than opening fixture• Under electronic ballasts – Looks like shades of gray – rotating in one direction• Under magnetic ballasts – Has color – Rotating in both directions2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 35T-5 Fluorescents• Excellent efficacy up to 90 l/w at mean life• Good lumen maintenance 95%• Long lamp life in excess of 20,000 hours• CRI 80 or better• Notes: – Thinner lamp allows light fixture to be more efficient – With reflector provides high light output (encroaches on HID market) – Metric length and lamp holder size makes retrofits difficult – Variety of colors available (3000-4000K) – This fluorescent lamp type qualifies for PG&E Incentive2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 36
  19. 19. Cold Cathode Fluorescent• Operate at a much higher voltage and lower current than conventional fluorescent lamps.• The higher voltage overcomes the need to heat the tube while the lower arc current greatly extends the life of the discharge electrodes.• Cold cathode lamps are typically ten to 30 percent more efficient than a comparable hot cathode fluorescent lamp.• Cold cathode lights have a life expectancy more than twice that of typical compact fluorescent lamps and do not suffer accelerated degradation with variations in supply voltage.• This fluorescent lamp type qualifies for PG&E Incentives* for incandescent replacement (fluorescent must be 2 to 8 watts). *Check PGE.com for updates and incentive details2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 37Compact Fluorescent Lamps• Efficacy 28-84 l/w• Kelvin temperature 2700-5000K°• Color Rendering Index 82-86• Lamp life 10,000-20,000 hours• Lumen depreciation <30%• Start to full brightness 0-5 minutes• Re-strike time immediate• Dimming ability Yes, with proper ballast• Notes: – May come with integrated ballast – Ballast must be ventilated; Do not enclose lamp – This lamp type qualifies for the PG&E incentives2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 38
  20. 20. Compact Fluorescent Lamps• Strengths – High efficacy – Compact size – Long lamp life – Good CRI – Wide range of colors – Good lumen maintenance – Cool lamp surface temperature – High frequency operation• Weaknesses – Higher first cost (over incandescent) – Position sensitive – Does not perform well in hot/cold environments – Has warm-up time – Expensive to dim2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 39 Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) Shapes Source: IESNA ED-150 Instructor Guide, 19952009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 40
  21. 21. High Intensity Discharge Sources• Used to light surfaces some distance from source• Applications – Street lights – Exterior lighting of buildings – Warehouse lighting – High-bay retail• Types – Mercury Vapor – Metal Halide – High Pressure Sodium – Low Pressure Sodium• Alternatives – Induction lamps – T-5 Fluorescent2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 41Mercury Vapor• Efficacy 30-65 l/w• Kelvin temperature 5600-7000K• Color Rendering Index 15-40• Lamp life 10,000-16,000 hours• Lumen depreciation 30-50%• Start to full brightness 3-5 minutes• Re-strike time 5 minutes• Dimming ability yes, with special ballast• Strengths – Long lamp life• Weaknesses This lamp type is – Only incandescents are more inefficient – Poor color rendering a good candidate – Poor lumen maintenance – Long strike time and re-strike time for replacement! – New outdoor installations are illegal under some state laws. – Mercury lamp ballasts are noisy – Lamps are quite voltage sensitive – A special dimming ballast is required to dim mercury lamps.2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 42
  22. 22. Metal Halide Lamps• Efficacy 50-110 l/w• Kelvin temperature 3000-6000K• Color Rendering Index 65-92• Lamp life 6000-20,000 hours• Lumen depreciation 10-30%• Start to full brightness 2-10 minutes• Re-strike time 3-20 minutes• Dimming ability with difficulty• Strengths – High efficacy – Long lamp life – Good lumen maintenance – Good color rendering for HID source• Weaknesses – Has warm-up time – Long re-strike time – Color shifts with age – Lamp position sensitivity – Expensive to dim2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 43Metal Halides Features• Pulse Start – Probe start provides brief, high-power pulse for lamp start up – Up to 50% improvement in efficacy – Reduced strike and re-strike time – High lumen maintenance – Improved color stability – Longer lamp life – This lamp type qualifies for the PG&E incentives• Bi-level control – Switch lamps to lower energy-saving level – Continuous dimming is more difficult due to flicker, color shift & lamp shutdown – Can be controlled based on occupancy2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 44
  23. 23. High Pressure Sodium Lamps• Efficacy 50-120 l/w• Kelvin temperature 2100-2200• Color Rendering Index 21-65• Lamp life 16,000-24,000 hours• Lumen depreciation 10-20%• Start to full brightness 4-6 minutes• Re-strike time 1 minute• Dimming ability with difficulty• This lamp type qualifies for the PG&E incentives• Strengths – High efficacy – Long lamp life – Good lumen maintenance – Universal burning position• Weaknesses – Has warm-up time – Re-strike time – Poor CRI – Expensive to dim – Color shifts with age2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 45Induction Lamps• Efficacy 60-80 l/w• Kelvin temperature 3000K-4100K• Color Rendering Index 80• Lamp life 100,000 hours• Lumen depreciation 20-25%• Start to full brightness Some warm up• Re-strike time immediate• Dimming ability No• This lamp type qualifies for the PG&E incentives• Strengths – Extremely long lamp life – Tolerates varied temperatures – On/off cycling does not affect lamp life – No color shift over lamp life• Weaknesses – Not as efficient as high-efficiency fluorescents – Have yet to collect enough long-term performance data – Lumen depreciation is significant – Unable to dim – Immediate strike and re-strike – High first cost2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 46
  24. 24. Light Emitting Diodes• Efficacy 20-60 l/w*• Kelvin temperature 3000K-4500K• Color Rendering Index 20-70• Lamp life 50,000-100,000 hours• Lumen depreciation 10-30%?• Start to full brightness immediate• Re-strike time immediate• Dimming ability Yes• This lamp type qualifies for PG&E incentives• Applications – Exit signs – Traffic lights – Signage – Safety lights (theaters) – Replace Neon * test data in labs is much higher (130 l/w)2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 47Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)• Strengths – Adequate light at low wattage for some applications – LED exit signs require 2-25% of the wattage of incandescent exit signs – LED exit signs require 25-50% of the wattage of CFL exit signs – Rugged – Extremely long lamp life; some claims of up to 25 year life – 1/3 the life cycle cost of incandescents over a ten year life• Weaknesses – Low efficacy ( 20-60 L/W) – White LEDs have lower efficacy than colored LEDS Not appropriate for all applications – Have yet to collect enough long-term performance data – Currently-manufactured LEDs are rated for operating temperatures of 25 degrees C; at lower temperatures they produce more light and at higher temperatures, less. – Signs should be changed when light levels drop below accepted standards – Require DC power2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 48
  25. 25. Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Operation Hard Plastic Phosphor coating (optional) Semi-Conductor Anvil Base Pins• Produce light by electroluminescence• Solid state light source• Semiconductor chip Image license: GNU Free Documentation License.2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 49 LED - SPD Curve • Continuous curve • Blue weighted • Varies for color LEDs PG&E Pacific Energy Center 20072009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 50
  26. 26. Lamp Comparison Matrix Source Efficacy Lamp Life Color Voltage Temperature Lamp Family LLD CRI Dimmable2 Type (lm/W) (rated hours) Temp.1 Sensitive2 Sensitive2 Incandescent Point 15 1,000 95% W 100 Y Y N Halogen Point 20 3,000 100% W 100 Y Y N Incandescent Fluorescent Linear 95 25,000 95% WMC 86 Y N Y Compact Area 70 12,000 86% WMC 86 S N Y Fluorescent Pulse Start Point 100 20,000 85% WM 70 S N N Metal Halide Ceramic Point 90 20,000 85% WM 92 S N N Metal Halide High Pressure Point 110 24,000 90% W 21 N N N Sodium Induction Area 80 100,000 75% WM 80 N N N Lamps White LEDs Projection 40 50,000 70% MC 75 Y N Y 1 - W (Warm), M (Mid-range), C (Cool) Note: Values are representative of lamp family performance 2 - Y (Yes), S (Special Cases), N (No)2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 51 Mean Lamp/Ballast System Efficacy Halogen PAR38 Incandescent A19 Halogen IR PAR38 White LED CFL PL13 2-pin - Mag CFL 15W Screw-in CFL 26W Double - GEB Lamp (and Ballast) Type CFL 42W Triple - GEB MH 400W - Mag MH 100W - Elec, pulse MH 400W - Mag, pulse CMH 400W - Mag, pulse MH 400W - Elec, pulse CMH 400W - Elec, pulse T12 - Mag Biaxial - GEB, prog T5HO - GEB, prog Basic T8 - GEB, ins Super T8 - EE, prog T5 - EE, ins Super T8 - EE, ins 0 20 40 60 80 100 Efficacy [mean lm/W] *GEB: Generic Electronic Ballast, EE: Extra Efficient Ballast, ins: instant start, prog: programmed start, pulse: pulse start2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 52
  27. 27. Daylighting• Efficacy 80-250 l/w• Kelvin temperature 5,400-10,000K• Color Rendering Index 100 (best source)• Lamp life Infinite, but daily cycle• Lumen depreciation None• Notes: – Savings dependant on reducing electric lighting load – Associated with increased productivity, reduced sick days… – Some heat introduced with daylight – Indirect light is ideal (less glare and heat)2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 53Recommended Illuminance Levels These are recommendations not code requirements2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 54
  28. 28. De-Lamping Opportunities• Efficient lighting systems often provide more light – New lamps and ballasts may provide higher lumen output – Ballast may have high ballast factor – Reflectors may be added – Fixtures may be cleaner• Older buildings designed for higher illuminance• Many spaces over-illuminated for appropriate task• Task/low ambient lighting strategies• Scotopic lighting provides better visual acuity and higher perceived brightness2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 55Lighting Controls• Objectives – In all cases reduce the hours of operation of lighting equipment – In some cases reduce the power draw of lighting equipment• Types – Manual switches – Schedule controls/Sweeps – Timers – Occupancy sensors – Manual dimmers – Daylight controls/Photosensors2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 56
  29. 29. Scheduled Controller/Sweep• Controlled through building automation system (BAS)• Ideal for spaces with regular use• Best option is manual ON, controlled OFF• Applications – Open office space – Schools – Retail spaces – Manufacturing• This control equipment qualifies for the PG&E Incentive2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 57Data from Timer ControlsRetail Example Retail Store Stockrooms Mens Ware Visual Lingerie Shoes 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:002009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 58
  30. 30. Time Clocks• Allows lights to run in a space for a limited time• Essentially a timed switch• Simple controller• Inexpensive• Types: – Mechanical – Electronic• Applications: – Stock/Storage rooms – Laundry rooms – Service areas2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 59Occupancy Sensors• Ideal for spaces with irregular use and unoccupied at least ½ operating hours• Sensors located in spaces• May be tied to BAS• Two main sensor types – Infrared – Ultrasonic• Applications – Rest rooms – Stock rooms – Conference rooms – Garages• This control equipment qualifies for PG&E Incentive2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 60
  31. 31. Passive InfraRed Sensor Attributes http://www.wattstopper.com/pdf/Sensor_Broch_Final.pdf2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 61Ultrasonic Sensor Attributes2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 62
  32. 32. Data from Occupancy Controls Garage Example 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9/20 9/22 9/24 9/26 9/28 9/30 10/2 10/42009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 63Interior Daylight Controls• Ideal for interior spaces with a daylight factor >2%• Sensors located in spaces• May be tied to BAS• Two main strategies – Photocells – Photosensors• Applications – Single-story buildings – Perimeter office spaces – Schools – Big-box retail2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 64
  33. 33. Data from Daylighting Controls Grocery Store Example2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 65Exterior Lighting Controls• Sensor typically located above fixture• Photocells switch lights off when there is adequate daylight• This control equipment qualifies for the PG&E Incentive2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 66
  34. 34. Summary of Lighting Opportunities• Change out inefficient lighting – Replace incandescent lamps – Replace halogens used as ambient sources – Replace T-12 fluorescents – Replace magnetically ballasted fluorescents – Replace mercury vapor lamps – Used LED for exit signs and signage• De-lamp in over-illuminated spaces or service areas• Add lighting controls – Sweeps – Timers – Occupancy sensors – Daylighting/photosensor controls2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 67Lighting Operations & Maintenance• Re-lamp whole building on a regular schedule• Replace flickering, dim and burned-out lamps• Clean diffusers, lenses and lamps• Trim bushes and trees away from outdoor lighting• Verify controls – Check scheduled off times for sweeps – Tune/commission occupancy sensors – Tune/commission photosensors for daylight controls2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 68
  35. 35. Other Lighting Issues• Consider light system performance – Consider luminaire efficiency not just lamp efficacy – Remember distance from source impact light levels – Spacing of luminaires is a factor – Lighter wall and ceiling colors are advantageous• Consider scotopic sources• High efficiency systems reduce cooling loads• Glare is a concern especially with computers2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 69Lighting Tools and Resources• Flicker checker• Illuminance meter• Lighting loggers• Occupancy loggers• Luminance meter• Measuring tape/Disto• Circuit tracer• Recommended illuminance level table• Lighting fixture wattage tables2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 70
  36. 36. Key Points to Remember• Relative lighting efficacies• Where to find light system wattages• How to calculate Lighting Power Density• How to use meters and test equipment• Appropriate control strategies for different situations• Lighting O&M opportunities• Where to find lighting incentive information• How to calculate energy savings potential2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 71References and Resources• Advanced Lighting Guidelines: 2003 Edition – http://www.newbuildings.org/lighting.htm• Lighting Fundamentals Handbook – Free through EPRI http://my.epri.com/• Table of Standard Fixture Wattages www.entergy-texas.com/content/Energy_Efficiency/documents/Small_CommercialWattageTable_020504.xls www.entergy- texas.com/content/Energy_Efficiency/documents/Small_CommercialWattageTable_020504.xls• Occupancy Sensor Design and Application Guide http://www.wattstopper.com/getdoc/419/OSappsNewDesignFinal.pdf• California Energy Code, Title 24 http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/• PG&E Lighting Incentives http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/rebatesincentives/ref/lighting/ http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/rebatesincentives/ref/lighting/2009 Energy Auditing Techniques for Small and Medium Commercial Facilities 72

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