1. laney overview of green building revised 1-11-11

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  • The numbers speak for themselves
  • This is our industry, and who better than those of us in the building industry to step up?
  • Anecdotes from Arcata salvaging and Trinidad cabin to 205 Montego and any in between….
  • The primary issue many cities are facing is insufficient stormwater capacity, the direct result of increased impervious surfaces: rooftops, streets, and compacted surfaces.Impervious surfaces directly correlate to light intensity as components of urbanization.As impervious cover increases, flood plain.
  • For new water heaters, make sure that installation does not void warrantyCan reduce heat loss by about 10% or more on older water heaters Insulate pipes in all runs through unconditioned spacesMinimum insulation should run 6’ from the tank to prevent convection circulation from the heater through the pipes
  • Dual flush toilets are also available.0.8 gpf for liquid; 1.6 gpf for solidsReplace existing toilets with a new 1.6 gpf or lessSaves 8-22 gal/day based on 4 flushesHigh efficiency shower heads may reduce demand for hot water and reduce energy use for water heating by up to 20%.Recommendation: to install a chlorine filter on showerheadReduce chemicals and particulatesInstall between the pipe and the showerheadChlorine is absorbed 6 times faster through the skin than through the digestive system
  • The solar path in passive designThe ability to achieve these goals simultaneously is fundamentally dependent on the seasonal variations in the sun's path throughout the dayThis occurs as a result of the inclinationInclinationInclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or Axis_of_rotation of direction.... of the earth's axis of rotation in relation to its orbitORBitORBit is a CORBA compliant Object Request Broker. The current version is called ORBit2 and is compliant with Common Object Request Broker Architecture ver..... The sun pathSun pathSun path refers to the apparent significant seasonal-and-hourly positional changes of the sun as the Earth rotates, and orbits around the sun.... is unique for any given latitude. Generally the sun will appear to rise in the east and set in the west.In Northern Hemisphere non-tropical latitudes farther than 23.5 degrees from the equator:The sun will reach its highest pointNoonNoon is the time exactly halfway through the day, written 12:00 in the 24-hour clock and 12:00 noon in the 12-hour clock.... toward the South (in the direction of the equator)As winter solsticeSolsticeA solstice is either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the equator: in technical words, when the celestial equator and ecliptic reach their largest separation.... approaches, the angleAzimuthAzimuth is the horizontal component of a direction , measured around the horizon usually from the north toward the East, i.e.... at which the sun risesSunriseSunrise, also called sunup in some American English dialects, is the time at which the first part of the Sun appears above the horizon in the east.... and setsSunsetSunset, also called sundown in some American English dialects, is the time at which the Sun disappears below the horizon in the west.... progressively moves further toward the South and the daylight hours will become shorterThe opposite is noted in summer where the sun will rise and set further toward the North and the daylight hours will lengthen The converse is observed in the Southern Hemisphere, but the sun rises to the east and sets toward the west everywhere.In equatorial regions at less than 23.5 degrees, the position of the sun at solar noonNoonNoon is the time exactly halfway through the day, written 12:00 in the 24-hour clock and 12:00 noon in the 12-hour clock.... will oscillate from north to south and back again during the year.In regions closer than 23.5 degrees from either north-or-south pole, during summer the sun will trace a complete circle in the sky without setting whilst it will never appear above the horizon six months later, during the height of winter.The 47-degree difference in the altitude of the sun at solar noon between winter and summer forms the basis of passive solar design. This information is combined with local climatic data (degree dayDegree dayA degree day is a measure of heating or cooling. Totalised degree days from an appropriate starting date are used to plan the planting of crops and management of pests....) heating and cooling requirements to determine at what time of the year solar gain will be beneficial for thermal comfortThermal comfortHuman thermal comfort is defined by ASHRAE as the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment ...., and when it should be blocked with shading. By strategic placement of items such as glazing and shading devices, the percent of solar gain entering a building can be controlled throughout the year.One passive solarPassive solarPassive solar is a term referring to those technologies that can be employed to convert natural sunlight into usable heat, to cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or to store the heat for future use, without the use of electrical or m... sun path design problem is that the sun is in the same relative position six weeks before, and six weeks after, the solstice, BUT due to "thermal lag" from the thermal massThermal massThermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. In the architectural sense, it is any mass that absorbs and stores heat during sunny periods when the heat is not desirable in the living space of a building, an... of the Earth, the temperature and solar gain requirements are quite different before-and-after the summer-and-winter solstice. Movable shutters, shades, shade screen, or window quilts can accommodate day-to-day and hour-to-hour solar gain and insulation requirements.Careful arrangement of rooms completes the passive solar design. A common recommendation for residential dwellings is to place living areas facing solar noon and sleeping quarters on the opposite side.. A heliodonHeliodonA heliodon is a device for adjusting the angle between a flat surface and a beam of light to match the angle between a horizontal plane at a specific latitude and the solar beam.... is a traditional movable light device used by architects and designers to help model sun path effects. In modern times, 3D computer graphics can visually simulate this data, and calculate performance predictions.
  • Aperature: The set of windows and overhangs that determine how much sun enters the building.Absorber: The material that the sun’s ray come into contact with.Thermal Mass: The material that stores the sun’s thermal energy for re-release after sundown.Distribution: The means by which the thermal energy is released to the living/working spaces.Control: The techniques used to control the collection and distribution of the sun's thermal energy.
  • Wall cavities with existing insulation can be blown full of new cellulose or fiberglass to increase the density therefore the R-value.If existing cathedral or flat ceilings are already insulated, and re-roofing is being done, add additional rigid foam insulation on top of the existing roof sheathingExterior walls can be wrapped with a min. of 1” (R-4) rigid foam to increase R-value if total exterior refinish is being doneInsulate and seal floors over unconditioned crawl spaces with R-19 or greaterProtect underside of fiberglass with inexpensive sheathing or wire materials that act as a barrier to vermin
  • Important when fiberglass is used Seal holes between floors and between stud cavities around wire runsCaulk top and bottom plates on all floors
  • Low-E keeps heat out on summer days and keeps the heat in during cold weather Saves energy In older homes, replace whenever possible and cost-effectiveWood, vinyl, and fiberglass generally insulate better than aluminum frames.
  • Can reduce the need for air conditioning
  • Sized to produce between 4-5 air changes per hour2 speeds, low for continuous ventilation and highWindow should be open while fan is running to avoid back drafting of CO from gas appliance fluesUse a airtight seal to prevent air leakage in winterFor Indoor Air Quality these systems exhaust the dust to the outsideMust be vented outdoorsAlternative is the purchase of a high efficient particulate air (HEPA) filter
  • Collect energy from the sun and turn it into electricityElectricity can be sold to local utility (net metering)Electricity can be used directly by household
  • Car exhaust contains many known carcinogensCan migrate into living spaces through doors and cracks in walls
  • Darker colors tend to have higher VOCs due to the concentration of synthetic materials
  • Production of vinyl flooring can result in the creation of toxic byproducts such as dioxins
  • Finished with expansion joints
  • 1. laney overview of green building revised 1-11-11

    1. 1. An Overview of Sustainability and the Built Environment<br />
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES – <br />Overview of Sustainability and the Built Environment as it relates to Fossil Fuel Consumption and Climate Change <br />The basics of Green Building<br />Introduction to LEED, Green Points, One Planet & other rating systems and criteria related to Green Building.<br />
    3. 3. An Overview Of Sustainability And The Built Environment<br />
    4. 4. Whatis“Green Building”?<br />
    5. 5. GREEN BUILDING. A holistic approach to design, construction, and demolition that minimizes the building’s impact on the environment, the occupants, and the community.<br />
    6. 6. Today’s Green HomesEmeryville, CA<br />
    7. 7. Can You Tell the Difference?<br />
    8. 8. The Differences are…<br />Paint with VOCs<br />No VOC Paint<br />Salvaged Wood<br />Old GrowthWood<br />Bamboo Flooring<br />Finish with VOCs<br />Hardwood Flooring<br />Low VOC Finish<br />
    9. 9. Why Build Green?<br />The United States comprises 5% of the total world population and<br />Americans use 25% of the world’s energy resources.<br />Buildings and the building industry consumes between 1/3 and ½ of the nations energy.<br />
    10. 10. Home Size<br />In 1950<br />In 1970<br />1.6x 1950<br />297 SF/personaverage floor area 1,000 SF 3.37 people per household<br />478 SF/person average floor area 1,500 SF 3.14 people per household<br />In 2000<br />2.8 x 1950<br />840 SF/person average floor area 2,200 SF 2.62 people per household<br />
    11. 11.
    12. 12.
    13. 13.
    14. 14. RESOURCE USE<br />Construction of a 2,085 sq ft home uses up to 1.5 acres of forest<br />95% of old growth forests have been depleted<br />
    15. 15. ENERGY USE <br />Generation and use of energy (electric, gas, oil, coal) are major contributors to air pollution and global climate change.<br />
    16. 16. INDOOR AIR QUALITY<br />We spend 90% of our time indoors <br />Air inside the average home is 10 times more polluted than outside air on the smoggiest days <br />
    17. 17. WASTE GENERATION<br />Million tons generated in a year in each county<br />21% from construction and demolition industry<br />
    18. 18. Site Selection & Environmental Impact<br />Development Density & Community Connectivity<br />Alternative Transportation<br />Storm water Management<br />SUSTAINABLE SITES<br />
    19. 19. Give preference to materials that are: <br />locally produced<br />minimally-processed<br />durable and able to be maintained<br />high in recycled-content <br />readily-recyclable<br />
    20. 20. Recycled Flyash in Concrete<br />Flyash is a byproduct of coal burning power plants<br />Use of flyash in concrete diverts it from landfills.<br />The U.S. produces 1.3 billion tons of Portland cement annually. This emits 1.3 billion tons of CO2 into the environment.<br />
    21. 21. Recycled-Content Aggregate<br />Concrete and rubble can be crushed and used for backfill and drainage purposes at the base of foundations<br />Using recycled instead of virgin materials saves money and natural recourses<br />
    22. 22. Engineered Lumber<br />
    23. 23. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Certified Wood<br />FSC certification assures that the forest from which the wood is produced is managed in an environmentally and socially responsible manner.<br />
    24. 24. Recycled-Content Steel Studs<br />
    25. 25. Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)<br />
    26. 26. Advanced Framing <br />Wood saving techniques:<br />Framing walls 24” on center<br />2-stud corners<br />Ladder blocking at partitions<br />Stacking trusses over studs<br />Use single top plates<br />
    27. 27. REUSE Building Materials<br /><ul><li>Builders’ Guide online at www.RECYCLENOW.ORG
    28. 28. Hardware
    29. 29. Lumber
    30. 30. Plumbing
    31. 31. Tile
    32. 32. Windows
    33. 33. Reclaimed wood </li></li></ul><li>Reclaimed lumber can be used for non-structural applications<br />Reduces resource consumption<br />Reduces landfill deposits<br />Reclaimed Lumber <br />
    34. 34. Sustainable Decking Material<br />Plastic lumber<br />Contains only recycled plastic resins<br />Check manufacturer for amount of expansion<br />Composite lumber<br />Made with recycled wood fiber and recycled plastic resins formed into deck boards<br />
    35. 35. FIBER-CEMENT SIDING is composed of Cement, sand, and recycled cellulose<br />
    36. 36. Minimize the amount of fresh water used within buildings and outside for landscaping.<br />Water Use <br />
    37. 37.
    38. 38. RESOURCE - EFFICIENT LANDSCAPES30-60% of an average home’s fresh water is used for watering the yard.Use:<br />Non Invasive Species<br />No Species Require Shearing<br />Drought-tolerant Natives <br />Minimal Turf Areas<br />Plants Grouped by Water Needs (Hydronizing)<br />
    39. 39. Other Good Landscaping Practices:<br /><ul><li>Mulch All Planting Beds
    40. 40. Soil Amended with Compost
    41. 41. Rainwater Harvesting
    42. 42. Greywater Systems</li></li></ul><li>Plumbing/Water Conservation<br />Install water conserving appliances<br />Install low flow aerators on faucets and showerheads <br />
    43. 43. Distribute Hot Water Efficiently<br />Insulate Water Heaters & Pipes<br />
    44. 44. On-Demand Hot Water Circulation Pump<br />Hot water arrives at the fixture 5 times faster than on average<br />
    45. 45. Distribute Hot Water Efficiently<br />Locate Water Heater within 12 Feet of All Fixtures<br />
    46. 46. Water Efficient Fixtures<br />Toilets Dual-Flush or maximum 1.28gpf<br />Showers use max 2.5 gpm<br />Faucets use max 1.5 gpm<br />
    47. 47. Energy efficiency is a cornerstone of any green building project.<br />Improving energy efficiency and using renewable energy sources are effective ways to improve air quality and reduce the impacts of global warming<br />
    48. 48. Passive Solar<br />Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior Thermal comfort.<br />Passive solar designdoesnot include active systems..<br />
    49. 49. Passive Solar Design Aspects<br />
    50. 50. Passive Cooling<br /><ul><li>Plant deciduous trees for shade
    51. 51. Natural ventilation is a key cooling strategy
    52. 52. Install window overhangs and awnings</li></li></ul><li>Wall and Ceiling Insulation<br />Exceed the Title 24 Standard for your climate by at least 20%<br />
    53. 53. Air Infiltration Reduction Practices<br /><ul><li>Install expanding foam or caulk where wood connections are made or framing is drilled to provide plumbing and electrical runs.</li></li></ul><li>Energy-Efficient Windows<br /><ul><li>Low- E double-glazed windows
    54. 54. Low-conductivity frames
    55. 55. Look for windows that have a National Fenestration Rating Council </li></ul> (NFRC) label<br />
    56. 56. Lighting Controls Reduce Energy Use<br />Lighting controls include:<br />Dimmers<br />Sensors and timers <br />Install either at specific locations or as a whole house system <br />
    57. 57. High Efficiency Ceiling Fans<br />Can be adjusted to either draw warm air upward during the summer or push warm air downward during the winter<br />Best locations are bedrooms and living rooms<br />
    58. 58. Attic Ventilation Systems<br />Exhaust excess heat and moisture from attic spaces by natural convection.<br />Code requirement of 1 sq. ft. of net free area of venting for every 150 sq. ft. of attic floor area – should be doubled.<br />Keep insulation from blocking soffit/eave vents<br />
    59. 59. Whole House Fan<br /><ul><li>Cools a house without the use of air conditioning</li></ul>Exhaust warm, indoor air<br />Bring in fresh, cool, outdoor air at night<br />Fan mounted in a hallway ceiling on the top floor<br />
    60. 60. Renewable and Solar Energy <br />PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS (PVs)<br />SOLAR HOT WATER<br />
    61. 61. Indoor Air Quality & Finishes<br />
    62. 62. Garage Exhaust Fan<br />Attached garage is the single most significant contributor to poor indoor air quality (source: U.S. EPA)<br />
    63. 63. Low & No VOC Paint & Finishes<br />
    64. 64. Install natural linoleum <br /><ul><li>Replaces vinyl flooring
    65. 65. Contains petroleum-based products or chlorinated chemicals such as PVC which off gases VOCs</li></li></ul><li>Exposed Concrete<br /><ul><li>For slab-on-grade additions or basements
    66. 66. Great for radiant, in-floor heating systems
    67. 67. Durable and easy to clean</li></li></ul><li>
    68. 68. Reading Assignments for Sustainability Overview and the Built Environment:<br />A Builder’s Guide –<br />GREEN FROM THE GROUND UP,<br />Sustainable, Healthy, and Energy-Efficient Home Construction by David Johnston & Scott Gibson<br />Chapter 1 – Green Building Basics<br />Chapter 2 – The House as a System<br />Chapter 3 – Planning and Design<br />
    69. 69. BREAK<br />

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