Virtual and Realworld Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People

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An overview of some passive and adaptive technologies used by blind people and some sonification research.

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Virtual and Realworld Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People

  1. 1. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Lane@LaneKuhlman.com
  2. 2. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Virtual Wayfinding Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  3. 3. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Virtual Wayfinding How can we share information about the natural world? Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  4. 4. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Yes I am BLIND...But I SEE the world thru the sound of Music by SwEeT_AnGeL_i. Yes I am blind Virtual Wayfinding Cant u see I am blind How can we share information about the natural world? To the discrimination made on caste and creed Graphic Representation Yes I am blind Sensory Substitution Cant you see What unique abilities to blind people possess? I am blind To the emotion of Lust and Greed. Passive Technologies Yes I am blind Acoustic Technologes Cant you feel I am blind To the pain that comes from jealousy Haptic Technologies Yes I am blind Proposal Cant you see I am blind To the reasons that pave way for wars due to Fallacy. Links I do see the world, through the sound of Music References Which is made of Love, Joy and Harmony I do see the world, through the eyes of my Soul Which believes in Humanity as its ultimate Goal I do see the world, through the words of Compassion Which helps me nurture my spiritual role I do see the world, with the touch of passion That comes from the people who have heart of gold. Sometimes I just wonder, Why cant the world be …BLIND like me????? Be blind to hatred, caste, lust and greed And see the world as I see.....@from a blind girl's point of view, written by Sweet Angel. (Flickr.com)
  5. 5. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Virtual Wayfinding How can we share information about the natural world? Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution What unique abilities to blind people possess? Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes How have blind people overcome their challenges? Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  6. 6. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Virtual Wayfinding How can we share information about the natural world? Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution What unique abilities to blind people possess? Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes How have blind people overcome their challenges? Haptic Technologies What has led blind people to experience great successes? Proposal Links References
  7. 7. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Virtual Wayfinding How can we share information about the natural world? Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution What unique abilities to blind people possess? Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes How have blind people overcome their challenges? Haptic Technologies What has led blind people to experience great successes? Proposal Links How can our biases harm or inhibit blind people? References
  8. 8. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Virtual Wayfinding How can we share information about the natural world? Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution What unique abilities to blind people possess? Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes How have blind people overcome their challenges? Haptic Technologies What has led blind people to experience great successes? Proposal Links How can our biases harm or inhibit blind people? References How can we create tools that support their creativity?
  9. 9. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Virtual Wayfinding How can we share information about the natural world? Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution What unique abilities to blind people possess? Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes How have blind people overcome their challenges? Haptic Technologies What has led blind people to experience great successes? Proposal Links How can our biases harm or inhibit blind people? References How can we create tools that support their creativity? How can we help blind people be independently mobile?
  10. 10. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People  Introduction Introduction Real-world Wayfindng How do you describe a sunset to someone who is blind? Virtual Wayfinding How can we share information about the natural world? Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution What unique abilities to blind people possess? Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes How have blind people overcome their challenges? Haptic Technologies What has led blind people to experience great successes? Proposal Links How can our biases harm or inhibit blind people? References How can we create tools that support their creativity? How can we help blind people be independently mobile? How can we address varied levels of blindness?
  11. 11. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Real-world Wayfinding - Difficulties Introduction  Real-world Wayfindng maps can change for one particular area ‘lack much of the information needed for planning depending on the: Virtual Wayfinding detours around obstacles and hazards, and have little information about distant landmarks, heading Graphic Representation (1) time of day (i.e. day/night) and self-velocity’ Sensory Substitution [Loomis JM, Golledge RG, Klatzky RL, 2001] Passive Technologies (2) season (e.g. summer vs. winter) Acoustic Technologes we need to determine - ‘what spatial information (3) direction of travel should be given to visually impaired pedestrians, in Haptic Technologies (travelling the same route forward or back). what form and at which particular locations’ Proposal [Kitchen RM, Jacobson D, 1997] Links [Jonsson E, 2002] References context-aware computing is only helpful if it ‘adapts according to its location of use, the collection of nearby people and objects, as well as changes to those objects over time’ [Schilit B, Theimer M, 1994]
  12. 12. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Real-world Wayfinding - Findings Introduction  Real-world Wayfindng Different forms of visual impairment might also Virtual Wayfinding impact on cognitive map development [Bradley, Nicholas A. and Dunlop, Mark D., 2005] Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References [Bradley, Nicholas A. and Dunlop, Mark D., 2005]
  13. 13. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Real-world Wayfinding - Findings Introduction  Real-world Wayfindng Different forms of visual impairment might also Virtual Wayfinding impact on cognitive map development [Bradley, Nicholas A. and Dunlop, Mark D., 2005] Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Important aspects of a user’s context are ‘where Passive Technologies you are, who you are with, and what resources are Acoustic Technologes nearby’. [Schilit B, Adams N, Want R, 1994] Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  14. 14. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Real-world Wayfinding - Findings Introduction  Real-world Wayfindng Different forms of visual impairment might also Virtual Wayfinding impact on cognitive map development [Bradley, Nicholas A. and Dunlop, Mark D., 2005] Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Important aspects of a user’s context are ‘where Passive Technologies you are, who you are with, and what resources are Acoustic Technologes nearby’. [Schilit B, Adams N, Want R, 1994] Haptic Technologies Proposal Directions consisting of a reduced amount of Links textual-structural and textual area/street References information, and incorporated sensory, motion, and social contact information are more optimal for helping visually impaired people navigate. [Bradley, Nicholas A. and Dunlop, Mark D., 2005]
  15. 15. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Virtual Wayfinding - Difficulties Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Many sites are not meeting accessibility standards and can  Virtual Wayfinding not be quickly or easily navigated non-visually [Asakawa, 2005] Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References [Asakawa, C., Fukuda, K., Maeda, J., 2004] >>>>>>>>>>>>
  16. 16. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Virtual Wayfinding - Difficulties Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Many sites are not meeting accessibility standards and can  Virtual Wayfinding not be quickly or easily navigated non-visually [Asakawa, 2005] Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Even though the Web is an extremely useful tool for blind Passive Technologies users to obtain information, it has been becoming much Acoustic Technologes visual and thus inaccessible to blind users. [Asakawa, 2005] Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References [Asakawa, C., Fukuda, K., Maeda, J., 2004] >>>>>>>>>>>>
  17. 17. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Virtual Wayfinding - Difficulties Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Many sites are not meeting accessibility standards and can  Virtual Wayfinding not be quickly or easily navigated non-visually [Asakawa, 2005] Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Even though the Web is an extremely useful tool for blind Passive Technologies users to obtain information, it has been becoming much Acoustic Technologes visual and thus inaccessible to blind users. [Asakawa, 2005] Haptic Technologies Proposal visual impairness: people with visual disabilities (currently Links relying on “screen readers” software to browse websites) References still experience frustration in getting a communication which is far from being effective through the aural channel. [Bolchini, Davide, Colazzo, Sebastiano, Paolini, Paolo and Vitali, Daniele, 2006] [http://www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.html] >>
  18. 18. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Virtual Wayfinding - Solutions Introduction Real-world Wayfindng The aDesigner is not an assistive technology program, but  Virtual Wayfinding rather it is a disability simulator, which was developed for Web developers to help them ensure that their pages are Graphic Representation accessible and usable for people with vision disabilities Sensory Substitution [http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/adesigner] Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Strategies are being developed to improve aural information architectures - acoustically scannable Haptic Technologies [Bolchini et al, 2006] Proposal Links Two main languages lead the market in the field of voice References applications: VoiceXML [http://www.w3.org/TR/voicexml20/] SALT [http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/salt/ default.aspx].
  19. 19. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Graphic Information - Difficulties Introduction Real-world Wayfindng U.S. Federal law requires that all government information Virtual Wayfinding on the Web be available to users with disabilities, and  Graphic Representation other governments around the world have similar laws. [www.section508.gov] Sensory Substitution Passive Technologies The paradox is that government agencies are presenting Acoustic Technologes more data on the Web through choropleth maps, but at the same time, these government agencies are increasingly Haptic Technologies required to make that data accessible to people with Proposal disabilities. Links [Zhao, H , Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B. Lazar, J., 2008] References
  20. 20. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Graphic Information - Solutions Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Sonification - Different acoustic variables such as pitch, Virtual Wayfinding volume, timbre and position can be used to represent  Graphic Representation quantitative, qualitative and categorical aspects of the information [Franklin and Roberts, 2003] Sensory Substitution Passive Technologies Could be used to assist visual impaired people in exploring georeferenced data like coordinated maps and tables Acoustic Technologes [Zhao, H et al, 2008] Haptic Technologies Proposal toolkits were developed to help researchers attempt different data-to-sound attribute mappings Links [Pauletto and Hunt or Walker and Cothran, 2003] References Research has shown that musical sounds enhance numeric data comprehension [Ramloll et al., 2001] Humans can interpret a quick sonified overview of [http://www.icad.org/] simple data graphs [Flowers et al., 1997; Brown et al.,
  21. 21. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Sensory Substitution Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Seeing through Touch Virtual Wayfinding <<< Graphic Representation quot; The person in the foreground is Deaf and blind. She  Sensory Substitution is learning how to use a computer. Her interpreter is Passive Technologies translating the instructor's comments to the student. The Acoustic Technologes method used by many who are Deaf-blind is called tactile sign language.quot; Haptic Technologies -Cobalt123 Flickr.com Proposal Links For more about tactile sign language: References [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tactile_signing] [gupress.gallaudet.edu/excerpts/TSLintro3.html]
  22. 22. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Sensory Substitution Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Seeing through Sound Virtual Wayfinding << quot; A camera scans the visual field. The images are Graphic Representation converted into a soundscape by the computer. How the  Sensory Substitution sounds might quot;lookquot;: a brightness represented by volume; Passive Technologies elevation is represented by pitch.quot; Acoustic Technologes quot; Meijer, a research scientist in the Netherlands, has Haptic Technologies developed a technology called the vOICe, which allows you Proposal to represent visual information - to quot;seequot; - with sounds.quot; Links References - The New York Times [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/11/magazine/11ideas_ section3-14.html?ex=1291957200&en=3c72cf9fa46bbb06&e i=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss] Merabet L. , Battelli, L., Obretenova, S., Maguire , P., Meijer S. and Pascual-Leone, A. ,(2009)
  23. 23. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Passive Technologies - Braille Introduction Real-world Wayfindng <<< Braille on a Canadian Banknote Virtual Wayfinding Graphic Representation Adding Braille to Banknotes or Currency could be helpful Sensory Substitution  Passive Technologies Variations in the size of American currency could also be Acoustic Technologes helpful to blind people Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  24. 24. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Passive Technologies - Cane Introduction Real-world Wayfindng <<< Foldable Walking Stick Virtual Wayfinding Blind people use walking sticks the search for obstacles Graphic Representation that they may encounter on their walking path Sensory Substitution  Passive Technologies Some canes can be easily folded away Acoustic Technologes Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  25. 25. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Passive Technologies - Textured Paths Introduction Real-world Wayfindng <<< Textured Paths Virtual Wayfinding [Blind in Japan by ben.thomas at Flickr.com] Graphic Representation These detectable directional systems are surface tiles Sensory Substitution which contain a series of raised parallel ridges or plateaus  Passive Technologies which indicate direction and orientation. They are used Acoustic Technologes extensively in Australia and Japan to facilitate blind people in navigating transits systems and public areas Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  26. 26. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Passive Technologies - Time & Orientation Introduction Real-world Wayfindng (LEFT) Compass that tactilely represent Virtual Wayfinding directions - helpful for orientation Graphic Representation (RIGHT) Watch with flip-open face Sensory Substitution makes it possible to tactilely read time  Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  27. 27. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Acoustic - Screen Readers Introduction Real-world Wayfindng <<< JAWS Screenreader User Virtual Wayfinding The most commonly used screen readers: Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution JAWS Screen Reader - http://www.freedomscientific. Passive Technologies com/products/fs/jaws-product-page.asp  Acoustic Technologes Windows Eyes Screen Reader - http://www.gwmicro. Haptic Technologies com/Window-Eyes/ Proposal Links References
  28. 28. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Acoustic - Navigation Introduction Real-world Wayfindng <<< Sonic Pathfinder Virtual Wayfinding The Sonic Pathfinder is a head-mounted pulse-echo sonar Graphic Representation system controlled by a microcomputer. The five ultra-sonic Sensory Substitution transducers which are mounted on the head-band comprise Passive Technologies three receivers, one pointing left, one right and one straight  Acoustic Technologes ahead, and two transmitters. The two transmitters are angled so as to irradiate the user's pathway with ultra- Haptic Technologies sonic energy. Echoes from objects lying within this pathway Proposal are received by the three receiving transducers and this Links information is processed by the on-board computer. The References output of the device, the display, is fed to one or other of the two ear pieces depending on whether the object is on the left or the right of the user or to both ear pieces if the object lies directly in the travel path. [http://www.sonicpathfinder.org/]
  29. 29. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Acoustic - GPS Trekker Introduction Real-world Wayfindng GPS for people who are visually impaired Virtual Wayfinding [http://www.humanware.com] Graphic Representation <<< Trekkor & Trekkor Breeze Sensory Substitution Passive Technologies Trekker Breeze lets you:  Acoustic Technologes • know where you are and where you are going • what is around in your location (public services and Haptic Technologies businesses) Proposal • Easily retrace your steps if you get lost. Simply push a Links button. References • Record the routes when you learn them with sighted people so that you can use them later without assistance. • Record landmarks along your route, for example to get to your favorite restaurant or a friend’s house. • Get the step-by-step instructions from start to end.
  30. 30. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Haptic - Refreshable Braille Display Introduction Real-world Wayfindng <<< Refreshable Braille displays can be used in conjuction Virtual Wayfinding with screen readers like WIndow-Eyes, JAWS or Apple's built-in screen reader to read text from the internet Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Screen_reader] Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes  Haptic Technologies Proposal Links References
  31. 31. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Haptic - Navigation Introduction Real-world Wayfindng <<< The Miniguide uses ultrasonic echo-location to detect Virtual Wayfinding objects. The aid vibrates to indicate the distance to objects - the faster the vibration rate the nearer the object. Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution There is also an earphone socket which can be used to Passive Technologies provide sound feedback. Acoustic Technologes The aid has various distance modes for senses ranges of :  Haptic Technologies Proposal • 4 meter Links • 2 meter References • 1 meter • half meter • 8 meter [http://www.gdp-research.com.au]
  32. 32. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Haptic - Public Transit Introduction Real-world Wayfindng <<< Cross walk (BELOW) Transit system signage and ticket exchange in Japan Virtual Wayfinding signal for the [from ben.thomas on Flickr.com] blind. Vibrates Graphic Representation to let people Sensory Substitution know when it is Passive Technologies safe to cross Acoustic Technologes [from Rachel  Haptic Technologies Cotton on Proposal Flickr.com] Links References
  33. 33. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Sonifier - a portable hand-held device for sonification Introduction Real-world Wayfindng • gives blind students access to info in graphs Virtual Wayfinding Headphones Speaker USB Port Stylus • 8-10 inch screen with adjustable resolution Graphic Representation Toggle Button Sensory Substitution • audio from speaker and headphone jack Key Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes • Displays XML formatted messages Haptic Technologies • Recieves datasets for bar, line, scatter plot  Proposal Graph Quadrants and choropleth map graphs through USB Links References • Button to toggle between modes - one for verbal descriptions and one for sonification • Recessed touch surfaces - One larger surface and two thinner ajacent surfaces - touch with Key stylis to hear key ranges and associated sounds
  34. 34. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People Links Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Web content accessibility guidelines - http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag.php Virtual Wayfinding JAWS Screen Reader - http://www.freedomscientific.com/products/fs/jaws-product-page.asp Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Windows Eyes Screen Reader - http://www.gwmicro.com/Window-Eyes/ Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Mac technologies for the Visually Impaired - http://www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.html Haptic Technologies Government Information Standards for People with Disabilities - www.section508.gov Proposal  Links Disability Simulator (Windows Only) - http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/adesigner References Wayfinding Technologies - http://www.construction-innovation.info/index.php?id=836 Universal Low Vision Aids - http://www.ulva.com/ Access Watch: Blind users review accessibility of mainstream software - http://www.accesswatch.info/
  35. 35. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People References Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Asakawa, Chieko (2005) What's the Web Like If You Can't See It? W4A at WWW2005, 10th May 2005, Chiba, Japan Virtual Wayfinding Copyright 2005 ACM Graphic Representation Bolchini, Davide, Colazzo, Sebastiano, Paolini, Paolo and Vitali, Daniele (2006) Designing Aural Information Sensory Substitution Architectures. SIGDOC'06, October 18–20, 2006, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA. Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Bradley, Nicholas A. and Dunlop, Mark D. (2005) An Experimental Investigation into Wayfinding Directions for Visually Impaired People. Published online: June 22, 2005 Springer-Verlag London Haptic Technologies Proposal Bradyn JA (1985) A review of mobility aids and means of assessment. In: Warren DH, Strelow ER (eds) Electronic spatial Links sensing for the blind. Martinus Nijhoff, pp 13–27  References Brown, L., Brewster, S. A., Ramloll, R., Burton, M., AND Riedel, B. 2003. Design guidelines for audio presentation of graphs and tables. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display.
  36. 36. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People References Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Flowers, J. H., Buhman, D. C., and Turnage, K. D. 1997. Cross-modal equivalence of visual Virtual Wayfinding and auditory scatterplots for exploring bivariate data samples. Human Factors 39, 3, 340–350. Graphic Representation Franklin, K. M. and Roberts, J. C. 2003. Pie chart sonification. In Proceedings of the Annual Sensory Substitution IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization. 4–9. Passive Technologies Acoustic Technologes Jonsson E (2002) Inner navigation: why we get lost and how we find our way. Scribner, New York, pp 27–126 Haptic Technologies Kay L (1980) Air sonar with acoustical display of spatial information. In: Busnel RG, Fish JF (eds) Animal sonar system. Proposal Plenum, New York, pp 769–816 Links  References Kitchen RM, Jacobson D (1997) Techniques to collect and analyze the cognitive map knowledge of people with visual impairments or blindness: Issues of validity. J Visual Impair Blind 360–376 Loomis JM, Golledge RG, Klatzky RL (2001) GPS-Based navigation system for the visually impaired. In: Barfield W, Caudell T (eds) Fundamentals of wearable computers and augmented reality. Lawrence Erbaum Associates, Mahwah NJ, pp 429–446
  37. 37. Virtual and Real-World Wayfinding for Visually Impaired People References Introduction Real-world Wayfindng Merabet L. , Battelli, L., Obretenova, S., Maguire , P., Meijer S. and Pascual-Leone, A. ,(2009) ``Functional Recruitment of Virtual Wayfinding Visual Cortex for sound encoded object identification in the Blind,'' NeuroReport, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 132 - 138, January 2009 (doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32832104dc). Graphic Representation Sensory Substitution Schilit B, Adams N, Want R (1994) Context-aware computing applications. In: First international workshop on mobile Passive Technologies computing systems and applications pp 85–90 Acoustic Technologes Schilit B, Theimer M (1994) Disseminating active map information to mobile hosts. IEEE Network 8(5):22–32 Haptic Technologies Proposal Takagi, H., Asakawa, C., Fukuda, K., Maeda, J., (2004) Accessibility Designer: Visualizing Usability for the Blind, In Links Proceedings of the 6th international ACM SIGACCESS  References conference on Assistive Technologies (ASSETS 2004), pp. 177-184 Zhao, H , Plaisant, C. and Shneiderman, B. Lazar, J. (2008) Data Sonification for Users with Visual Impairment: A Case Study with Georeferenced Data. (2008) ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)Volume 15 , Issue 1 (May 2008) Article No. 4

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