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Widely regarded asthe greatest writer inEnglish Literature
1563-1616Stratford-on-Avon, Englandwrote 37 playsabout 154 sonnetsstarted out as an actor
Actor for Lord Chamberlain’s Men (London theater co.)Also > principal playwright for them1599> Lord Ch. Co. built Globe Theater where most of Sh. Play’s were performed
Plays produced for the general publicRoofless>open airNo artificial lightingCourtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleries
Wealthy got benches“Groundlings”>poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard (“pit”)All but wealthy were uneducated/illiterateMuch more interaction than today
Stage>platform that extended into the pitDressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stagesecond-level gallery> upper stage> famous balcony scene in Romeo & JulietTrap door>ghosts“Heavens”> angelic beings
Only men and boysYoung boys whose voices had not changed play women’s rolesWould have been considered indecent for a woman to appear on stage
An , and: IfAnon: At once - SoonAy: YesBut: Only - Except forE’en: EvenE’er: EverExeunt: They go out( leave stage)Exit: He , She goes out
Haply: PerhapsHappy: FortunateHence: Away, from herMarry: IndeedMethinks: I thinkNay: NoPray : Please
Thou ,Thee ,Thy , Thine : You, Your, YoursWhence: WhereWilt: Will, will youWithal: In addition toWould: WishYea : Yes
Ordinary writing that is notpoetry, drama, or song Only characters in the lower social classes speak this way in Shakespeare’s plays Why do you suppose that is?
Thesequence ofevents in aliterary work
The plot usually beginswith this:introduces>>>> setting characters basic situation
Oftencalled “initialincident”the first bit of action that occurs and which begins the plot
Thestruggle thatdevelopsman vs. manman vs. himselfman vs. societyman vs. nature
The point where theprotagonist’s situationwill either get better orworseprotagonist>good characterantagonist>bad character
The turning point ofthe story>everythingbegins to unravelfrom hereThus begins the falling action
The end of thecentral conflict
The final explanationor outcome of the plotIf this is included in literature, it will occur after the resolution.
Drama where the centralcharacter/s suffer disaster/greatmisfortune In many tragedies, downfall results from> Fate Character flaw/Fatal flaw Combination of the two
Central idea orInsight about lifewhich explains thedownfall
Characters whohave manypersonality traits,like real people.
One-dimensional,embodying only a singletraitShakespeare often uses them to provide comic relief even in a tragedy
Characters within astory who remain thesame. They do notchange. They do notchange their minds,opinions or character.
Oneperson speaking onstage > may be othercharacter on stage too
Long speech expressingthe thoughts of acharacter alone onstage. Macbeth gives asoliloquy after themurder of King Duncan.
Words spoken, usually in anundertone not intended tobe heard by all characters.In The Merchant of VeniceShylock’s Asides are veryimportant to the spectators asthey explain the reasons of hisrevenge on Antonio.
Shakespeare loved to usethem!!!Humorous use of a word with two meanings > sometimes missed by the reader because of Elizabethan language .
Words that tell the reader who is being addressed:“Ah, my mistresses, which of you all/ Will now deny to dance?”
Acontradictionbetween what acharacter thinks andwhat thereader/audienceknows to be true
Words used to suggestthe opposite of what ismeant
An event occurs thatdirectly contradicts theexpectations of thecharacters, the reader,or the audience
Use of comedy within literaturethat is NOT comedy to provide“relief” from seriousness orsadness.In MACBETH look for moments ofcomic relief that help “relieve” thetragedy of the situation
1. Macbeth A Tragedy by William Shakespeare2. The Taming of the Shrew A Farce by William Shakespeare
1.A.C. Bradley. Shakespearean Tragedy . Hong Kong: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1978 2. Anthony Burgess. English Literature . London : Longman, 1974 3.Caroline Spurgeon. Shakespeare’s Imagery . London :Cambridge University Press, 1982 4. Peter Spalding. Drama in Practice. London : Macmillan Publishers Ltd.1985
Participation:5 marks Power Point Presentation: 20 marks Test: 20 marks Sunday 29/ 4 / 1432 H Quiz: 15 marks Tuesday 21/ 6/ 1432 H Final: 40 marks Total: 100 marks