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  • 1. Chapter 19 The United States and the World
    • The United States focused on itself throughout the Gilded Age, building farms, factories, and overcrowded cities. But being such an international force, it wasn’t long before the vast oceans that surrounded the US were now vessels for its expansion. America would quickly realize the great opportunities abroad, and that imperialism was its new destiny.
  • 2. 19.1 Looking Outward
  • 3. 19.1
    • Far East
    • China
      • 1842 Caleb Cushing secures the “most favored nation” title from China allowing the US to receive the best treatment among the trading nations
      • Treaty of Wanghia
      • Canton and four other ports open to US
    • Japan
      • Restricted foreigners and trade
      • Commodore Mathew C. Perry
        • brave diplomat who refused to deal with minor officials
        • demanded respect for Americans
        • Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)= 2 ports to US
    • Hawaii
      • Attempted annexation in 1854 (Pres. Pierce- slavery issue)
      • Annexed in 1898
  • 4. Seward
    • Secretary of State, William H. Seward
    • Jumped at offer by Russians to buy Alaska
    • Thought it would keep Britain out of North America AND eventually lead to the takeover of Canada! Alaska Treaty approved (1867)
      • “ Seward’s Folly”
      • “ Seward’s Icebox”
      • $ 7.2 Million
      • Russians had to “buy” approval in Congress
      • *eventually provide- gold, oil, frontier
    • Danish West Indies
      • Caribbean Islands- Virgin Islands
      • 1867- $ 7.5 million (not officially approve until 1917 for 25 million)
  • 5. Alabama Claims
    • Ship damage claims by Union against Great Britain
    • British law made it forbidden to arm any ship to be used against any nation at peace with GB. (South armed their ship from Britain elsewhere)
    • Seward wanted 19 million from GB
    • Sumner pushed for 15 million for vessels, 110 million for losses in trade, and over 2 billion in indirect damages!
    • “ Guess your just going to have to give us Canada!!!”
    • Treaty of Washington- 1871-International courts rule GB owed 15.5 million
  • 6.  
  • 7. Napoleon III’s Mexican Empire
        • Go home Napoleon-1866 pulled out
        • Maximilian stays- executed by firing squad
    During the Civil War, Napoleon overthrows Mexican government Austrian archduke appointed to Mexican throne- Maximilian US objected, after Civil War, 50,00 troops to Texas
  • 8. United States and Samoa United States and Germany interested in Samoa Pago Pago – good strategic harbor (like Pearl Harbor)
      • Joint protectorate with Germany over Samoa
      • 1894 first step away from policy (avoiding meddling with other nations), and first step toward imperialism.
  • 9. Problems with Chile
    • Baltimore cruiser in Valparaiso, Chile
    • 2 sailors killed, 18 wounded by angry mob
    • Chile gov’t refused to apologize, Pres. Harrison sends nearly a declaration of war to Congress.
    • After 8 cruisers park in Pacific, Chileans yield, apologize and pay damages
  • 10. Questions
      • In what way does the United States’ position of outward interaction go from treaty to muscle?
      • Why would some people today still consider the purchase of Alaska as “Seward’s folly”?
      • Compare our foreign policy of today with that of the area we are studying
  • 11. 19.2 Expanding on the Seas
    • By 1900, The US has become the third most powerful navy in the world. For what?
    • Alfred Thayer Mahan
      • Believed that to become successful nation the US must trade with many nations, and to protect that trade, must have a powerful navy.
      • Wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890)
      • Sought strong navy, Panama canal, and dominance on Caribbean
  • 12. Henry Cabot Lodge
        • sought powerful navy, canal, Carib. dom., and Greenland and Cuba
        • Theodore Roosevelt also was a follower of Mahan
        • Both believed:
      • “ American power was only a force for good. Other nations should be glad to be ruled by us. And the American people would profit by reaching abroad.
        • Sen. Beveridge (IN)- “Great colonies governing themselves, flying our flag and trading with us, will grow about our posts of trade”
  • 13. More attempts to steal Hawaii
      • 1891 Queen Liliuokalani in power in Hawaii
      • Queen L. tried to keep freedom (from Americans)
      • 1893 Harrison orders Marines from Boston to overthrow govt
      • Cleveland in office, cancels annexation when he gets info of coup. Tries to restore queen to throne.
      • Hawaii annexed in 1898
      • (McKinley in office)
  • 14. Venezuela boundary
      • Venezuela begged US to utilize Monroe Doctrine to protect boundary with British Guiana (Guyana).
      • Heated debates, but eventually Britain decides to concede
      • US threatens and wins, again.
    COLOMBIA VENEZUELA SURINAME Venezuela British Guiana Colombia
  • 15. Questions
    • Who seems to be responsible for the mentality of US in its role in the world?
    • How could you summarize the position of the US heading into the 20th century?
    • What is happening to the people and governments in the many lands affected by the United States?
  • 16. 19.3
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. The Spanish American War   "The credit belongs to those who are actually in the arena, who strive valiantly, who know the great enthusiasms, the great devotions, and spend themselves in a worthy cause; who, at the best, know the triumph of high achievement and who, at the worst, if they fail, fail while daring greatly so that their place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat." -Theodore Roosevelt Although William McKinley is in office, Teddy Roosevelt steals the show and leads the charge to liberate Cuba.
  • 22. President William McKinley
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • Take up the White Man's burden--
    • Send forth the best ye breed--
    • Go, bind your sons to exile
    • To serve your captives' need;
    • To wait, in heavy harness,
    • On fluttered folk and wild--
    • Your new-caught sullen peoples,
    • Half devil and half child.
    • Take up the White Man's burden!
    • Have done with childish days--
    • The lightly-proffered laurel,
    • The easy ungrudged praise:
    • Comes now, to search your manhood
    • Through all the thankless years,
    • Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,
    • The judgment of your peers.
  • 25. Cuba A. Cuba’s independence 1895, Spanish troops siege towns and kill anyone who leaves. General Weyler responsible for atrocities... Many die of disease and starvation
  • 26.
    • Ready for War
      • A. Cuban sugar a concern for business
      • B. Attached to politics- McKinley, “Free the Cuban people”
      • C. Negotiations with Spain stumbled by “yellow press”
          • a. Stolen letter of Spanish ambassador Dupuy de Lome
          • b. Calls McKinley, “weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping in good terms with the jingoes of his party”
  • 27. The Maine Explodes
          • Maine sent to Harbor of Havana
          • February 15, 1898 Maine explodes
          • Navy inquiry states it was an underwater mine
          • (actually internal explosion)
          • Yellow Press calls for war, “Remember the Maine”
          • McKinley doddles
          • Teddy Roosevelt left in charge of whole navy! (Assistant Sec.of Navy)
            • Phones Commodore George Dewey…
            • Get ‘em ready
            • In case of war, attack Spanish Fleet in Philippines
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 32. McKinley goes for it
    • a. After Spain conceded to Cuban independence, McKinley declares war. April 21, 1898
    • b. Why?
    • c. J-I-N-G-O (es)
          • i. Yellow press still pushing for war!!!
          • Army in disarray
    • e. Navy was in ship-shape
          • i. Dewey takes only 7 hours to decimate Spanish fleet in Philippines
  • 33.
    • A. Teddy names himself lieutenant colonel of cavalry
    • a. Grabs many accomplished “riders”
    • b. While in Cuba, horseless
    • Navy sunk every fleeing Spanish ship
    I cant deny it, I’m a Rough Rider…” Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
  • 34.  
  • 35. The “splendid little war”
    • A. Spain gave up empire of islands
    • B. Acquired
      • i. Puerto Rico at door of Caribbean
      • ii. Guam, refueling station in mid Pacific
      • iii. Philippines (7000 islands)
      • iv. New American colonies
    • The war is historically known for its intervention proclamation- Empire.
  • 36.  
  • 37. Reaction-Opposition
    • A. “anti-imperialists”- opposed to American dominance overseas
    • B. feared war against Japan, upholding Dec. of Independence
    • C. roll call: Samuel Gompers, Andrew Carnegie,Jane Addams, Mark Twain, William Jennings Bryan
    • D. Philippines revolted, brutal methods
    • E. Criticized by Roosevelt as “mollycoddles”
    • Filtered atrocities and focus upon prosperity allows McKinley to defeat Bryan in the 1900 election
  • 38. Reorganization of Cuba
        • A. Teller Amendment- attached to declaration of war
          • a. Said the US would not try to exercise sovereignty over Cuba
          • b. Leave the governing to them
        • B. General Leonard Wood
          • a. Remains to establish peace, schools, and finances
        • C. Major Walter Reed
          • a. Army Medical Corps
          • b. Sets up a commission that discovered the origin of yellow fever (mosquito by stagnant waters)
          • c. Allows Cuba to prosper
        • D. Stipulations- Platt Amendment
          • a. Allow the US to intervene to protect “life, property, and individual liberty”
          • b. Platt Amendment becomes an permanent treaty with Cuba in 1903
  • 39. Puerto Rico
    • The Foracker Act of 1900 established PR as a compromise between a colony and a territory.
    • Governor, 11 member council (5 Puerto Rican)
    • Willingly under US rule
    • 1901, no tariffs between US and PR
  • 40. “ Open Door” with China
    • A. After defeat from war with Japan (1894- 1895), China left segmented into “spheres of influence”
          • a. France, Germany, Japan, and Russia
    • B. US takes Hawaii and Philippines
    • C. US Sec of State John Hay send letter to GB, FR, Ger, JP,RUS
        • a. Do not disturb “spheres” of China
        • b. Hay declares “deal” final and definitive
        • c. Hence China now an “open door”
  • 41. The Boxer Rebellion
    • Many Chinese join patriotic “righteous fists of harmony”-(Boxers)
    • May 1900- rose up against “foreign devils”
          • . Killed missionaries and families
          • . Seiged Beijing
          • . US sought revenge and reconciliation
          • Lets conquer and divide government!
    • What about the “open door” policy!
    • Make gov’t pay damages- $334 million
    • . US returned 12 million and Chinese, impressed with gesture put money into fund to send Chinese to American college
  • 42.  
  • 43.
    • After the war, the US took control of the Spanish owned Philippine Islands…what should we do with them (Liberate or Take?)
    • McKinley reported that through prayer he decided to: “Education …uplift and civilize and Christianize them…”
    • Filipinos fought against US occupation, but remained under control until 1946.
    The Philippines: To Free or Not to Free?
  • 44.  
  • 45. United States Becomes a World Power