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When cautioned not to anger European powers, Hitler responded:
Sadly, Hitler was right. Not only Europe, but the world responded much to late to the aggression and violence of Hitler. The “isolationist” and “neutral” attitude of the world led to the deaths of millions and a full scale world war that may have been prevented.
“ They’ll never act. They’ll just protest. And they will always be too late.”
Britain now stood alone. Chamberlain resigned and Winston Churchill became prime minister. Churchill would have nothing to do with appeasement. He promised to stand up to German and Italian aggression no matter what the cost!
With a new prime minister acting in Britain, public opinion began to shift in the United States. The Congress allocated over $17 billion to Great Britain and made a deal with Britain to provide them with destroyers.
What made Churchill different from other leaders around the world at this time?
Americans were surprised that Roosevelt decided to run for a third term and break the tradition begun by George Washington. He gave two reasons for running again: experienced leadership and knowledge of European leaders. Although he faced opposition early on, he won the Democratic nomination and won the election with 54% of the popular vote.
What are the possible negative outcomes of breaking such a long tradition? Do you think FDR should have run for a third term? Why or Why not?
“… Since the beginning of our American history, we have been engaged in change -- in a perpetual peaceful revolution -- a revolution which goes on steadily, quietly adjusting itself to changing conditions -- without the concentration camp or the quick-lime in the ditch. The world order which we seek is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized society…”-FDR
Getting Lend-Lease materials across the Atlantic proved to be a difficult task. German submarines or U-Boats sank many supply ships.
By July 1941, Roosevelt announced that US and British warships would accompany freight ships to help materials cross the ocean. At first Germany did not respond, but by October 1941 they had attacked two American destroyers.
Although the US had not declared war on any nation, it moved steadily closer to siding with Britain.
Churchill and Roosevelt met in August 1941 and made a joint statement known as the Atlantic Charter. In this statement they agreed that neither nation would seek territorial gains and proposed that all aggressing dictators be disarmed. This dramatically changed a long lasting US foreign policy.
Alliance with Britain
Convoys increased the merchant ships chances of surviving the ocean voyage
AREA OF GREATEST DANGER FOR ALLIED MERCHANT SHIPS
Japan wanted the US to stop sending aid to China, and restore trade with Japan. Diplomatic talks in November 1941 failed, and during the meetings, Japan planned an attack on the United States.
Japan continued its aggression against China causing relations to erode with the US Japan joined Germany and Italy in an anti-Soviet treaty. Despite US warnings to stay out of Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) Japan took control of the Asian territory.
The Japanese, after Pearl Harbor, showed naval superiority by crushing enemy fleets and dominating islands of the South Pacific. The Battle of the Coral Sea positioned enemies out of sight from one another, the first battle of its kind in history. The island of Midway was crucial in the strategy of Japan providing a point from which to bomb Pearl Harbor, making the US base useless.
Because of advantageous decoding by the US, Japan suffered severe damage in the Battle of Midway. The United States navy finally turned the tide in the naval struggle in the war by sinking four of Japan’s best carriers and downing many aircraft. The US victory saved Midway, Samoa, and Fiji from Japanese control.
US CARRIER DIVE BOMBERS PREPARE TO STRIKE JAPANESE CARRIERS AT MIDWAY
JAPANESE SHIPS SINKING AFTER ATTACKS BY US DIVE BOMBERS
USS Enterprise Aircraft carrier (not at Pearl Harbor during the attack)
MILITARY STRENGTH AT THE START OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC Numbers do not include Allied military forces elsewhere in the world 14 51 ARMY DIVISIONS 1000 4300 AIRPLANES 70 67 SUBMARINES 93 129 DESTROYERS 37 41 CRUISERS 3 11 CARRIERS 10 10 BATTLESHIPS ALLIED (US, BRITAIN, NETHERLANDS) JAPAN MILITARY
Though the early stages of World War II focused on Western Europe, Hitler had diverted his attention to Russia by 1941. The battle of Stalingrad was fought from August1942 to February of 1943. Against the advice of his generals, Hitler attacked the Russian city.
German armies surrounded the city and so the Russians were trapped and would remain so for several months. When reinforcements arrived for the Soviets, they surrounded the Germans and forced them to surrender.
The battle of Stalingrad not only destroyed much of the German army, but also ended their offensive in Russia and ultimately resulted in Germany’s defeat.
OPERATION BARBAROSSA Operation Barbarossa was a three pronged invasion of the Soviet Union. The goal was to seize all of the USSR up to the Ural Mountains including the major cities of Odessa, Kiev, Moscow, Leningrad and Stalingrad.
The battle of Stalingrad was arguably the largest single battle in human history. It raged for 199 days. Numbers of casualties are difficult to compile owing to the vast scope of the battle and the fact the Soviet government didn't allow estimates to be run for fear the cost would have proven too high.
In all, a total of anywhere from 1.7 million to 2 million Axis and Soviet casualties resulted from the battle, making it by far the largest in human history.
Allied troops caught up to Axis forces in Tunisia (North Africa) and forced German General von Arnin to surrender.
In securing North Africa, the Mediterranean would be open for British/ Allied supplies.
An allied plan to invade Italy was unfolding, meanwhile, within Italy, Mussolini was replaced by a new government despite reinforced Nazi contol.
THE END IN NORTH AFRICA: GERMAN TROOPS SURRENDERING TO ALLIED FORCES ROMMEL AND HIS AFRIKA CORPS WAS TRAPPED BETWEEN THE BRITISH AND AMERICAN FORCES AND AFTER HEAVY FIGHTING DESTROYED IN MAY OF 1943.
Expecting a large attack at Calais, the narrowest crossing, Hitler held off his many armored divisions from a counter attack around the beaches of Normandy.
“ D-Day” the name given to the exact day of any military movement, was the largest single attack plan in history.
SUPREME ALLIED COMMANDER GENERAL EISENHOWER SPEAKS WITH PARATROOPERS JUST BEFORE THEY EMBARK TO JUMP INTO NAZI OCCUPIED FRANCE
THOUSANDS OF ALLIED SOLDIERS ENTERED BATTLE FROM THE AIR
THOUSANDS OF TROOPS ARRIVED IN FRANCE ON TOWED GLIDERS. MANY CRASHED, KILLING THEIR PILOTS AND PASSENGERS.
CARGO SHIPS BEING UNLOADED ON THE INVASION BEACHES TO SUPPLY THE INVADING ARMIES
A total of 600 warships, 400 small crafts, 176,000 troops, and an air assault of 11,000 planes stormed the beaches of Normandy, France.
Despite a treacherous initial landing, the Allies managed to land 326,000 men, 50,000 vehicles, and 100,000 tons of supplies in just one week.
The invasion of Normandy lasted from June 6 to July 24, followed by a large attack by US General Patton, General A.M. Patch, and the French Forces of the Interior (FFI). Paris was liberated by August and by October, the Germans were out of France.
Based upon FDR’s experience and leadership, the nation gave the President a victory in seeking his fourth term for President in a decisive 432 to 99 electoral vote. Being that the tide was turning in the war, the economy was revitalized, and American prosperity seemed sure to return, FDR gained a secure victory.
In February of 1945, the Great Britain’s Winston Churchill, Soviet Union’s Josef Stalin, and FDR met at Yalta to discuss the war and possible post-war measures.
Stalin, claiming the largest casualties of the war were Soviet, cleverly requested the lion’s share. The Soviet leader demanded Poland, and half of all German reparations and promised to declare war on Japan, and join the newly formed United Nations.
In return for these promises, Stalin would get some Japanese islands and the large area of Outer Mongolia. He vowed to allow the eastern European countries of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria to elect their own governments.
FDR and Churchill left the conference with a handful of promises and not much else.
FDR HAS OFTEN BEEN ACCUSED OF SELLING OUT TO STALIN BUT BOTH FDR AND CHURCHILL KNEW WHILE THEY HAD 4 MILLION SOLDIERS STALIN HAD AN ARMY OF OVER 12 MILLION MEN.
Joseph Stalin had effectively ordered his two leading generals - Zhukov and Konev - to race to the German capital.
With such a huge advantage in manpower and equipment, getting to the actual capital was relatively easy in that the Germans were constantly retreating whereas the Russians had the advantage of forward momentum.
US TROOPS ENTER GERMANY FROM THE WEST WHILE RUSSIAN SOLDIERS ATTACK FROM THE EAST.
Despite the obvious hopelessness of the situation, Hitler still planned to direct the defense of the city himself putting his faith in the German 12th Army that had withdrawn from the western front.
Casualty figures on both sides were high. The Russians lost 80,000 men killed and 275,000 wounded or missing in the lead up to the battle and in the battle itself. Two thousand Russian tanks were destroyed. 150,000 Germans were killed during the battle. The Russians simply destroyed a complete building if they had been fired on from somewhere within that building. However, the city could not last out for long and on May 2nd 1945, Berlin surrendered to the Russians and the war in Europe all but ended. Germany unconditionally surrendered on May 7th.
Over two million artillery shells were fired into Berlin and the surrounding area in three weeks and 1 million Russian infantry troops took part in the assault on the city. Russia's vast tank superiority counted for little in the debris ridden streets of Berlin. The Germans who fought there were issued with portable anti-tank weaponry and could use hit-and-run tactics against Russian tanks. Areas had to be taken street by street and building by building.
US AND SOVIET SOLDIERS GREET EACH OTHER AT TORGAU, GERMANY IN APRIL OF 1945.
RUSSIAN ARMIES SURROUND BERLIN. THE BATTLE LASTED FROM APRIL 16 TH TO MAY 2 ND 1945.
Hitler decided to await the end in Berlin, where he could still manipulate what was left of the command apparatus. Most of his political and military associates chose to leave the capital for places in north and south Germany likely to be out of the Soviet reach.
Hitler committed suicide in his Berlin bunker.
As his last significant official act, he named Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz to succeed him as chief of state.Doenitz, who had been loyal to Hitler, had no course open to him other than surrender.
Hitler commits suicide as the Russians approach his underground bunker in Berlin
A two-year fight for dominance in the Pacific (1943-1945) proved costly for many American soldiers. Heavy losses mounted for American troops in their missions to fight the fierce Japanese for island control in the South Pacific. With eventual victories on Tarawa, Kwajalein, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, victory soon become attainable.
The leap-frogging General MacArthur made his way toward the Philippines by way of Leyte Island. There on Leyte Island the Japanese made their last significant naval defense, and consequently lost their sea power in a stunning defeat.
With the Japanese navy out of the war, the Americans charged into the Philippines to oust the remaining Japanese forces. After the Japanese surrender in Manila on March 9th, MacArthur declared the nation restored. s
With the war raging, FDR became run down in his fourth term. He traveled to his therapy center in Georgia to rest, and on April 12, 1945 a blood vessel burst in the president’s brain causing his death. America was devastated and mourned the lost of a true American President. Harry Truman would now face the crucial decisions of a wartime President.
Since 1942, the United States had been conducting experiments on splitting the atom, thus creating a new source of tremendous power. The so-called “Manhattan Project” under the supervision of scientist Enrico Fermi, had successfully created the capability of atomic weaponry, and on July 16, 1945 tested the weapon at Alamogordo, New Mexico. By the time the bomb was ready to use the Italians, and Germans surrendered, leaving the Japanese as the lone possible targets of atomic devastation. After a refusal to the warning of, “the alternative to surrender is prompt and utter destruction,” the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Three days later another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. On August 14, 1945 the Japanese surrendered.
MODEL OF “LITTLE BOY” ATOMIC BOMB CREW OF THE ENOLA GAY THE PLANE THAT DROPPED THE FIRST ATOMIC BOMB ON JAPAN ENOLA GAY, PLANE THAT DROPPED THE BOMB
THE FIRST ATOMIC BOMB WAS DROPPED ON THE CITY OF HIROSHIMA AUGUST 6 TH , 1945, 70,000 KILLED AND EVEN MORE WOUNDED
A second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered AUGUST 9 TH , 40,000 KILLED