Ch 20 The Progressive Era PpPresentation Transcript
CH 20 The Progressive Era
20.1 Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal
After William McKinley wins the election of 1900, he never reaps the benefits of his victory. During the late summer following his inauguration, a 28-year-old anarchist named Leon Czolgosz shoots McKinley. Theodore Roosevelt is sworn into the presidency in what will become one of the many dramatic presidential terms in our history.
Born into wealth, Roosevelt traveled as a youngster
Struggled with asthma and poor eyesight as a child.
Active in boxing, track and field, and hunting.
Took a punch in the eye during a fight and blinded his left eye.
Always kept his boyish energy.
Accomplished author with works in history, politics, ethics…
In the Presidency
Used the presidency as a “bully pulpit” to spread his ideas.
TR loved power, and hated wealth.
Shocked no one had attacked monopolies sooner
He believed the President should lead.
Events Defining Roosevelt:
In the mines of Illinois, PA, Ohio, and West Virginia
Workers received no raise in 20 years
441 men killed in accidents in 1901
Workers earnings in what they dug were dishonestly weighed
John Mitchell, President of United Mine Workers led strike in May 1902
In October, with winter coming, people feared the RR would stop running
No coal, no fuel for RR
No RR, no business
No business, no work
No work, no food
Coal Strike (continued)
Roosevelt threatened to send the Army into the mines if the owners continued to hold out from talks.
Owners give in to talks- Strike Over
Roosevelt fearless to big business
Sticks up for ordinary America
Provided “square deal” for miners
Holding company founded by:
James J. Hill of Great Northern RR
E.H. Harriman of Union Pacific RR
Responsible for maintaining large RR monopoly in the Northwest.
Roosevelt had the company sued by using the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Supreme Court (5 to 4) ruled the company violated Sherman A.T. Act and must dissolve
Roosevelt uses momentum to attack beef trusts, oil trusts, and tobacco trusts.
Urged Congress to approve Department of Commerce and Labor to Cabinet.
President in his Own Right
Smothers opponent in election of 1904
336 to 140 electoral votes
Time to Reform:
Strengthen the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate the RR.
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle depicts the conditions of the meat packing plants
Pure Food and Drug Act- forbade the manufacture and sale of impure drugs and food. Labels mandatory on all medicines.
Employers Liability Insurance - provided accident insurance to RR workers on interstate railroads and in D.C.
Food/Drugs Workman’s Compensation Jungle Meat Packing Next
The Jungle (1906) Upton Sinclair
. …Under the system of rigid economy, which the packers enforced, there were some jobs that it only paid to do once in a long time, and among these was the cleaning out of the waste barrels. Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would be dirt and rust and old nails and stale water--and cart load after cart load of it would be taken up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat, and sent out to the public's breakfast.
Newlands Reclamation Act - take money from public sale of lands out west, and build dams and canals to help irrigation…increased the price of once dry, arid land.
Used the power granted by Congress to hold millions of acres of woodlands for a natural reserve.
Increased acreage from 50 million to 190 million. (GB and France combined)
Transformed Public Land Service to
United States Forest Service headed by Gifford Pinchot
Pinchot pioneered reforestation, (seen as a resource)
Panic of 1907
JP Morgan urges TR to allow United States Steel to purchase Tennessee Coal and Iron Company.
Roosevelt allows it for economy.
Social reforms on the way…
Income and Inheritance tax
Limits on use of labor injunctions
More control on business
Criticized as a socialist -
public ownership of means of production and distribution
Believed in capitalism, not socialism.
Wanted capitalism to benefit all Americans.
Wanted to eliminate extremes of wealth and poverty.
"This country will not be a permanently good place for any of us to live in unless we make it a reasonably good place for all of us to live in." Chicago, IL, June 17, 1912
20.2 Middle Class Reformers
Progressives believed the government should no longer be an umpire .
What does this mean?
Government was expected to level the playing field.
Reform broke ground in the position of mayor of some cities
Hazen S. Pingree-Detroit
Samuel M. “Golden Rule” Jones- “every man must rule himself”
City Manager Manager , not politician , hired to run city (much like a business) Policies made by council, enforced by manager Commission rule Some cities formed an elected commission to run local government This eliminated the possibility of a corrupt boss from ruling.
Robert M LaFollette, (Wisconsin)
“ Battling Bob”
~brought direct primary to choose candidates
~set up civil service
~taxed corporations /reg. Banks
Reforms (major Progressive reforms)
By 1912, ¾ of all states passed child labor laws
Workmen’s compensation /Insurance
Women’s minimum wage and conditions
Banning alcohol –26 states by 1917
Heavy taxes on rich
Taxes on inheritance, profits, incomes
RR/ utilities commission to control rates
Do we need reform today?
Women Suffrage- reformers thought that women would be more inclined to vote for reform legislation if given the right.
Overcoming Voting Barriers Strengthening the Movement A group of young women, impatient with the slow pace of change, adopted some confrontational tactics to push suffrage. Many of these women had received graduate education abroad, held professional jobs, and were influenced by example of the militant British suffrage movement. They were led by Alice Paul, a Philadelphia Quaker who formed the National Woman's Party. Its strategies included picketing, marches, outdoor rallies, and hunger strikes in jail. On the day of Woodrow Wilson's inauguration in 1913, Alice Paul organized a protest of 5,000 women, who marched up Pennsylvania Avenue while 100,000 spectators watched. Protesters crossed the barriers that had been set up along the march's route, heckled the suffragists, and blocked their march. Police refused to come to their aid. Finally, cavalry were called in to allow the march to proceed.
Secret (Australian ) ballot in Massachusetts- 1888
Prior to this, each party would distribute a colored ballot for their party, making it easier to see how someone voted.
More secretive the better, better representatives
Improving Our Representation
Direct primaries allow people, not bosses, to choose who runs for office.
Direct election of Senators would allow people, not state legislatures, to elect people to the “rich man’s club” (Senate).
17 TH AMENDMENT (1913)
More Voting Reform:
initiative -5-8% of voters could start a bill by petition
referendum- bill put on a ballot for voters to pass or defeat
recall- by petition, voters could demand an official to stand for reelection
Gives a voice to the public in
making laws and affecting
Prohibition in America began because people thought that alcohol was the cause of crime and abuse.
Hostility to saloons and their political influence was characteristic of the Progressive Era.
From 1920 to 1933, the "manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes" was prohibited in the United States.
Many social problems have been attributed to the Prohibition era. A profitable, often violent, black market for alcohol flourished. Racketeering happened when powerful gangs corrupted law enforcement agencies. Stronger liquor surged in popularity because its potency made it more profitable to smuggle.
Muckrakers- reform journalists and novelist that wrote articles/works to promote progressive reform. Teddy Roosevelt gave the name-muckrakers.
McClure’s Magazine- “Tweed’s Days in St. Louis” -Lincoln Steffens also wrote… The Shame of the Cities (1904)
Ida Tarbell- History of Standard Oil Company “public enemy”
Frank Norris- The Octopus (1901) RR’s, The Pit (1903) wheat exchange
Theodore Dreiser- The Financier (1912), The Titan (1914), and An American Tragedy (1925).
Painters,Photographers- Jacob Riis
20.3 Taft in the White House
o Roosevelt decides to not run for a third term.
o Promotes the nomination of
William Howard Taft (Secretary of War)
1908- Defeats William Jennings Bryan
Former Solicitor General for the Supreme Court /Federal Judge
Methodical, calculated man. Would rather delay a decision until it is thought out and investigated
Once elected, decides to attack (promised substantial revision)
o Produced long process of little revision Payne-Aldrich tariff was subtle
o Progressives upset at “hoax” of a revision
Gifford Pinchot (Chief of Forest Service) v. Richard Ballinger (Sec. of Interior) dispute about ownership (JP Morgan and Guggenheim) of government coal lands in Alaska. Pinchot fired by Taft!
Roosevelt not happy.
After Payne-Aldrich tariff/ Pichot firing, Progressives call Taft-“tool of the interests”
Become “insurgents” and fight against own party.
In past, Speaker of House (Joseph Cannon) headed the Rules Committee- committee that decides if a bill will be set aside, or pushed to a vote.
Insurgents change “rules” of heading Rules Committee- must be elected by members of House. (no more self-appointed dictator of House)
Mann Elkins Act (1910) extended the power of the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate telephone, telegraph, cable, and wireless companies.
Guess Who’s Back
Roosevelt travels after leaving office.
Returns to US to embark on speaking tour to criticize Taft and support the insurgents of the party. Speaks of a “New Nationalism” that included a return of many reforms:
Woodrow Wilson elected as reform governor of New Jersey
For the presidency, “Battling Bob” LaFollete emerges as insurgent nominee for 1912 election.
Taft’s accomplishments in office:
More civil service jobs
Million acres of Appalachian reserved
Control of underground resources
New Mexico/ Arizona become states- 1912
Sponsored income tax amendment (Sixteenth Amendment, passed 1913)
Taft sends 45 indictments to trusts. (one of them part owned by Roosevelt)
Roosevelt believed the federal government should distinguish between good and bad trusts.
Roosevelt, loving a good fight, joins the race.
Taft runs Republican Convention, Roosevelt loses bid for nomination
Progressives flee angered..
Later, Progressive Party nominates Roosevelt.
Minimum wage for women
Ban child labor
Closer regulation on Interstate Commerce Act
Responding to a question of health, Roosevelt comments “strong as a Bull Moose”- Bull Moose becomes slogan
Election of 1912
Woodrow Wilson emerges as popular Democratic candidate by his moral reform platform as governor of New Jersey.
Election of 1912 becomes:
Woodrow Wilson (D)
Woodrow Wilson (D) v. Roosevelt (Pr) v. Taft (R)
Subtle party differences
Democrats - very low tariffs, Regulate trusts
Republicans - Mild revision of tariffs, Eliminate monopolies
Both : conservation and banking reform
The Four Horsemen of 1912 I ran for president in 1900, 1904, and 1908, so why not? Who am I? Eugene Debs- Socialist Party TR TAFT WW
Comparison of Roosevelt to Wilson
… … … Roosevelt's New Nationalism vs. Wilson's New Freedom ...
Outcome of the election
Roosevelt’s impact on the election
Split the Republican vote, but not enough to defeat Wilson
Taft happy to leave office, sought position on Supreme Court
Harding in 1921 appoints Taft to Chief Justice of Supreme Court
Only man to be President and Chief Justice (1921-1930)
I. Wilson was TR’s opposite
a. College Elite
b. Not an outdoorsman
c. President of Princeton
d. Stiff and distant
Wilson had a wider appeal because he was more moderate than Bryan
a. “Cleanse, reconsider, and restore”
b. No inaugural ball
i. Dedication, serious
c. Set a concern, and get support to act upon it
Personally addresses Congress (not since Wash, Adams)
Not for free trade, but for free opportunity
Enlists the help of expert, Oscar Underwood
Underwood-Simmons Bill 1913
Reduces the tariff 11%
Income tax (for treasury revenue)
No stable reserve for banks if they experienced mass withdrawals
Deposits went to bigger banks, NYC, and then to Wall Street (used in stock exchange)
When a bank need a loan, they would call NYC to get a loan “on-call”
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
12 Districts in the country
Each with a central reserve bank-Banker’s Bank
Ruled by Federal Reserve Board (members appointed by President)
Every national bank must give to support the capital in reserve bank
Perhaps Wilson’s biggest accomplishment
Federal Reserve System
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Prevented on company from taking over stock in another if it created a monopoly
No one could be director of two or more companies when it limits competition.
Set up Federal Trade Commission (Act 1914) set up fair trade rules
Continues to Reform for Re-election
LaFollete’s Seamen’s Act
Federal Farm Loan Act
Child Labor law *
8-Hour Day for RR
Wilson’s first term (1912-1916) followed through with platform, and Progressive reforms.
Section 20.5 Seeking a World Role
Wanted US to be center of world
Referred to himself as “Champion of Peace”
“ Speak softly and carry a big stick”
Developed navy to be world power
Teddy’s Far East
Russians want Manchuria (in China)
Violates Open Door Policy
US befriends Japan, Russia’s rival for China
Russo-Japanese War ended by Roosevelt in 1905
Nobel Peace Prize!
included deal to annex Korea and trade with Manchuria w/out Japanese interference
Root-Takahira Agreement 1908
***Disregard for the independence of other nations upsets some Americans.
Roosevelt sends “Great White Fleet” around the world to impress Japan
Teddy’s Peace Part II
Algeciras Conference of 1906
Arranged by TR to end dispute between France and Germany (over Morrocco)
TR wants to dominate the Caribbean
Canal great for trade
(French have been trying to build a canal in Panama for 20 years, but getting sick with malaria and yellow fever.)
French sell rights to US
US offer Columbia, owner of Panama province, $10 million, and $250,000/yr
Columbia wants $20 mil, and $10 mil from French.
“ If you can’t beat ‘em, plant a revolution!”
“ rebels” aided by US, soon INDEPENDENT PANAMA would sign a treaty with the US for canal construction.
Dr. Gorgas/ Walter Reed discover killing mosquitoes is answer to disease.
1914 Canal Finished (Wilson in office)
Teddy said, “I took the canal zone and let Congress debate…and while the debate goes on, the canal does also”
Under Wilson administration, new treaty with Columbia drawn up.($25 million and regret)
Passes after TR dies, without regret
took debts of Dominican Republic
TR: “chronic wrongdoing or impotence, US would intervene however reluctantly to exercise international police power.”
Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted the right of the United States to intervene in Latin American nations' affairs. In its altered state, the Monroe Doctrine would now consider Latin America as an agency for expanding U.S. commercial interests in the region.
“ Dollar Diplomacy”
using foreign policy to promote business
urged people to invest abroad
Secretary of State, Philander Know
when war breaks out in Nicaragua (1912), Taft sends Marines to protect American business
troops stay until 1925, monitor elections,…
Where’s the sense of democracy, and independence?
“ Moral Diplomacy”
Madero overthrown by General Huerta, who owned 4/5 of the country
Observed globally as president de facto
Wilson asks Huerta to step down, He refuses
Wilson allows arms to be sent to Carraza (rebel)
Incident: Marines arrested, released, apology from Huerta…
BUT, according to customary procedures….Huerta does not fire a salute at the US flag….Uh OH
1914..Wilson asks Congress to use force against Huerta (Mexico)
US troops seized Veracruz to stop a shipment of arms to reach the city.
Mexicans and Carraza revolt against the US
ABC intervention…Argentina, Brazil, Chile
Huerta out in July
Villa one of Carraza’s generals
1916, burns down Columbus, NM
Wilson sends Pershing w/ 15,000 troops... “dead or alive’
Puts Nat’l Guard on border- 150,000
8,000 troops into Mexico
With war beginning in Europe, Wilson says “Why am I chasing this one bandit?”