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Physical exam : Your doctor checks for swollen lymph nodes in your neck, underarms, and groin. Your doctor also checks for a swollen spleen or liver.
Blood tests : The lab does a complete blood count to check the number of white blood cells and other cells and substances.
Chest x-rays : X-ray pictures may show swollen lymph nodes or other signs of disease in your chest.
Biopsy: A biopsy is the only sure way to diagnose Hodgkin lymphoma. Your doctor may remove an entire lymph node (excisional biopsy) or only part of a lymph node (incisional biopsy).
Types of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma: Most people with Hodgkin lymphoma have the classical type.
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a rare type of Hodgkin lymphoma. The abnormal cell is called a popcorn cell. It may be treated differently from the classical type
Or a combination of both
If comes back after treatment may have a stem cell transplantation
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
“ A blood test for an antibody to the AIDS virus. A positive test means that the person has been exposed to the virus. There may be a false-positive reading, and then the Western blot test would be used to verify the results.”
Purpose of ELISA
To determine if a particular protein is present in a sample and if so, how much.
The ELISA is a fundamental tool of clinical immunology, and is used as an initial screen for HIV detection.
Based on the principle of antibody-antibody interaction, this test allows for easy visualization of results and can be completed without the additional concern of radioactive materials use.
An HIV ELISA, sometimes called an HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is the first and most basic test to determine if an individual is positive for a selected pathogen, such as HIV. The test is performed in a 8 cm x 12 cm plastic plate which contains an 8 x 12 matrix of 96 wells
The ELISA Method
Partially purified, inactivated HIV antigens pre-coated onto an ELISA plate
Patient serum which contains antibodies. If the patient is HIV+, then this serum will contain antibodies to HIV, and those antibodies will bind to the HIV antigens on the plate.
Anti-human immunoglobulin coupled to an enzyme. This is the second antibody, and it binds to human antibodies.
Chromogen or substrate which changes color when cleaved by the enzyme attached to the second antibody
Positive Test Negative Test
“Appearance of wheals as art of an allergic reaction.”
Causes of Hives
When you have an allergic reaction to a substance, your body releases histamine and other chemicals into your bloodstream. This causes itching, swelling, and other symptoms. Hives are a common reaction, especially in people with other allergies such as hay fever.
When swelling or welts occur around the face, especially the lips and eyes, it is called angioedema. Swelling from angioedema can also occur around your hands, feet, and throat.
Many substances can trigger hives, including:
Animal dander (especially cats)
Shellfish, fish, nuts, eggs, milk, and other foods
Hives may also develop as a result of:
Extreme cold or sun exposure
Illness (including lupus, other autoimmune diseases, and leukemia
Infections such as mononucleosis
Symptoms of Hives
Swelling of the surface of the skin into red- or skin-colored welts (called wheals) with clearly defined edges
They can also change shape, disappear, and reappear within minutes or hours.
Treatment for Hives
Treatment may not be needed if the hives are mild. They may disappear on their own. To reduce itching and swelling:
Avoid hot baths or showers.
Avoid irritating the area with tight-fitting clothing.
Take antihistamines. Diphenhydramine is considered the most effective.
If your reaction is severe, especially if the swelling involves your throat, you may require an emergency shot of epinephrine (adrenaline) or steroids. Hives in the throat can block your airway, making it difficult to breathe.
Complications with Hives
Anaphylaxis (a life-threatening, whole-body allergic reaction that causes breathing difficulty)
Swelling in the throat can lead to life-threatening airway blockage