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World war i
World war i
World war i
World war i
World war i
World war i
World war i
World war i
World war i
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World war i

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  • 1. WORLD WAR I
  • 2.  There had been relative peace in Europe for 100 years prior to WWI. But……..
  • 3. “The Long Peace ” 1815- 1914 1815- 1914 - Battle of W.W.I. WaterlooThe Napoleonic Wars left 3 W.W.I. would kill 8.5 millionmillion dead
  • 4. Europe in 1914
  • 5. CAUSES Alliances  Like the nation’s buddy system  When one country goes to war then many countries become involved. **Triple Alliance/Central Powers – Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (Changes sides) **Triple Entente/Allied Powers – France, Russia, Britain, Serbia, Belgium and USA
  • 6. 1. The Alliance SystemTriple Entente: Triple Alliance:
  • 7. Two Armed Camps!Allied Powers: Central Powers:
  • 8. Powerful nation-states form in Europe after The French Revolution European states engage in a “ scramble for empire” - frequently threaten war Glorification of war and military influence spreads in all countrieTariff wars strangle free trade and threaten globaleconomy
  • 9. The Major Players: 1914-Allied Powers: 17 Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A- H]
  • 10. Aggressive Nationalism
  • 11. BALKANS Powder Keg of Europe Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia  This infuriated the Serbs Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) is assassinated and Serbia is held responsible.
  • 12. The“Powder Keg” of Europe
  • 13. Europe 1890 Russia isolated, seeks allies Balance of power prevails Great Britain pleasedFrance fears Germany Germany & Austria fear RussiaItaly & Ottoman Empire weakbut strategically located
  • 14. France German EmpireRussian Empire Austria-Hungary ItalyGreat Britain WAR!The Allies The Central Powers France German Empire Russian Empire Austria-HungaryGreat Britain Ottoman Empire Italy Bulgaria SerbiaRomania
  • 15. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
  • 16. Alliances Central Powers • Triple Entente  Germany – France  Austria-Hungary – Great Britain  Italy – Russia
  • 17. Nationalism Nationalism-devotion and loyalty to one’s own nation; patriotism. Proliferated by propaganda. Used to get the masses excited for war.
  • 18. Public Domain
  • 19. France Ferdinand Assassinated France Ferdinand was the Archduke of Austria- Hungary. Assassinated June, 28, 1914. By Serb Nationalist group “Black Hand”. The Spark of WW1. Public Domain
  • 20. Ultimatum After the assassination Austria-Hungary declared an ultimatum on Serbia. Ultimatum says that the Serbian government was responsible for the assassination. Serbia declines this ultimatum; Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia.
  • 21. Declaration of War Austria- Serbia Hungary Germany Russia Germany France Britain Germany *Arrows=Declared war on. *Before American Involvement.
  • 22. WWI BEGINS Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary because they are allied with Serbia (Czar Nicholas does not believe that Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (cousin of the Czarina) will declare war on Russia.
  • 23. Who’s To Blame?
  • 24. WWI BEGINS Germany – supporting Austria Hungary declares war on Russia and France because France is allied with Russia. In order to get to France Germany invades Belgium which causes Britain to declare war on Germany
  • 25. The Schlieffen Plan
  • 26. German Atrocities in Belgium
  • 27. Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism!Its a long way to Tipperary, Its a long way to go; Its a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Its a long, long way to Tipperary, But my hearts right there!
  • 28. Recruitment Posters
  • 29. A Young Australian Recruit
  • 30. Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His MotherAustro-Hungarians
  • 31. New French Recruits
  • 32. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
  • 33. Soldiers Mobilized 14 12 10Millions 8 6 4 2 0 France Germany Russia Britain
  • 34. WOMENAND THEWAREFFORT
  • 35. Financing the War
  • 36. For Recruitment
  • 37. Munitions Workers
  • 38. French Women Factory Workers
  • 39. German Women Factory Workers
  • 40. Working in the Fields
  • 41. A Woman Ambulance Driver
  • 42. Red Cross Nurses
  • 43. Women in the Army Auxiliary
  • 44. Russian Women Soldiers
  • 45. Spies “Mata Hari” Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle German Spy!
  • 46. POSTERS:WARTIMEPROPAGANDA
  • 47. Australian Poster
  • 48. American Poster
  • 49. Financing the War
  • 50. German Poster
  • 51. A Multi-Front War
  • 52. THE WESTERNFRONT: A “WAR OF ATTRITION”
  • 53. WESTERN FRONT 3 year stalemate Trench warfare  Huge casualities  Example – Battle of Verdun – Germans lost 330,000 – took 11 months  By 1916 there were 2 million casualities
  • 54. The Western Front
  • 55. Verdun – February, 1916 German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties.
  • 56. The Somme – July, 1916 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
  • 57. War Is HELL !!
  • 58. Sacrifices in War
  • 59. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  • 60. THEEASTERNFRONT
  • 61. EASTERN FRONT Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks Millions died Germans had to fight on 2 fronts but they began to freeze to death in Russia. Russia Pulls out because of Revolution
  • 62. The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
  • 63. Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
  • 64. T. E. Lawrence& the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  • 65. T. E. Lawrence & PrinceFaisal at Versailles, 1918-19
  • 66. The Tsar with General Brusilov
  • 67. THE“COLONIAL”FRONTS
  • 68. Sikh British Soldiers in India
  • 69. Fighting in Africa Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa] British SikhMountain Gunners
  • 70. Fighting in Africa3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  • 71. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  • 72. COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front. Situation looks grave until Italy and the US join forces with the allies.

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