Quantitative research methodologiesPresentation Transcript
Quantitative Research Methodologies
Experimental Research This is a type of research that deliberately attempts to influence a particular variable and when properly applied is the best type of testing the cause and effect relationships It involves two groups: the experimental group which receives a treatment of some sort and a control group which receives no such treatment
Randomization Subjects are randomly assigned to the various groups in the experimental study Holding variables constant Building the variable in to the design Matching Using subjects as their own controls Using analysis of covariance
Weak experimental design One shot case study One group pre-test, post test design Static group comparison design Static group pretest, post test design
True experimental design Random post test only control group design
Parts of an Experimental Research Purpose/Justification – explains the logic of the research Definition – are the terms clearly defined? Prior research – any previous work done? Hypothesis – how is it stated? Sample – what type of sample is used Instrumentation – is it adquately described Procedures/internal validity – what are the threats evident? Data analysis – are data summarized and reported appropriately? Results – how are they presented Discussion/interpretation – do authors place the study in a broader context?
Single Subject Research This is a type of research in which data are collected and analyzed for only one subject at a time. It is used to study children with handicaps. It would make little sense to form groups of three each in an instance. Threats include: Condition length is arbitrary. The researcher must determine what time data is sufficient; number of variables change from one condition to another
parts Purpose Definition Literature review Sample/subject Method (reward analysis) Experiments General discussion Conclusion Implication
Correlational Research This type of research is carried out for one or two basic purposes. One is to help explain important human behavior or to predict likely outcomes. Here the researcher collects different kinds of data from subjects that might be related to the problem Methods: simple prediction equation (simple graph) Multiple regression (venn diagram)
Causal-Comparative Research In causal-comparative research investigators attempt to determine the cause or consequences of differences that already exist between two groups or individuals. (ex post facto research) Examples 1: Type 1 exploration of effects (dependent variable) What are the differences caused by gender Research hypothesis: females have a greater amount of linguistic abilities than men.
Examples Type 2: exploration of causes (independent variable) Question: What causes individuals to join a gang? Research hypothesis: individuals who are members of gangs have more aggressive personalities than those who are not members of gangs.
Type No. 3 Exploration of the Consequences (dependent variable) of an intervention Question: how do students taught by the inquiry method react to propaganda? Research Hypothesis: stufdents who were taught by the inquiry method are more critical of propaganda than those taught by the lecture method.
Survey Research Survey is used to collect information to describe some aspects or characteristics such as abilities, attitudes, beliefs, and or knowledge of the population of which the group is a part. It is the main way of information is collected by asking questions. Information is collected from a sample rather than from every member of the population.
Kinds of survey Cross sectional survey – the researcher collects information from a sample drawn from a predetermined population. When the entire population is surveyed this is called a census. Longitudinal survey – here information is collected in different points in time to study changes over time. Three designs are commonly used: the survey research, trend studies, cohort studies and panel studies
Trend studies – different samples are taken from a population whose members may change in time. i.e. Attitudes of principals regarding flexible scheduling during certain parts of the year. Cohort studies – samples in a particular population do not change over the course of the survey Panel studies – the researcher surveys the same sample of individuals during the course of the survey. I.e. Status of history instruction; dimensions of effective school leadership
Type of Questions Open-ended questions allow individual responses Closed ended questions – allows limited options. Multiple choice questions allow measurement of opinions and knowledge.
Bad questions Ambiguous – do you spend a lot of time studying? Better: how much time do you spend studying? A) 2 hours b) 4 hours c) 6 hours d) more than 7 hours e) never No focus: who do you think are more satisfied in teaching elementary and secondary schools, men or women Keep the question short: what part of the English curriculum in your opinion is the most important in terms of the development of students in the program? Improved: what part of the district’s English curriculum is the most important? Use common language: what do you think is the principal reason that schools are experiencing absenteeism today? Better: What are the causes why more students are absent this year than previously?