Pagsasara ng gitnang panahonPresentation Transcript
Pagsasara ng GitnangPanahon
Labanan ng Papa at ng HariBoniface VIII• Bilang Supreme Pontiff, mas mataas siya sa lahat ng hari.• Ang kaparian ay walang karapatan na makialam sa mga batas.• Pagbabawal na patawan ng buwis at huliin ang kaparian hangang walang paalam sa Santo Papa.
Avignon Papacy (1309-1376)• Panahon kung saan pitong Santo Papa ang nanirahan sa Avignon.• Nagsimula ang lahat matapos mahalal na Papa ang isang Pranses na si Clement V, noong 1309. Siya ay nanirahan sa Pransya, at inilipat ang pamahalaan ng Simbahan sa Avignon, kung saan ito nanatiling sa susunod na 67 taon. Tinawag itong "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy.” Pitong Papa, lahat Pranses, ang nanirahan sa lampas 70 taon.
• Clement V
• Nagkagulo lahat ng mahalal ang isang Italyano bilang papa si Urban VI. Matapos ang ilang buwan nagiba ang pananaw ng mga kardinal sa kaniya, dahil gusto niya ng Reporma.• Ang Kolehiyo ng mga Kardinal na karamihan ay Pranses ay inihalal si Kardinal Robert mula sa Geneva bilang Papa na kinuha ang pangalang Clement VII, at nanirahan siya sa Avignon.
• Avignon France, Aragon, Castile and León, Cyprus, Burgundy, Savoy, Naples, and Scotland recognized the Avignon claimant;• Rome Denmark, England, Flanders, the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Ireland (English Dominion), Norway, Poland, Sweden, Republic of Venice, and other City States of northern Italy,
• Sa kalaunan ang mga kardinal ng ay nagkasundo nakasundo at isang Konseho sa Pisa ang ipinatawag upang subukan ang paglutas ng pagtatalo, ngunit ito ay dumagdagdag sa problema sa pamamagitan ng pagpili ng isa pang antipope, Alexander V (isang Griyego) pagpanaw niya noong 1410, nahalal si John XXIII.
• Ipinatawag ng Emperador ang Council of Constance upang resolbahin ang problema. Ang Papa sa Roma na si Gregory XII ay nagbitiw noong 1415, samantalang ang dalawa ay pinilit paalisin.• Nahalal si Papa Martin Vi bilang bagong papa. Noong 1417.
The Black Death 1347-1351
Coming out of the East, the Black Deathreached the shores of Italy in the spring of 1347 unleashing a rampage of death across Europe unprecedented in recorded history. By the time the epidemic played itself out three years later, anywhere between one and twothirds of Europes population had fallen victim to the pestilence.
The OriginsUsually thought to have started in China or CentralAsia, it had reached the trade city of Caffa by 1346and from there, black rats carried it onto merchant ships. It then spread throughout the Mediterranean and ravaged Europe.
What Was the Black Death?The Black Death is categorized into three specific types of plague caused by the same bacteria, yersinia pestis:- Bubonic Plague (infection in the lymph nodes, or buboes)- Pneumonic Plague (the infection in the lungs)- Septicemic Plague (the infection in the blood [also the most deadly of the three])
Bubonic PlagueThe bubonic plague was the most commonly seen form during the Black Death. The classic sign of bubonic plague was the appearance of buboes in the groin, the neck and armpits, which oozed black pus and bled.
How Did It Spread? In towns and cities people lived very close together. The filth that littered streets and gave rats the perfect environment to breedand increase their numbers. Having no defense and no understanding to the cause of the pestilence, the men, women and children caught in its onslaught were bewildered, panicked, and finally devastated.
Path of the Plague The plague traveled on trade routes and caravans. Its path of death was generally from south to north and east to west passing throughItaly, France, England, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Finland, and eventually reaching as far as Greenland..
Efforts to Stop the PlagueCities were hardest hit. In crowded cities, it was not uncommon for as much as fifty percent of the population to die.Although governments had medical workers try to prevent the plague, the plague persisted. Most medical workers quit and journeyed away because they feared getting the plague themselves.
Efforts to Stop the PlagueThere were; however, methods that did work. For example, in Milan, city officials immediately walled up houses found tohave the plague. Venice took sophisticated and stringent quarantine and health measures, including isolating all incoming ships on a separate island.
Monks in the Black PlagueMany people also turned to the monasteries where the well educated and always helpful monks would try to care for the sick. This in turn infected monks and they began to die off as well.
The Death TollAt best, it can be estimated that between 1/3 and 2/3 of European population were decimated by the disease. (25-50 million people out of 75 million)
Jews and the Black PlagueBecause Jews were lesssusceptible to the BlackPlague than their neighbors(likely the result of Jewishritual regarding personalhygiene), Jews were accusedof poisoning Christianwells, were thought to be thesource of the plague.
100 Years War • Edward III of England– inaangkin ang trono ng Pransiya. • Ang England ay may mga teritoryo na napapasailalim sa France at kaalayado ang mga taga-Burgundy at Flanders
Phillip IV “the Fair” (king of France) Isabelle King Edward II (king of England) King Edward III (king of England)Edward III =apo ni Philip
No Way! Say French• Naniniwala ang mga Pranses sa Male Primogeniture (oldest son would inherit the entire estate of his parents (or nearest ancestor), and, if there was no male heir, the daughters would take (receive the property) in equal shares.) Dahil ang pag-aangkin ni Edward ay nagmula sa Babae, hindi siya maari maging hari ng mga pranses.
English Victories• Crecy (1346),• Poitiers (1356)• Agincourt (1415)• New Technology – The Longbow
The English Longbow• Long, hand-drawn bow used in medieval Europe• Could easily penetrate a four inch oak door – or the armor of a French knight.• Used successfully at Crecy, Poitiers, and Agincourt.
The Battle of Crecy(How to lose a battle in 3 hours) 1) English (blue) on hill 2) Marshy ground in front of English 3) French send in Italian mercenaries 4) English Longbows cut down Italians 5) Italians retreat 6) French run over Italians to get at British. 7) Marshy ground slows up French 8) Longbows cut down French 9) Repeat the process until French army is destroyed 10) Rebuild army and come back to do the same exact thing 10 years later at Poiters – and again at Agincourt.
Joan of Arc• 1429• The voice of God told sent this 17- year old peasant girl to save France• Meets France’s boy king (the Dauphin)• Given and army• Defeats the English • Battle of Orleans
•Joan is captured by English allies•Joan is tried by the Church as aheretic•Burnt at the stake May 1431
Results of the War• England lost all of its continental possessions, except Calais• French farmland was devastated• $$$• Population declined• Growth of nationalism
More Effects • Power In England moves toward Parliament and away from king • French Kings more powerful • Longbow and Cannon Changed defenses • Beginning of the end of the Feudal System