+ Definitions Colonialism Takingdirect control of an area and turning it into a colony under a nation’s authority Nationalism Belief that an ethnic group should rule itself Belief that one nation is better than all the others
Imperialism+ Practice by which powerful nations, particularly European, and later American and Japanese, seek to extend and maintain political or economic control of one or more weaker countries
+ Imperialism Imperialism New V. Old Motives for Empire Economic Political Ideological Social Darwinism Religious Humanitarian Adventure and Excitement
Source for European Raw Nationalism Materials Missionary Industrial Activity Revolution E u rop e an Markets for M otive s Military Finished & Naval + Goods F or C olonization Bases SocialDarwinism Places to European Dump Racism Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Humanitarian Soc. & Eco. “White Reasons Opportunities Man’s Burden”
Resources and Strategic Areas:Where are the important geographical areas to control?
British Landlords want to make moneyRequire farmers to grow crops they can sell for money – not for food “Cash Crops”
+ Cash Crops. The agricultural products are grown primarily for exporting purposes. Products such as indigo, banana, pineapple, coffee or sugar cane are grown to be exported to developed countries. But what will we eat?
+ Causes of Late 19th Century European Imperialism Culture / Religion Beliefin European / Christian superiority Desire to “spread civilization and Christianity to the heathens” Social Darwinism Prestige Whoever has the most must be the best “He who dies with the most toys wins!”
“The White Man’s Burden” + a concept very popular during the 1800s and into the 1900s that it was the responsibility of white Europeans to bring "proper" European civilization to the nations (mostly brown, black, red or yellow) that did not have it. The underlying thought was that Europeans were correct in their beliefs and it was their duty to bring everyone in the world up as close to the European standards as possible.
+ Not all Europeans were equally as good - the British were the cream of the crop Non-Europeans should accept the gift of European civilization happily Insummary: Europeans were responsible for (had the task or burden of) educating "uncivilized" or "backward" peoples.
+ Social Darwinism Social Darwinists – sounds rather racist. They applied evolution to the social order. Europeans felt they must “save the savages” and “civilize” them Missionaries sought to convert “heathen” unbelievers in faraway lands. “The white man’s burden” – introducing civilization to the “colored” races of the world. Intheir view, war was nature’s way of eliminating the unfit. Using terms such as “survival of the fittest” Social Darwinists insisted that nations and races were engaged in a struggle for survival in which only the fittest survive and deserve to win.
+ Social Darwinism: Lasting Implications It promoted the military build-up that led to World War I. It would become the core doctrine of the Nazi party before World War II. Holocaust and Eugenics Provided a “scientific” and “ethical” justification for genocides in the 20th century.
Common advertisement during Imperialism What is being advertised? Where is this taking place? How can you tell? What is going on? What does it tell us about imperialism / colonialism? Who was the queen at the time?
+ A British Merchants Home in Colonial India
+Britain (United Kingdom)Includes England, Scotland, Wales,Ireland Largest colonial empire “Sun never sets on the British Empire” Colonies established to protect trading interests in Africa and Asia Two kinds of colonies “White” Colonies (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa) Populated mainly by people that moved there from Britain Given self-rule “Non-white” Colonies (India, Africa) Under indirect rule Populated mainly by people who are native to the area Few people from Britain actually live there – but control the government
All the territories the British ever ownedNote: They also had a “sphere of influence” in China as well
+ France Northwest Africa and Southeast Asia Took colonies to make up for loss of Alsace-Lorraine in 1870 Tended to use “Direct Rule” Control all aspects of the colony from Paris.
French Colonial Empire - 1905Ignore these parts
+ Germany Bismarck originally opposed colonial expansion Unnecessary for Germany Did not want to threaten France or Britain Germany eventually took colonies in 1880s for status symbols In Africa and Asia
+ United States Did not get involved in European affairs Became colonial power after 1898 Spanish-American War U.S. gainscontrol of Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines Monroe Doctrine allows US to extend influence into Latin America
American Territorial Expansion after 1898
+ Case Study #1 Imperialism in Africa
+ Scramble for Africa Europe had been interested in Africa for centuries Through the slave trade Much of Africa still unexplored until 1880s European influence restricted to coastline Initially difficult to get to interior due to geography Diseases made exploration difficult. (malaria, yellow fever etc)
Technology Encourages Europeansto explore African interior Steamboats Advances in medicine Quinine – stops malaria Suez Canal
+ Geographical Impact of the Suez Canal, 1869 See why the Suez canal is a 10,000 KM “strategic” location? 16,000 KM
How do you control your empire??
+ European Imperialism in AsiaIndia Britain trading in India since 1600s British East India Co. gradually took over parts of India British government gradually took over India in the 1800s Sepoy Mutiny Indian soldiers revolt against British East India Co Rebellion put down by British army British government takes over control from British East India Co.
Map of Imperialism in Asia
Growth of British Power in India
+ European Imperialism in India Consequences of British Imperialism in India British educational system established Spread of English language Railroads tie India together Rise of Indian middle class
+ European Imperialism in Asia China Potentially huge market Closed to European trade until 1800s Opium War (1840) Britain forces China to open trade to opium Millions of addicts Unequal Treaties (Treaty of Nanking) – China forced open By 1900, China divided into European “spheres of influence” Parts of China under European control Chinese monarchy seriously weakened
+ Reaction to Imperialism Rise of Nationalist Movements India Indian National Congress (1885) Group of middle class Indians begin to demand independence (Mohandas Gandhi) China Boxer Rebellion (1900) Nationalist Party
+ Reaction to ImperialismJapan Long isolated from Western trade U.S. opens Japan to trade in 1854 Meiji Restoration (1868) Faction overthrows Shogun and restores Emperor to power Japan imports Western ideas and technology Ever see ….
+ Reaction to Imperialism Japan adopts imperialism by 1890s Defeats China in 1895 Takes over Taiwan Defeats Russia in 1905 Gains control of Korea Japanese imperialism worries Europeans “Yellow Peril”
+ Conclusion Different reasons for European imperialism during late nineteenth century European imperialism causes reactions in Africa and Asia European imperialism disrupts traditional way of life and continues to affect the world today
+ Nations gaining independence post-WWII
DecolonisationA troublesome experience1. The economic problems they inherited2. The need to find political systems that work for the individual nations.