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  • 1. Chapter Introduction Section 1 Peasants, Trade, and Cities Section 2 Christianity and Medieval Civilization Section 3 The Culture of the High Middle Ages Section 4 The Late Middle AgesChapter SummaryChapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  • 2. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 3. Key EventsAs you read, look for the key events in thehistory of medieval Europe. ⇓• The revival of trade led to the growth of cities and towns, which became important centers for manufacturing. ⇓• The Catholic Church was an important part of people’s lives during the Middle Ages. ⇓• During the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, Europeans experienced many problems including the Black Death, the Hundred Years’ War, and the decline of the Church. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 4. The Impact TodayThe events that occurred during this timeperiod still impact our lives today. ⇓• The revival of trade brought with it a money economy and the emergence of capitalism, which is widespread in the world today. ⇓• Modern universities had their origins in medieval Europe. ⇓• The medieval history of Europe can be seen today in Europe’s great cathedrals. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 5. Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you shouldbe able to: ⇓• describe advances in farming and industry, the manorial system, and the rise of cities. ⇓• explain the dominant role played by the medieval Church. ⇓• list the high points of culture during the High Middle Ages. ⇓• describe the various misfortunes that challenged Europe in the fourteenth century. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 6. Peasants, Trade, and CitiesMain Ideas• New farming practices, the growth of trade, and the rise of cities created a flourishing European society. ⇓• The revival of trade and the development of a money economy offered new opportunities for people. ⇓Key Terms• manor ⇓ • commercial capitalism ⇓• serf ⇓ • guild ⇓• money ⇓ • masterpiece Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 7. Peasants, Trade, and CitiesPeople to Identify• bourgeoisie ⇓• patricians ⇓Places to Locate• Venice ⇓• Flanders Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 8. Peasants, Trade, and CitiesPreview Questions• What changes during the High Middle Ages enabled peasants to grow more food? ⇓• What were the major features of the manorial system? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 9. Peasants, Trade, and CitiesPreview of Events
  • 10. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 11. A serf required the permission of his lordto change his occupation or dispose of hisproperty. A serf could become a freedmanonly through formal emancipation orescape.
  • 12. The New Agriculture• The number of people almost doubled in Europe between 1000 and 1300, from 38 to 74 million people. ⇓• One reason is that increased stability and peace enabled food production to rise dramatically. ⇓• Food production increased also because a climate change improved growing conditions and more land was cleared for cultivation. ⇓• Europe had more farmland in 1200 than it does today. (pages 315–317) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 13. The New Agriculture (cont.)• Technological changes also aided farming. ⇓• Water and wind power began to do jobs once done by humans or animals. ⇓• Also, iron was used to make scythes, axes, hoes, saws, hammers, and nails. ⇓• Most importantly iron was used to make the carruca, a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare pulled by animal teams. (pages 315–317) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 14. The New Agriculture (cont.)• A new horse collar, which distributed the weight throughout the horse’s shoulders, and the horseshoe allowed horses to replace the slow oxen to pull the extremely heavy carruca. ⇓• Using this heavy-wheeled plow led to the growth of farming villages. ⇓• The plow was so expensive that communities bought one plow. ⇓• People also shared animals. ⇓• The shift from a two-field to a three-field system of crop rotation also increased food production. (pages 315–317) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 15. The New Agriculture (cont.)• Earlier, peasants had one part of their field lie fallow and the other was cultivated. ⇓• Now, one part of the field was planted in the fall with grains for a summer harvest, a second part was planted in spring with different grains for a fall harvest, and the third would lie fallow. ⇓• Only one-third of the land now was not being used, and the rotation kept the soil from being exhausted so quickly. (pages 315–317) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 16. The New Agriculture (cont.) Why does crop rotation enrich a field’s soil? Using different crops and letting fields lie fallow allow the soil’s nutrients to be replenished or not be used up so fast. (pages 315–317) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 17. The Manorial System• Medieval landholding nobles were a military elite who needed the leisure to pursue the arts of war. ⇓• Peasants worked the lords’ landed estates on the fiefs of the vassals. ⇓• These estates provided the needed economic support for the nobles. (pages 317–318) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 18. The Manorial System (cont.)• These agricultural estates were called manors. ⇓• Increasing numbers of free peasants became serfs–peasants legally bound to the land. ⇓• Serfs worked the lord’s land, helped maintain the estate, paid rent, and were under the lord’s control. ⇓• By 800, probably 60 percent of western Europeans were serfs. (pages 317–318) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 19. The Manorial System (cont.)• Up to one-half of a manor’s lands typically belonged to the lord. ⇓• Serfs raised food for themselves on the remainder. ⇓• Serfs paid rent by giving a share of what they raised for themselves. ⇓• They also paid to use the lord’s pastures and fishing ponds, and paid for services like having their grain milled into flour. ⇓• The serfs were obligated to tithe to the village church. (pages 317–318) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 20. The Manorial System (cont.)• Lords had a variety of legal rights over their serfs. ⇓• Serfs needed the lord’s permission to marry anyone outside of the manor and to leave the manor. ⇓• Often lords had the right to try peasants in their own courts. (pages 317–318) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 21. The Manorial System (cont.)• Serfs, however, were not slaves. ⇓• Usually, a serf’s land could not be taken away, and serfs’ responsibilities were fixed. ⇓• The lord was obligated to protect his serfs. (pages 317–318) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 22. The Manorial System (cont.) Compare the feudal manor to the plantation of the antebellum South in the United States. (pages 317–318)
  • 23. Daily Life of the Peasantry• European peasant life was simple with little privacy. ⇓• The peasants’ one- or two-room cottages were built with wood frames surrounded by sticks. ⇓• Spaces between the sticks were filled with straw and rubble, and then plastered over with clay. ⇓• Roofs were thatched. ⇓• A central hearth was used for heating and cooking. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 24. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.)• There were few windows and no chimney. ⇓• Smoke escaped out cracks and through the thatch. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 25. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.)• The seasons largely determined peasant life and work. ⇓• Harvest time, August and September, was especially hectic. ⇓• In October, peasants prepared the ground for winter planting. ⇓• November brought the slaughtering of excess animals because usually there was not enough food to keep them alive all winter. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 26. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.)• Meat was preserved with salt. ⇓• February and March brought plowing for spring planting. ⇓• Summer was a time for lighter work on the estates. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 27. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.)• A peasant’s life was not all labor because of the numerous Catholic feast days, or holidays. ⇓• The three great feasts were Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost. ⇓• Other feast days were dedicated to saints or the Virgin Mary. ⇓• More than 50 days a year were essentially holidays. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 28. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.)• The village church was a crucial part of the manorial system. ⇓• The priests taught the basic Christian ideas to enable peasants to achieve salvation. ⇓• However, most priests were peasants who could not read, so just how well the Christian message was communicated to the serfs is not known. ⇓• Probably they saw God as a force to be appeased to help with the harvest. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 29. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.)• Women had a difficult but important role in manorial life. ⇓• They worked the fields and had children. ⇓• Their ability to manage the household could determine if the family survived hard times. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 30. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.)• The peasant’s diet was adequate. ⇓• The staple was bread baked in community ovens. ⇓• The dark, heavy bread was nutritious because it contained wheat, rye, barley, millet, and oats. ⇓• Peasants usually ate meat only on feast days such as Easter and Christmas. ⇓• Peasants raised vegetables and fruit, and made cheese. ⇓• Chickens provided eggs. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 31. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.)• Grains were important also for making ale, the most common drink of the poor in northern Europe. (pages 318–319)
  • 32. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) What do you think is the most fundamental difference between life for the medieval peasant and life for the small farmer in the United States? What is the same? Two possible differences concern the lack of privacy in the medieval peasant cottage and the lack of meat in the medieval diet. A possible similarity is how in both cases people are beholden to the seasons. (pages 318–319) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 33. The Revival of Trade• In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, a revival of trade and the associated growth of towns and cities changed the economic foundation of Europe from being almost exclusively agricultural. ⇓• Italian cities took the lead. ⇓• Venice developed a mercantile fleet and became a major trading center by the end of the tenth century. ⇓• The Italian cities traded mainly in the Mediterranean area. (pages 319–320) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 34. The Revival of Trade (cont.)• The towns of Flanders–the area along the coast of present-day Belgium and northern France–traded in northern Europe. ⇓• These were most known for woolen cloth. ⇓• Flemish towns like Bruges and Ghent became centers for the trade and manufacture of this cloth. (pages 319–320) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 35. The Revival of Trade (cont.)• To encourage exchange between Flanders and Italy, the counts of Champagne in northern France held six trade fairs a year. ⇓• Northern merchants exchanged furs, woolen cloth, tin, and honey for the cloth and swords of northern Italy and the silks, sugar, and spices from the East. (pages 319–320) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 36. The Revival of Trade (cont.)• Demand for gold and silver arose at trading fairs and markets. ⇓• A money economy–an economic system based on money rather than barter–arose. ⇓• Trading companies and banks began to manage the exchange and sale of goods. ⇓• These new practices were part of the rise of commercial capitalism–an economic system in which people invested in trade and goods to make profits. (pages 319–320) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 37. The Revival of Trade (cont.) What are the advantages of a money economy over a barter economy? The chief advantage is that to barter, one must find a person who has what you want and wants what you have, which is quite economically inefficient. (pages 319–320) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 38. The Growth of Cities• Expanding trades led to a revival of cities. ⇓• Merchants began to settle in the old Roman cities. ⇓• Artisans followed. They brought skills to make goods that merchants could sell. (pages 320–321) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 39. The Growth of Cities (cont.)• New cities and towns were founded, especially in northern Europe. ⇓• Typically, a group of merchants built a settlement near a castle for the trade and the lord’s protection. ⇓• If the settlement prospered, walls were built to protect it. ⇓• The merchants and artisans of these cities later came to be called burghers or bourgeoisie, from the German word burg, which means “a walled enclosure.” (pages 320–321) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 40. The Growth of Cities (cont.)• Medieval cities were comparatively small. ⇓• A large trading city would have only about five thousand inhabitants. ⇓• In the late 1200s, London had more than 40,000 people. ⇓• The large Italian cities had more than 80,000 inhabitants. ⇓• Constantinople and the major Arab cities were much larger, however. (pages 320–321) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 41. The Growth of Cities (cont.)• The towns were tied to the lords and land around them. ⇓• Lords wanted to treat the townspeople as vassals or serfs, but the inhabitants saw things differently. ⇓• By 1100, townspeople had the right to buy and sell property, freedom from military service to the lord, and laws guaranteeing their freedom. (pages 320–321) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 42. The Growth of Cities (cont.)• Some towns had the right to govern themselves. ⇓• Over time the cities developed their own governments. ⇓• Only males born in the city or who had lived there a long time were citizens. ⇓• These often elected a city council, who served as judges and local legislators. Elections were carefully rigged to make sure only the patricians, members of the wealthiest and most powerful families, won. (pages 320–321) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 43. The Growth of Cities (cont.) Why do you think elections were rigged to elect the patricians? The elections were rigged so that the interests of the wealthy and powerful were protected. (pages 320–321) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 44. Daily Life in the Medieval City• Medieval towns were surrounded by stone walls, which were expensive. ⇓• Therefore, the space inside was filled tightly. ⇓• Houses were close to one another, and the streets were narrow. (pages 321–322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 45. Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.)• Fire was a great danger because houses were wooden up to the fourteenth century. ⇓• It was also a constant threat because candles and wood fires were used for light and heat. ⇓• Once a fire started, putting it out was difficult. (pages 321–322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 46. Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.)• The physical environment of the towns was unpleasant. ⇓• The cities and towns were dirty and smelled of human and animal waste. ⇓• Air pollution from the ubiquitous wood fires was a problem. ⇓• Blood from slaughtered animals and chemicals from such activities as tanning went into the rivers. ⇓• Cities relied on wells for drinking water. (pages 321–322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 47. Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.)• Medieval cities had private and public baths. ⇓• The great plague closed them in the fourteenth century. (pages 321–322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 48. Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.)• There were many more men than women in medieval cities. ⇓• Women could lead quite independent lives even though they were expected to fulfill the usual roles of taking care of the house and raising children. ⇓• They could lead fairly independent lives because they helped their husbands at their trades and sometimes carried on his trade after his death. (pages 321–322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 49. Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.) What would bother you most about living in a medieval town or city? (pages 321–322)
  • 50. Industry and Guilds• Medieval cities became important manufacturing centers for such goods as cloth, metalwork, shoes, and leather goods. ⇓• Beginning in the eleventh century, craftspeople organized into business associations called guilds. ⇓• They played a leading role in urban economic life. ⇓• Almost every craft had a guild, as did some kinds of merchants. (page 322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 51. Industry and Guilds (cont.)• Craft guilds directed almost every aspect of the production process. ⇓• They set quality standards, specified methods of production, and fixed the prices for the finished products. ⇓• Guilds determined how many people could enter a guild and the procedure for entering. (page 322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 52. Industry and Guilds (cont.)• A person who wanted to learn a trade first became an apprentice to a master craftsperson at around age 10. ⇓• Apprentices received room and board, but no pay. ⇓• After learning for five to seven years, apprentices became journeymen. They worked for wages for other masters. ⇓• To become masters, the journeymen had to produce a masterpiece, a finished product in their craft. (page 322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 53. Industry and Guilds (cont.)• The journeyman was admitted to the guild based on this work. (page 322)
  • 54. Industry and Guilds (cont.) What contemporary institution resembles the medieval guild in some ways? The contemporary union bears a resemblance to the medieval guild. Unions look out for the interests of workers, and many unions have apprenticeship programs. (page 322) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 55. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 1. economic system in whichD A. manor people invest in trade or B. serf goods to make profits C. money__ 2. in medieval Europe, anA economy agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by D. commercial peasants capitalism__ 3. an economic system based E. guildC on money rather than barter__ 4. a business association associated with aE particular trade or craft, which evolved in the twelfth century and came to play a leading role in the economic life of medieval cities Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 56. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 5. in medieval Europe, aB A. manor peasant legally bound to B. serf the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, C. money and be subject to the lord’s economy control D. commercial capitalism E. guild Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 57. Checking for Understanding Explain the process of becoming a master in a guild. What do you think motivated people to participate in and endure this demanding process? The process of becoming a master in a guild includes starting as an apprentice to a master, then becoming a journeyman, then a master. People did this for financial security. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 58. Checking for Understanding List the economic developments of the Middle Ages that allowed for the emergence of commercial capitalism. A money economy, new trading companies, and banking firms allowed for the emergence of commercial capitalism. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 59. Critical Thinking Explain Why were the three-field system and heavy iron plows so important to increased food production? They were important because one- third, rather than one-half, of the land lay fallow, and they allowed more land to be cultivated. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 60. Analyzing Visuals Examine the illustration of peasants working in a field shown on page 319 and the chart shown on page 318 of your textbook. Use the illustration and chart to help you describe the major characteristics of the economic system of manorialism. Manorialism depended on agriculture. The serf’s livestock provided food and clothing for the manor. Excess could be traded or sold. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 61. Close Summarize how the focus of medieval life gradually shifted from the feudal manor to the towns.
  • 62. Christianity and Medieval CivilizationMain Ideas• The Catholic Church played a dominant role in the lives of people during the High Middle Ages. ⇓• Strong leadership by the popes made the Catholic Church a forceful presence in medieval society. ⇓Key Terms• lay investiture ⇓ • heresy ⇓• interdict ⇓ • Inquisition ⇓• sacrament ⇓ • relic Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 63. Christianity and Medieval CivilizationPeople to Identify• Pope Gregory VII ⇓ • Hildegard of Bingen ⇓• Henry IV ⇓ • Saint Francis of• Pope Innocent III ⇓ Assisi ⇓Places to Locate• Papal States ⇓• Assisi Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 64. Christianity and Medieval CivilizationPreview Questions• Why were Church leaders often at odds with the European rulers? ⇓• What role did Christianity play during the Middle Ages? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 65. Christianity and Medieval CivilizationPreview of Events
  • 66. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 67. The term heresy comes from the Greekword hairesis, which simply signifiedholding a particular set of philosophicalopinions. The term heresy took on anegative meaning in Christianity.According to the Catholic Church, aperson is guilty of a material but notformal heresy if he or she does not knowthat he or she is denying a doctrine of theChurch.
  • 68. The Papal Monarchy• The papal control of the Papal States in central Italy kept the popes involved in politics, often at the expense of their spiritual duties. ⇓• The Church became increasingly involved in the feudal system. ⇓• Bishops and abbots came to hold their offices as grants from nobles, and so were vassals. ⇓• These bishops and abbots often cared little about spiritual duties. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 69. The Papal Monarchy (cont.)• By the eleventh century Church leaders realized the need to be free from the interference of lords in the appointment of Church officials. ⇓• Pope Gregory VII decided to fight the practice of lay investiture. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 70. The Papal Monarchy (cont.)• When an individual became a Church official he was given a ring and a staff as symbols of the authority he was invested with. ⇓• Secular, or lay, officials began granting this investiture. ⇓• Pope Gregory VII saw the need to stop this practice. ⇓• Only then could the Church regain its freedom, the sole right to appoint clergy and run its own affairs. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 71. The Papal Monarchy (cont.)• If secular rulers did not accept this, the pope would remove them. ⇓• Gregory VII believed the pope’s authority extended over all rulers. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 72. The Papal Monarchy (cont.)• Gregory VII found himself in conflict with Henry IV, the German king, over his views. ⇓• The German kings had appointed high- ranking Church officials for years and made these officials vassals, to fight the power of the nobles. ⇓• Gregory finally issued a decree forbidding lay investiture. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 73. The Papal Monarchy (cont.)• The struggle between Gregory VII and Henry IV became known as the Investiture Controversy. ⇓• In 1122 a new German king and a new pope reached an agreement called the Concordat of Worms. ⇓• Church officials first elected the German bishop. ⇓• The new bishop then paid homage to the king as his lord, and the king invested him with the symbols of earthly office. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 74. The Papal Monarchy (cont.)• A representative of the pope then invested the bishop with symbols of his spiritual office. (pages 323–325)
  • 75. The Papal Monarchy (cont.)• The twelfth-century popes were most interested in strengthening papal power and building a strong administrative system. ⇓• The Catholic Church reached the height of its political power during the papacy of Pope Innocent III. ⇓• He believed the pope was the supreme judge and ruler of European affairs. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 76. The Papal Monarchy (cont.)• To exercise his power, Innocent III especially used the interdict. ⇓• An interdict forbids a priest to give the sacraments (Christian rites) to a particular group of people. ⇓• People under interdiction lost the comforts and blessing of religion, and so they exerted pressure against their ruler to follow the pope’s wishes. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 77. The Papal Monarchy (cont.) On what basis might Gregory VII and other popes have believed they had authority over secular monarchs? Their argument was that they were the representative of God’s power and authority, and God’s power and authority outweighed human power and authority. (pages 323–325) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 78. New Religious Orders• A wave of religious enthusiasm seized Europe in the first half of the twelfth century and led to a spectacular growth in the number of monasteries and new orders. (pages 325–327)
  • 79. New Religious Orders (cont.)• The most important new order was the Cistercians, founded by a group of disgruntled Benedictine monks in 1098. ⇓• The order spread rapidly throughout Europe. ⇓• Cistercians were strict. They had only one robe and ate a simple diet; their churches and monastic buildings had no decorations. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 80. New Religious Orders (cont.)• Cistercians were more active in the world than Benedictine monks. ⇓• They took their religion to the people outside of the monastery. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 81. New Religious Orders (cont.)• The number of women joining religious houses grew dramatically. ⇓• Most nuns came from the landed aristocracy. ⇓• Female intellectuals like Hildegard of Bingen found convents a haven for their activities. ⇓• Hildegard of Bingen became abbess of a convent, and she was also one of the first women composers. ⇓• She contributed to the genre called Gregorian chant. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 82. New Religious Orders (cont.)• She was also sought out for her advice as a mystic and prophetess. (pages 325–327)
  • 83. New Religious Orders (cont.)• The Franciscans and Dominicans emerged in the thirteenth century. ⇓• Each had a strong impact on the lives of ordinary people. ⇓• Saint Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscans. ⇓• Born into wealth, he had a series of spiritual experiences that led him to abandon material pursuits and preach poverty. ⇓• His simplicity, joy, and love attracted followers. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 84. New Religious Orders (cont.)• Franciscans rejected all property and lived by working and begging for food. ⇓• The Franciscans became popular with the poor, among whom they lived and whom they helped. ⇓• Unlike many other religious orders, the Franciscans lived in the world and undertook missionary work. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 85. New Religious Orders (cont.)• The Spanish priest Dominic de Guzmán founded the Dominicans to defend Church teachings from heresy–the denial of basic Church doctrines. ⇓• People who denied Church doctrines were called heretics. ⇓• Dominic believed that the best way to combat heresy was to have an order of men who lived in poverty and preached effectively. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 86. New Religious Orders (cont.)• The Church’s wish to discover and deal with heretics led to the Inquisition, or Holy Office. ⇓• This court was instituted to try heretics, and it developed a regular way to deal with them. ⇓• Heretics who confessed performed public penance and were punished, for example by flogging. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 87. New Religious Orders (cont.)• From 1252 on, those who did not confess voluntarily were tortured until they confessed. ⇓• Many who did not confess were considered guilty and were executed by the state. ⇓• Relapsed heretics were also subject to execution. ⇓• For Christians of the thirteenth century, using force to save souls was the right thing to do. ⇓• Heresy was a crime against God, and people’s salvation hung in the balance. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 88. New Religious Orders (cont.) Why did most nuns in the High Middle Ages come from the aristocracy? Convents were convenient for families who were unable or unwilling to find husbands for their daughters, for aristocratic women who did not wish to marry and had the option not to, or for widows. (pages 325–327) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 89. Popular Religion in the HighMiddle Ages• The sacraments of the Catholic Church, such as baptism, marriage, and Communion, were very important to ordinary people. ⇓• The sacraments were a means for receiving God’s grace and were necessary for salvation. ⇓• Only clergy could give the sacraments, which made people dependent on the clergy. (pages 327–328) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 90. Popular Religion in the High MiddleAges (cont.)• Venerating saints was also important to ordinary people. ⇓• Saints had a special position in Heaven and could ask for favors before the throne of God. ⇓• The apostles were recognized throughout Europe as saints. ⇓• Local saints such as Saint Nicholas, the patron saint of children and the inspiration for Santa Claus, sprang up. (pages 327–328) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 91. Popular Religion in the High MiddleAges (cont.)• The Virgin Mary was the most highly regarded saint of the High Middle Ages. ⇓• Many European churches in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were dedicated to her. (pages 327–328) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 92. Popular Religion in the High MiddleAges (cont.)• Emphasis on the saints was tied to the use of relics, usually bones of saints or objects connected with the saints. ⇓• They were worshipped because it was believed that they offered a connection between the earthly world and God, they could heal, or they produced other miracles. (pages 327–328) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 93. Popular Religion in the High MiddleAges (cont.)• Medieval Christians also believed that a pilgrimage to a holy shrine produced a spiritual benefit. ⇓• The Holy City of Jerusalem was the greatest such site. ⇓• Rome, with its relics of Saints Peter and Paul, and the Spanish town of Santiago de Compostela, supposedly where the Apostle James is buried, were also important pilgrimage destinations. (pages 327–328) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 94. Popular Religion in the High MiddleAges (cont.) Medieval Christians believed that relics produced miracles, especially of healing. What is a miracle in the religious sense? In the religious sense a miracle is an event that occurs but does not adhere to the laws of the realm of nature. The event’s cause must be divine grace, it is believed. (pages 327–328) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 95. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 1. the denial of basic churchD A. lay investiture doctrines B. interdict__ 2. the practice by which secular C. sacramentsA rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave D. heresy them the symbols of their E. Inquisition office__ 3. Christian ritesC__ 4. a court established by the Catholic Church inE 1232 to discover and try heretics; also called the Holy Office__ 5. a decree by the pope that forbade priests to giveB the sacraments of the church to the people Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 96. Checking for Understanding Explain the use of the interdict. The Interdict deprived people of sacraments and pressured rulers to submit to the pope. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 97. Checking for Understanding List the new religious orders created during the Middle Ages. Cistercian, Franciscan, and Dominican were the new religious orders created during the Middle Ages. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 98. Critical Thinking Explain Why was the Catholic Church such a powerful influence in lay people’s lives during the Middle Ages? The Church and sacraments were essential to salvation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 99. Analyzing Visuals Identify the figures pictured in the cathedral window shown on page 328 of your textbook. What central ideas of the Roman Catholic Church does the window from Chartes illustrate? The window illustrates the mediating role of the Virgin Mary and saints. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 100. Close Discuss the dominant role of the Church in the lives of medieval people. How dominant are the major religions today in people’s lives?
  • 101. The Culture of the High Middle AgesMain Ideas• An intellectual revival led to the formation of universities. ⇓• In the High Middle Ages, new technical innovations made it possible to build Gothic cathedrals, which are one of the great artistic triumphs of this age. ⇓Key Terms• theology ⇓• scholasticism ⇓• vernacular Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 102. The Culture of the High Middle AgesPeople to Identify• Aristotle ⇓• St. Thomas Aquinas ⇓Places to Locate• Bologna ⇓• Paris ⇓• Oxford Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 103. The Culture of the High Middle AgesPreview Questions• What were the major cultural achievements of European civilization in the High Middle Ages? ⇓• What role did theology play in the European intellectual world? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 104. The Culture of the High Middle AgesPreview of Events
  • 105. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 106. The magnificent Gothic cathedral at Reimswas the site of the coronation of Frenchkings. The first Frankish king, Clovis, wascrowned by Saint Rémy, archbishop ofReims, in the town where the cathedral waslater built. From the ninth century it wasclaimed that a dove had descended fromthe heavens with sacred oil for anointingClovis. Miraculously, the oil never dried up,and later kings supposedly were anointedwith it.
  • 107. The Rise of Universities• The modern-day university is a product of the High Middle Ages. ⇓• The word university comes from the Latin universitas, meaning “corporation” or “guild.” ⇓• Medieval universities were guilds that produced educated and trained individuals. (pages 329–330) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 108. The Rise of Universities (cont.)• The first university appeared in Bologna, Italy. ⇓• A great teacher of Roman law named Irnerius attracted students there from all over Europe. ⇓• To protect their rights, students at Bologna formed a guild, which was chartered in 1158. ⇓• The charter gave the guild the right to govern its own affairs. (pages 329–330) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 109. The Rise of Universities (cont.)• The first university in northern Europe was the University of Paris. ⇓• In the second half of the twelfth century, some students left Paris and went to England, founding a university at Oxford. ⇓• There were 80 European universities by 1500. (pages 329–330) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 110. The Rise of Universities (cont.)• Students began their university education with the traditional liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. ⇓• Medieval universities taught through the lecture method. ⇓• Teachers read from the few existing copies of books and added their commentary. ⇓• There were no written exams. To graduate, the student had an oral examination with a committee of teachers. (pages 329–330) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 111. The Rise of Universities (cont.)• The student would receive a bachelor of arts and later might earn a master of arts, if he passed. ⇓• No women attended these universities. ⇓• A student could go on to study law, medicine, or theology–the study of religion and God. ⇓• A student who passed the oral exam in one of these received a doctoral degree. ⇓• Universities provided the teachers, administrators, lawyers, and medical doctors for medieval society. (pages 329–330) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 112. The Rise of Universities (cont.) In 1500, there were 80 universities in all of Europe. Thousands of universities now exist in the United States. What accounts for the difference? Possible answers: A larger population, democratization, and the need to train a large workforce account for the thousands of universities in the United States today. (pages 329–330) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 113. The Development of Scholasticism• Theology was the most highly regarded subject at medieval universities. ⇓• The philosophical and theological system known as scholasticism became very important in the twelfth century. ⇓• The main point of scholasticism was to harmonize Christian teachings with Greek philosophy, especially Aristotle. (pages 330–331) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 114. The Development of Scholasticism (cont.)• The works of Aristotle were introduced to Europe in the twelfth century, largely through the work of Muslim and Jewish scholars. ⇓• Aristotle had arrived at his conclusions through rational thought, however, not faith, and some ideas contradicted Church teachings. (pages 330–331) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 115. The Development of Scholasticism (cont.)• Saint Thomas Aquinas made the most important attempt to reconcile Aristotle with Christianity, or to reconcile the knowledge through Scripture with the knowledge gained through reason and experience. ⇓• Aquinas is best known for his Summa Theologica (a summa was a summary of all knowledge on a given subject). ⇓• This masterpiece was organized by the logical method of investigation used by scholasticism. (pages 330–331) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 116. The Development of Scholasticism (cont.)• Aquinas first posed a question, then cited sources offering opposing opinions on the question, and then reconciled them and arrived at his own conclusions. ⇓• Aquinas believed that the truths of reason and the truths of faith did not contradict. ⇓• Reason and experience could arrive at truths about the physical universe, but reason and experience unaided by faith could not grasp spiritual truths. (pages 330–331) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 117. The Development of Scholasticism (cont.) What was the main goal of scholasticism? The main goal was to harmonize Christian teachings with the works of the Greek philosophers and to show that what was accepted through faith was in harmony with what could be learned through reason and experience. (pages 330–331) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 118. Vernacular Literature andArchitecture• Latin was the universal language of medieval civilization. ⇓• In the twelfth century, new literature was being written in the vernacular–the everyday language of particular regions, such as Spanish or English. ⇓• Educated people at courts and in the cities took an interest in vernacular literature, often as a new source of entertainment. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 119. Vernacular Literature and Architecture(cont.)• The most popular vernacular literature was troubadour poetry, chiefly the product of nobles and knights. ⇓• It told of a knight’s love for a lady who inspired him, usually from afar, to be a braver knight. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 120. Vernacular Literature and Architecture(cont.)• The chanson de geste, or heroic epic, was another type of vernacular literature. ⇓• The earliest and finest example is the Song of Roland, which appeared written in French around 1100. ⇓• Heroic epics describe battles and political contests. ⇓• The epic world was one of combat. ⇓• Women played little or no role in this literature. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 121. Vernacular Literature and Architecture(cont.)• In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, an explosion of building in medieval Europe, especially of churches, took place. ⇓• Initially, these cathedrals were in the Romanesque style, built in the basilica shape favored in the late Roman Empire. ⇓• The Romanesque basilica was topped with a long, round, stone-arched structure called a barrel vault. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 122. Vernacular Literature and Architecture(cont.)• Because stone roofs were so heavy, the churches needed massive pillars and had little space for windows. ⇓• The Romanesque churches, therefore, were dark and resembled fortresses. ⇓• In the twelfth century, a new Gothic style appeared. ⇓• The Gothic cathedral is one of the artistic triumphs of the High Middle Ages. ⇓• Two innovations made it possible. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 123. Vernacular Literature and Architecture(cont.)• One innovation was replacing the barrel vault with ribbed vaults and pointed arches. ⇓• The Gothic cathedrals rose higher, therefore, creating an impression of the building reaching towards God. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 124. Vernacular Literature and Architecture(cont.)• The other innovation was the flying buttress–a heavy, arched, stone support on the outside of the building. ⇓• This distributed the weight of the church’s vaulted ceilings and eliminated the thick, heavy walls of the Romanesque style. ⇓• Since Gothic cathedrals had fairly thin walls, they could have windows, which were filled with magnificent stained glass. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 125. Vernacular Literature and Architecture(cont.)• The windows also created a play of natural light inside the cathedral; natural light was believed to be a symbol of the divine light of God. ⇓• With its soaring towers and light-filled interior, the Gothic cathedral testifies to an age when most people believed in a spiritual world. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 126. Vernacular Literature and Architecture(cont.) Troubadour poetry was the dominant form of love poetry for its time. Where do we principally get something like love poetry in modern culture? Today’s popular music is similar to love poetry. (pages 331–333) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 127. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 1. a medieval philosophical and A. theologyB theological system that tried B. scholasticism to reconcile faith and reason C. vernacular__ 2. the study of religion and GodA__ 3. the language of everydayC speech in a particular region Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 128. Checking for Understanding Explain the origin of universities in Europe. Universities were created as educational guilds to produce educated, trained men. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 129. Checking for Understanding Describe the possibilities open to a student who had completed the liberal arts curriculum at a medieval university in Europe. Students could go on to study law, medicine, or theology. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 130. Critical Thinking Explain How did the architecture of the Gothic cathedral reflect medieval religious values? Pointed arches and ribbed vaults focused upward toward God. Sunlight through stained glass symbolized God’s light. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 131. Analyzing Visuals Examine the image on page 331 of your textbook. What does it convey about the role of the troubadour in European society during the Middle Ages? Troubadours performed for wealthy, private audiences. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 132. Close Discuss how Christian Europeans of the Middle Ages demonstrated their faith and spirituality through their architecture.
  • 133. The Late Middle AgesMain Ideas• Europe in the fourteenth century was challenged by an overwhelming number of disastrous forces. ⇓• European rulers reestablished the centralized power of monarchical governments. ⇓Key Terms• Black Death ⇓ • new monarchies ⇓• anti-Semitism ⇓ • taille• Great Schism ⇓ Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 134. The Late Middle AgesPeople to Identify• Pope Boniface VIII ⇓ • Henry V ⇓• King Philip IV ⇓ • Isabella ⇓• John Hus ⇓ • Ferdinand ⇓Places to Locate• Avignon ⇓ • Agincourt ⇓• Crécy ⇓ • Orléans Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 135. The Late Middle AgesPreview Questions• How did the Black Death impact European society? ⇓• What were the “new monarchies”? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 136. The Late Middle AgesPreview of Events
  • 137. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 138. Some of William Shakespeare’s plays–The Life of King Henry the Fifth, forexample–concern people and placesof the Hundred Years’ War.
  • 139. The Black Death• In the fourteenth century, some catastrophic changes took place in Europe. ⇓• The worst was the Black Death. ⇓• It was the most devastating natural disaster in European history. ⇓• It horrified people and seemed an incomprehensible evil force. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 140. The Black Death (cont.)• Bubonic plague was the most common form of the Black Death. ⇓• Black rats infested with fleas carrying a deadly bacterium spread it. ⇓• Italian merchants brought it from Caffa, on the Black Sea. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 141. The Black Death (cont.)• Usually, the Black Death followed trade routes. ⇓• Between 1347 and 1351, it ravaged most of Europe. ⇓• Possibly as many as 38 million people died in those four years, out of a total population of 75 million. ⇓• The Italian cities were hit hardest, losing 50 to 60 percent of their population. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 142. The Black Death (cont.)• Many people believed the plague was a punishment sent by God for their sins or was caused by the devil. ⇓• The plague led to an outbreak of anti- Semitism–hostility toward Jews. ⇓• Persecution was the worst in Germany. ⇓• Some people thought that the Jews had caused the plague by poisoning their towns’ wells. ⇓• Many Jews fled eastward, especially to Poland, where the king protected them. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 143. The Black Death (cont.)• The death of so many people had strong economic consequences. ⇓• Trade declined. ⇓• The shortage of workers made the price of labor rise. ⇓• The lowered demand for food resulted in falling prices. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 144. The Black Death (cont.)• Landlords were paying more for labor as their incomes from rents declined. ⇓• Some peasants bargained with their lords to pay rent instead of owing services. ⇓• This change in effect freed them from serfdom, which had been declining throughout the High Middle Ages. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 145. The Black Death (cont.) The Black Death caused some people to persecute Jews. Some say that AIDS is a similar epidemic of our time. Has it caused persecution or something comparable? Possible answer: AIDS has not caused widespread persecution like that of the Jews during the Middle Ages, but it has caused widespread discrimination. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 146. The Decline of Church Power• The Roman Catholic popes reached the height of their power in the thirteenth century. ⇓• A series of problems in the next century lessened the Church’s political position. ⇓• European kings grew unwilling to accept the papal claims of supremacy over both religious and secular matters, as the struggle between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France shows. ⇓• Their struggle had serious consequences for the papacy. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 147. The Decline of Church Power (cont.)• Philip claimed he had the right to tax the clergy. ⇓• The pope said that in order to pay taxes, the clergy would need the pope’s consent. ⇓• Philip rejected this position and sent troops to bring Boniface to France for trial. ⇓• The pope escaped but soon died from shock. ⇓• Philip then engineered to have a Frenchman, Clement V, elected pope in 1305. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 148. The Decline of Church Power (cont.)• The new pope established himself at Avignon, not Rome. ⇓• The popes lived there from 1305 to 1377. ⇓• The pope not living in Rome seemed improper, as did the splendor of how the popes lived in Avignon. ⇓• Pope Gregory XI recognized the decline in papal prestige and returned to Rome in 1377. He died soon after his return. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 149. The Decline of Church Power (cont.)• The citizens of Rome told the cardinals to elect an Italian pope or fear for their lives. ⇓• The terrified cardinals elected one–Pope Urban VI. ⇓• Soon a group of French cardinals declared the election invalid and chose a Frenchman as pope. He went to Avignon. ⇓• There now were two popes, beginning what has been called the Great Schism of the Church. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 150. The Decline of Church Power (cont.)• The Great Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417 and divided Europe politically. ⇓• It also damaged the Church. ⇓• Each pope denounced the other as the Antichrist, and people’s faith in the papacy and the Church was shaken. ⇓• At a council in 1417, a new pope acceptable to all parties was elected, ending the Great Schism. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 151. The Decline of Church Power (cont.)• This crisis in the Catholic Church led to cries for an end to the clergy’s corruption and the papacy’s excessive power. ⇓• One protesting group was the Czech reformers led by John Hus. ⇓• He was accused of heresy and burned at the stake in 1415. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 152. The Decline of Church Power (cont.)• By the early 1400s, then, the Church had lost much of its political power. ⇓• The pope no longer could assert supremacy over the state. ⇓• The papacy and Church also lost much of their spiritual authority. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 153. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) How could the French king have engineered the papal election? Possible answer: The king engineered the election through intimidation and through promising rewards like power and position. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 154. The Hundred Years’ War• In addition to economic crises, plague, and the decline of the Church, political instability was also a problem for the late Middle Ages. ⇓• In the thirteenth century, England still had a small possession in France, the duchy of Gascony. ⇓• King Philip VI of France tried to take it back, and King Edward III of England declared war on Philip in 1337. ⇓• Thus began the Hundred Years’ War between England and France. It continued until 1453. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 155. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.)• The war began in an explosion of knightly enthusiasm. ⇓• However, the war was a turning point in the history of warfare because peasant foot soldiers won the chief battles in this war. ⇓• The English foot soldiers were armed not only with pikes, but the deadly longbow, which replaced the formerly favored crossbow. ⇓• The longbow had great striking power, long range, and a rapid rate of fire. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 156. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.)• The war’s first major battle was at Crécy in 1346. ⇓• The arrows of the English archers devastated the French cavalry. ⇓• The English king, Henry V, was eager to conquer all of France even though the English did not have the resources. ⇓• At the Battle of Agincourt (1415), 1,500 French nobles died on the battlefield. ⇓• The English were masters of northern France. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 157. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.)• Joan of Arc, a French peasant woman, stepped in to aid France and the timid ruler of southern France, Charles. ⇓• Joan of Arc was born in 1412. She was deeply religious and experienced visions. ⇓• She believed her favorite saints commanded her to free France. ⇓• In 1429 Joan’s sincerity and simplicity convinced Charles to let her accompany the French army to Orléans. ⇓• Inspired by Joan’s faith, the army captured the city. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 158. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.)• Joan was captured in 1430. ⇓• The Inquisition tried her for witchcraft. ⇓• She was condemned as a heretic and executed. ⇓• Even so, she inspired the French army, which, after defeats of the English at Normandy and Aquitaine, won the war in 1453. ⇓• The French success was also helped by the use of the cannon, made possible by the invention of gunpowder. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 159. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) What weapons significantly changed warfare in the twentieth century, as the longbow once did? Possible answers: The airplane, because of bombing, and the automatic weapon, because of how many rounds it can shoot in a row, significantly changed warfare in the twentieth century. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 160. Political Recovery• The fourteenth-century European monarchies experienced many difficulties over succession and finances. ⇓• The fifteenth century saw a recovery of the centralized power of monarchies, however. ⇓• Some historians refer to these reestablished states as the new monarchies. ⇓• This term applies especially to France, England, and Spain. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 161. Political Recovery (cont.)• The Hundred Years’ War left France exhausted. ⇓• Even so, the kings used the new French national feeling to reestablish royal power. ⇓• King Louis XI, who ruled from 1461 to 1483, greatly advanced the French state. ⇓• He strengthened the use of the taille–an annual direct tax on property or land–as a permanent tax imposed by royal authority. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 162. Political Recovery (cont.)• This gave Louis the income that helped create a strong foundation for the monarchy. (pages 339–340)
  • 163. Political Recovery (cont.)• The Hundred Years’ War also strained England’s economy. ⇓• England faced more turmoil when the civil conflicts known as the War of the Roses broke out. ⇓• Noble factions tried to control the monarchy until 1485, when Henry Tudor (Henry VII) established a new dynasty. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 164. Political Recovery (cont.)• Henry VII tried to establish a strong royal government. ⇓• He abolished the nobles’ private armies. ⇓• He won support for his monarchy by his thrift and by not overtaxing the nobles and middle class. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 165. Political Recovery (cont.)• A strong national monarchy also emerged in Spain. ⇓• Muslims had conquered much of Spain by 725. ⇓• During the Middle Ages, several Christian rulers had tried to win back Spain. ⇓• Two of the strongest kingdoms were Aragon and Castile. ⇓• When Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469, it was a big step towards unifying power in Spain. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 166. Political Recovery (cont.)• The two rulers also had a policy of adhering strictly to Catholicism. ⇓• In 1492, they expelled all Jews from Spain. ⇓• Muslims were “encouraged” to convert to Catholicism. ⇓• Within a few years, all professed Muslims were also expelled from Spain. ⇓• To be Spanish was to be Catholic. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 167. Political Recovery (cont.)• The Holy Roman Empire did not develop a strong monarchical authority. ⇓• After 1438, the Hapsburg dynasty held the position of Holy Roman emperor. ⇓• By the mid-fifteenth century, these wealthy rulers were playing an important role in Europe. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 168. Political Recovery (cont.)• Religious differences made it hard for rulers in eastern Europe to unify their states. ⇓• In Poland, the nobles established the right to elect their king, which weakened the monarchy. ⇓• Since the thirteenth century, Russia had been under the control of the Mongols. ⇓• Gradually the princes of Moscow gained power by using their relation with the khan to increase their wealth and landholdings. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 169. Political Recovery (cont.)• The great prince Ivan III established a new Russian state. ⇓• By 1480, he had thrown off the yoke of the Mongols. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 170. Political Recovery (cont.) Which religions were so much at odds with each other in eastern Europe that a strong monarchy did not develop in the area? The three principal religions were Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Islam. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 171. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 1. hostility toward orB A. Black Death discrimination against Jews B. anti-Semitism__ 2. an annual direct tax, usually C. Great SchismE on land or property, that provided a regular source D. new monarchy of income for the French E. taille monarchy__ 3. in the fifteenth century, government in whichD power had been centralized under a king__ 4. a form of bubonic plague, spread by fleas carriedA by rats Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 172. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 5. a split in the CatholicC A. Black Death Church that lasted from B. anti-Semitism 1378 to 1418, during which time there were rival popes C. Great Schism in Rome and in the French D. new monarchies city of Avignon; France and its allies supported the pope E. taille in Avignon, while France’s enemy England and its allies supported the pope in Rome Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 173. Checking for Understanding Describe the origins of the Hundred Years’ War. Philip VI of France seized Gascony. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 174. Checking for Understanding List the religious groups in conflict in eastern Europe. Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, and Muslims were in conflict in eastern Europe. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 175. Critical Thinking Analyze What were the economic and social results of the Black Death in Europe? Economic results of the black death were loss of labor, a decline in trade, falling prices, and a decline of rent income. Social results included anti- Semitism and the decline of serfdom. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 176. Analyzing Visuals Identify the two armies pictured in the illustration on page 338 of your textbook. How can you tell the two armies apart? What details did the artist include to describe the outcome or significance of the battle? The French army is on the left with crossbows, and the English army is on the right with longbows. The artist included images of fallen warriors, and weapons. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 177. Close Discuss some of the consequences of the Black Death, especially the destruction of the stable social order and the end of the feudal state.
  • 178. Chapter SummaryThe Middle Ages was a period marked bycultural diffusion, innovation, and conflict.
  • 179. Using Key TermsInsert the key term that best completes each of the followingsentences.1. Governments that attempted to reestablish centralized power were called _______________. new monarchies2. Craftspeople began to organize themselves into guilds business organizations called _______________ in the twelfth century. relic3. A _______________ was an object that provided a link between the earthly world and God.4. The religious court whose job it was to find and try Inquisition heretics was called the _______________.5. The language of a particular region is called the vernacular _______________. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 180. Reviewing Key Facts History How did the Great Schism divide Europe? France and its allies supported the pope in Avignon, while England and its allies supported the pope in Rome. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 181. Reviewing Key Facts Culture What was the role of women in medieval cities? Women supervised the household, raised the children, managed the family’s finances, and helped or took over their husbands’ trade. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 182. Reviewing Key Facts Science and Technology Why was the longbow superior to the crossbow? The longbow had greater power, range, and speed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 183. Reviewing Key Facts Government What steps helped Spain to become a strong centralized monarchy? The marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile was a step toward the reunification of Spain. They worked to strengthen royal control of the government and pursued a policy of conformity to Catholicism. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 184. Reviewing Key Facts Geography What impact did geographic factors have on the population of the High Middle Ages? Climate change led to increased food supply and population growth. Farmland expanded as trees were cut and swamps were drained. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 185. Critical Thinking Analyzing What forces led to Europe’s economic growth during the Middle Ages? The development of a money economy, improved agriculture methods, and increased trade led to Europe’s economic growth. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 186. Critical Thinking Evaluating How did the continual conflict between England and France strengthen the monarchies of those two countries? In France, animosity toward a common enemy reestablished royal power. In England, civil conflict led to a strong Tudor dynasty. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 187. Analyzing Maps and ChartsStudy the chart below and answer the questions on thefollowing slides.
  • 188. Analyzing Maps and Charts Select an event or invention from each category on the chart. What was the effect of that event or invention? Items in the first category led to population increase. Items in the second category led to growth of cities. Items in the third category led to the decline of the feudal system. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 189. Analyzing Maps and Charts How did farming practices affect population? As a result of farming practices, there was a greater food supply, so population grew. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 190. Standardized Test PracticeDirections: Choose the best answer to the following question.What effect did the Black Death have on Europe?F The plague resulted in an increase in the number ofuniversities and the rise of scholasticism.G The plague led to an acute labor shortage that resulted inhigher wages and the emancipation of many serfs.H The plague inspired new ideas about faith that led to theformation of the Cistercian, Franciscan, and Dominicanorders.J The plague sparked the Hundred Years’ War betweenFrance and England.Test-Taking Tip Although these questions mostly ask you aboutwhat you’ve learned in class, using common sense can help youarrive at the correct answers too. For example, to answer thisquestion, think about what you know about the Black Death andthen read the answer choices. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 191. Explore online information about the topicsintroduced in this chapter.Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go tothe Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will findinteractive activities, current events information, and Web sitescorrelated with the chapters and units in the textbook. Whenyou finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to thispresentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Website, manually launch your Web browser and go tohttp://wh.glencoe.com
  • 192. Economics Discuss the economics of theChampagne fairs. Who do you think benefited mostfrom the fairs: the merchants, the buyers, or thetowns and their residents who organized the fairs?
  • 193. Literature Bring a favorite poem to class andcompare its tone and theme with the troubadourpoem written by Jaufré Rudel on page 331 of yourtextbook.
  • 194. Art One of the best sources of information on theHundred Years’ War is the chronicle written byJean Froissart of Valenciennes, from which thisfourteenth-century illustration is taken. Notice thatthe picture on page 338 of your textbook showsEnglish soldiers wielding their longbows againstFrench crossbows. Notice also the chaotic violenceof this scene.
  • 195. Universities Although modern universities had theirorigins in medieval Europe, Arabs foundeduniversities nearly 200 years earlier. The Fatimidsfounded Cairo’s al-Azhar University in 970. Itremains the world’s chief center of Islamic andArabic learning.
  • 196. The longbow was as tall as the man who carried it.He would draw it by stooping over the bow parallelto the ground and then straighten up, using his legand back muscles. The arrow was drawn to the ear.Bowmen could drive a thirty-inch shaft tipped with adagger through three inches of oak. In battle, thearrow storm was reported to darken the sky.
  • 197. Book of HoursTrade Fairs Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 198. Book of Hours One of the most famous works ofthe Middle Ages, the Très Riches Heures du Duc deBerry (Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry), is abook of hours, or devotional prayer book. It includesa beautiful painting for each of the twelve months ofthe year.
  • 199. Trade Fairs Fairs served as centers of trade inmedieval Europe, attracting merchants from allover the continent. There were four major fairseasons per year: one in the winter, one at Easter,one in midsummer, and one in October.
  • 200. Hildegard of BingenGiotto Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 201. Hildegard of Bingen For women like Hildegard ofBingen, entering a convent was the only means ofacquiring an education and pursuing a life as awriter. Hildegard composed musical plays and wrotetreatises on natural history and medicine. Herinfluence extended to advising bishops, popes, andkings. Compare Hildegard’s story with that of SorJuana Inés de la Cruz, who joined a convent inMexico when she was refused university admissionin the seventeenth century.
  • 202. Giotto Florentine painter Giotto (c.1266–c.1337)painted a series of frescoes based on the life ofSaint Francis of Assisi. The frescos are in thecathedral at Assisi, Italy. In September 1997, asevere earthquake damaged the cathedral andsome of the frescoes. The one on page 326 ofyour textbook is called “Preaching to the Birds.”
  • 203. Not until the early 1900s were rats carrying bacteria-infected fleas identified as the carriers of bubonicplague. Today, knowledge of disease prevention andthe development of vaccines have largely isolatedplague outbreaks and reduced their devastatingimpact on societies.
  • 204. Analyzing Historical MapsWhy Learn This Skill?What changes have you noticed in your town the past fewyears? Has the corner bank been replaced by an ethnicrestaurant? Would a map of your town that was drawn todaylook different from one drawn 15 years ago? ⇓Changes take place on a larger scale across nations andcontinents. Wars, economic troubles, and natural disasterschange borders and landscapes; once-powerful nationscrumble; displaced people move from one country to another,taking their language and their culture with them. Thesepolitical, social, and cultural changes can be clearly tracedand interpreted through the use of historical maps. This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 205. Analyzing Historical MapsLearning the SkillFollow the steps below to learn how to analyze a historicalmap. ⇓• Read the title of the map to identify its theme. ⇓• Read the map’s key, labels, and captions to determine what time periods and changes appear on the map. ⇓• Identify the chronology or order of events on the map. Many historical maps show changes over time. For example, a map may use colors to show land acquisitions of different rulers over a period of time. On the map of France on page 334 of your textbook, however, the colors represent areas controlled by different rulers at the same time. This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 206. Analyzing Historical MapsLearning the Skill• To compare historical maps of the same region in different time periods, first identify the geographic location and time period of each map. Identify the features that have remained the same and those that have changed. For example, has the country’s size changed over time? ⇓• After analyzing a map, draw conclusions about the causes and effects of the changes it shows. This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 207. Analyzing Historical MapsPracticing the SkillAnalyze the map on theright and answer thequestions on the followingslides. This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook.
  • 208. Analyzing Historical MapsPracticing the Skill What geographic region and time period are represented in the map? France in the 1400s is represented in this map. This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 209. Analyzing Historical MapsPracticing the Skill What information is shown in the map’s key and labels? Battles, Burgundian lands, French lands, and English possessions are shown in the map’s key and labels. This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 210. Analyzing Historical MapsPracticing the Skill Find a present-day map of this region to compare with the map on page 334 of your textbook. How has the region changed since the 1400s? Possible answer: Borders and countries have changed. This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 211. Somersaulting was done for entertainment and leisure in medieval London This medieval manuscript page shows a London sceneRead Life in London on page 314 of your textbook.Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 314 of your textbook.
  • 212. What qualities make London such a “happy”place to William Fitz-Stephen?Healthy fresh air, Christianity, strong defenses,its site on the river, and the activities andhonor of its citizens make London such ahappy place. This feature can be found on page 314 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 213. Why do you think Fitz-Stephen fails to mentionLondon’s foul air, overcrowding, epidemics, andfires? This feature can be found on page 314 of your textbook.
  • 214. Click the image on theright to listen to anexcerpt from page 341of your textbook. Readthe information onpage 341 of yourtextbook. Then answerthe questions on thefollowing slides. This feature can be found on page 341 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 215. Who was blamed for causing the Black Death?Were these charges economically motivated?Why or why not?The Jews became the scapegoats in manyareas, blamed for causing the Black Death.Yes, the charges were economically motivated.If the feudal lords had not been in debt to them,the Jews would have been spared. This feature can be found on page 341 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 216. Can you provide examples of discriminationtoday that are similar to what the Jewsexperienced in medieval times? This feature can be found on page 341 of your textbook.
  • 217. Harnessing the Power of Water and Wind Watermills use the power of running water to do work. The watermill was invented as early as the second century B.C. It was not used much in the Roman Empire because the Romans had many slaves and had no need to mechanize. In the High Middle Ages, watermills became easier to build as the use of metals became more common. In 1086, the survey of English land known as the Domesday Book listed about six thousand watermills in England. Read the excerpt on page 316 of your textbook and answer the question on the following slide.This feature can be found on page 316 of your textbook.
  • 218. Comparing How are water and wind power usedtoday?Dams harness water for hydroelectric power,and windmills are used to produce electricity. This feature can be found on page 316 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 219. Chaucer’s EnglandObjectivesAfter viewing “Chaucer’s England,” you should: ⇓• Realize that studying the art and architecture of past ages tells us much about the lives and values of the people who lived in those times. ⇓• Understand that surviving architecture from the Middle Ages attests to the great influence of Christianity in medieval Europe. ⇓• Recognize the value of Chaucers Canterbury Tales as a record of English life in the Middle Ages. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click in the window above to view a preview of the World History video.
  • 220. Chaucer’s EnglandWhat social institution was central to life inmedieval Europe?The Roman Catholic Church was the focalpoint of life in this devout period. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 221. Chaucer’s EnglandWhat is the overall structure of The CanterburyTales?The Canterbury Tales tells about a group ofpeople making a pilgrimage, or a religiousjourney, to visit a shrine. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 222. three-field 600 to avoid wearing450 out the soil Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 223. 1. Mayor, Justice of the Peace; 2. local government, private institutions;3. vocational schools, apprenticeship; 4. printers, publishers Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 224. Most wereadministrators of kings study 4 to 6 years andand princes. pass an oral examination question, sources with opposing opinions, reconciliation, and conclusions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 225. People would not know The clergy werewhom to believe; how People might not corrupt and toocould two or three accept either pope. fond of worldlypopes each be an power and wealth.absolute authority? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 226. End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not RemoveThis slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.