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Gwhchapter09b 110926190153-phpapp01 (1)
Gwhchapter09b 110926190153-phpapp01 (1)
Gwhchapter09b 110926190153-phpapp01 (1)
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  • 1. Chapter Introduction Section 1 Transforming the Roman World Section 2 Feudalism Section 3 The Growth of European Exchange Section 4 The Byzantine Empire and the CrusadesChapter SummaryChapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  • 2. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 3. Key EventsAs you read, look for the key events in thehistory of early Europe and the ByzantineEmpire. ⇓• The new European civilization was formed by the coming together of three major elements: the Germanic tribes, the Roman legacy, and the Christian church. ⇓• The collapse of a central authority in the Carolingian Empire led to feudalism. ⇓• In the 1100s, European monarchs began to build strong states. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 4. Key EventsAs you read, look for the key events in thehistory of early Europe and the ByzantineEmpire.• While a new civilization arose in Europe, the Byzantine Empire created its own unique civilization in the eastern Mediterranean.
  • 5. The Impact TodayThe events that occurred during this timeperiod still impact our lives today. ⇓• Ancient Roman literary works exist today because they were copied by monks. ⇓• The influence of English common law is seen in our American legal system. ⇓• Byzantine architecture inspired building styles in eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 6. Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you shouldbe able to: ⇓• describe the rise of the Germanic and Frankish kingdoms, the influence of Christianity, and of Charlemagne. ⇓• explain invasions and the forces contributing to growth of feudalism. ⇓• explain the Norman Conquest, Magna Carta, French kingdoms, and the growth of Slavic states. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 7. Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you shouldbe able to:• describe the Byzantine Empire and the effects of the Crusades.
  • 8. Transforming the Roman WorldMain Ideas• The new European civilization was formed by the Germanic peoples, the legacy of the Romans, and the Church. ⇓• Charlemagne expanded the Frankish kingdom and created the Carolingian Empire. ⇓Key Terms• wergild ⇓ • monasticism ⇓• ordeal ⇓ • missionary ⇓• bishopric ⇓ • nun ⇓• pope ⇓ • abbess• monk ⇓ Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 9. Transforming the Roman WorldPeople to Identify• Clovis ⇓ • Pepin ⇓• Gregory I ⇓ • Charlemagne ⇓• Saint Benedict ⇓Places to Locate• Pyrenees ⇓• Carolingian Empire Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 10. Transforming the Roman WorldPreview Questions• How did the Germanic peoples impact the new European civilization? ⇓• What was the role of the Church in the growth of European civilization? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 11. Transforming the Roman WorldPreview of Events
  • 12. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 13. Although Christians generally rejected theancient Egyptian practice of embalming,considering it to be a pagan custom thatmutilated the corpse, Charlemagne’sembalmed and well-dressed corpse wasplaced in a sitting position in his tomb atAachen, in present-day Germany.
  • 14. The New Germanic Kingdoms• Germanic peoples began moving into Roman territory by the third century. ⇓• The Visigoths occupied Spain and Italy until the Ostrogoths took control of Italy in the fifth century. ⇓• By 500 the Western Roman Empire had become a number of states ruled by German kings. ⇓• Although these kingdoms kept the Roman governmental structure, Germanic warriors dominated the native populations and eventually excluded Romans from holding power. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 15. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.)• The Germanic Angles and Saxons moved into Britain in the fifth century. ⇓• Eventually these people became the Anglo-Saxons. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 16. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.)• The only German kingdom to last long was the Franks. ⇓• Clovis, who converted to Christianity around 500, established the Frankish kingdom. ⇓• Clovis had resisted the pleas of his wife to convert, but during a battle that was going badly he called on Jesus, promising to believe and be baptized if Jesus came to his aid. ⇓• After his plea, the enemy fled and Clovis converted. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 17. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.)• His conversion won Clovis the support of the Roman Catholic Church, as the Christian church in Rome had become known. ⇓• By 510 Clovis had established a Frankish kingdom from the Pyrenees to present- day western Germany. ⇓• Following Frankish custom, after Clovis’s death his sons divided the kingdom among themselves. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 18. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.)• Germans and Romans intermarried and created a new society in which German customs had an important role. ⇓• The extended family was the center of German society. ⇓• They worked the land together and protected each other in violent times. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 19. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.)• The German concept of the family affected crime and punishment, say for murder. ⇓• In the Roman system, as in ours, most crimes are considered offenses against the state, not the person. ⇓• Thus, a court hears evidence and makes a judgment. ⇓• Germanic law, however, was personal. ⇓• One person injuring another often led to a savage blood feud. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 20. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.)• A system using a fine called a wergild (“money for a man”) developed to avoid bloodshed after crimes such as murder. ⇓• The wrongdoer paid the injured party’s family a set amount of money, which varied by social status. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 21. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.)• The ordeal was one Germanic way of determining guilt. ⇓• The practice was based on the belief that the gods would not let an innocent person be punished. ⇓• If the accused was unharmed after a physical trial (ordeal), he or she was presumed innocent. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 22. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) Why do you think the Frankish custom was for a kingdom to be divided among the king’s sons after his death? This practice helped to avoid conflicts over who would rule. All the sons got a piece of the pie. (pages 285–287) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 23. The Role of the Church• Christianity had become the supreme religion of the Roman Empire by the end of the fourth century. ⇓• By this time the church had developed a system of organization. ⇓• Priests headed local communities called parishes. ⇓• A group of parishes was headed by a bishop, whose area of authority was called a bishopric, or diocese. ⇓• Bishoprics were joined under the direction of an archbishop. (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 24. The Role of the Church (cont.)• The bishop of Rome came to claim he was the leader of what was now called the Roman Catholic Church. ⇓• The claim was based on the belief that Jesus gave Peter the keys to Heaven. ⇓• Peter was considered the chief apostle and the first bishop of Rome. ⇓• The bishops that succeeded him in Rome came to be called popes, from the Latin word papa, “father.” (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 25. The Role of the Church (cont.)• Western Christians came to accept the pope as the Church’s leader, but they could not agree on the extent of the pope’s power. ⇓• Pope Gregory I strengthened the power of the papacy. ⇓• He was pope from 590 to 604. ⇓• He took political control of Rome and its surrounding territories, later known as the Papal States. (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 26. The Role of the Church (cont.)• He extended papal authority over the Church in the west and actively converted non-Christians through the monastic movement. (pages 287–288)
  • 27. The Role of the Church (cont.)• A monk is a man who separates himself from worldly, everyday life to dedicate himself entirely to God. ⇓• Monasticism is the practice of living the life of a monk. ⇓• In the sixth century, Saint Benedict founded an order of monks and wrote rules for their practice. (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 28. The Role of the Church (cont.)• Benedict’s rules divided the day into activities, emphasizing prayer and much physical labor to keep the monks busy. ⇓• Idleness was “the enemy of the soul.” ⇓• Prayer was the proper “Work of God.” ⇓• Monks meditated and read privately. ⇓• They prayed together seven times a day. ⇓• All aspects of Benedictine life were communal. (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 29. The Role of the Church (cont.)• An abbot (“father”) ruled each Benedictine monastery. ⇓• Monks were to obey the will of the abbot. Monks took a vow of poverty. ⇓• The monks’ dedication made them the new heroes of Christian civilization. ⇓• They also were the social workers of the community, and monasteries became centers of learning. (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 30. The Role of the Church (cont.)• The monks worked to spread Christianity throughout Europe. ⇓• English and Irish monks were especially enthusiastic missionaries–people sent out to carry a religious message. (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 31. The Role of the Church (cont.)• Women, called nuns, also began to withdraw from the world to dedicate themselves to God. ⇓• Nuns lived in convents headed by abbesses. ⇓• Many of them belonged to royal houses. ⇓• The abbess Hilda founded a monastery in Whitby in 657, where she was responsible for giving learning an important role in the monastery. ⇓• Five future bishops were educated under her direction. (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 32. The Role of the Church (cont.) What did Benedict mean when he said, “Idleness is the enemy of the soul”? Possible answer: Idleness might allow the mind, heart, and desires to wander, making the person more vulnerable to temptation. (pages 287–288) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 33. Charlemagne and theCarolingians• In the 600s and 700s, the Frankish kings lost their power to the chief officers of the king’s household, called mayors of the palace. ⇓• One of these mayors, Pepin, assumed the kingship. ⇓• His son became king after Pepin’s death in 768. (pages 289–290) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 34. Charlemagne and the Carolingians(cont.)• Pepin’s son was Charles the Great, or Charlemagne, one of history’s greatest kings. ⇓• Charlemagne was curious, driven, and intelligent. ⇓• He was a strong warrior and statesman, and a devout Christian. ⇓• Although possibly unable to write, he strongly supported learning. (pages 289–290) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 35. Charlemagne and the Carolingians(cont.)• He ruled from 768 to 814. ⇓• He expanded the Frankish kingdom into what became known as the Carolingian Empire, which covered much of western and central Europe. (pages 289–290) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 36. Charlemagne and the Carolingians(cont.)• Charlemagne’s household staff and counts (German nobles) administered the empire locally. ⇓• To keep the counts in line, Charlemagne established the missi dominici (“messengers of the lord king”), two men sent to make sure the king’s wishes were followed. (pages 289–290) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 37. Charlemagne and the Carolingians(cont.)• Charlemagne’s power and prestige grew. ⇓• In 800, Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans. ⇓• This testifies to the enduring nature of the idea of the Roman Empire. ⇓• The coronation also symbolized the coming together of the Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements that forged European civilization. ⇓• The spiritual leader of western Christendom –the pope–had crowned a Germanic king Roman emperor. (pages 289–290) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 38. Charlemagne and the Carolingians(cont.)• Charlemagne’s desire to promote learning led to what has been called the Carolingian Renaissance (rebirth). ⇓• There was renewed interest in Latin culture and classical works–works of the Greeks and Romans. (pages 289–290) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 39. Charlemagne and the Carolingians(cont.)• Monasteries played an important role in this revival of learning. ⇓• Benedictine monks copied Christian and classical Latin manuscripts in scriptoria, or writing rooms. ⇓• Most of the Roman works we have today exist because Carolingian monks copied them. (pages 289–290) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 40. Charlemagne and the Carolingians(cont.) Compare and contrast Charlemagne’s attempts to create European unity with those of European leaders today and the European Union. Possible answer: Probably the largest point of contrast is that unity now is more economic than in Charlemagne’s day. Also, religious differences are respected or tolerated, and no European state sponsors missionaries. A similarity is the importance of knowledge, now more the exchange and sharing of information rather than classical or religious learning. Also, in Aachen, Germany, the Charlemagne Prize is awarded each year in May for contributions to European unity. (pages 289–290) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 41. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 1. a person sent out to carryD A. wergild a religious message B. bishopric__ 2. “money for a man,” theA C. monk value of a person in money, depending on social status; D. missionary in Germanic society, a fine E. abbess paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed__ 3. a man who separates himself from ordinaryC human society in order to dedicate himself to God; monks live in monasteries headed by abbots Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 42. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 4. the head of a conventE A. wergild__ 5. a group of ChristianB B. bishopric communities, or parishes, C. monk under the authority of a bishop D. missionary E. abbess Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 43. Checking for Understanding Summarize the crucial social bond among the Germanic peoples and one area of its application. Family was a crucial social bond that affected the concept of crime and punishment. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 44. Checking for Understanding List the daily activities of the Benedictine monks. Prayer and manual labor were the daily activities of the Benedictine monks. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 45. Critical Thinking Explain What significance did Charlemagne’s coronation as Roman emperor have to the development of European civilization? Charlemagne’s coronation as Roman emperor symbolized the union of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 46. Analyzing Visuals Examine the painting of Charlemagne shown on page 289 of your textbook. How does this representation reflect Charlemagne’s dual role as emperor and as Christian leader? Charlemagne holds a sword (military leader) and an orb with a cross (spiritual leader). Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 47. Close Discuss the cooperation between religious and political leaders during this period and the spread of Christianity through monastic life.
  • 48. FeudalismMain Ideas• Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims invaded Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries. ⇓• The collapse of central authority in the European world led to a new political system known as feudalism. ⇓Key Terms• feudalism ⇓ • feudal contract ⇓• vassal ⇓ • tournament ⇓• knight ⇓ • chivalry• fief ⇓ Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 49. FeudalismPeople to Identify• Magyars ⇓• Vikings ⇓• Eleanor of Aquitaine ⇓Places to Locate• Hungary ⇓• Normandy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 50. FeudalismPreview Questions• What led to the development of the system of feudalism? ⇓• What was the role of aristocratic women in the Middle Ages? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 51. FeudalismPreview of Events
  • 52. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 53. Feudal relationships were like a pyramid,with the king at the top, the lords in themiddle–each of whom served a lord of thenext higher rank–and peasants at thebottom. A lady, or noblewoman, had fewrights even though she often hadextensive responsibilities running thehousehold and estates.
  • 54. The Invaders• The Carolingian Empire began to fall apart soon after Charlemagne’s death in 814. ⇓• By 844, the empire had been divided into three kingdoms by Charlemagne’s grandsons. ⇓• Invasions also added to the disintegration. (pages 291–292) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 55. The Invaders (cont.)• Muslims invaded southern France, and the Magyars from western Asia settled on the plains of Hungary and invaded western Europe. ⇓• The most far-reaching attacks were from the Norsemen (Northmen) of Scandinavia, also called the Vikings. ⇓• The Germanic people’s love of adventure and the spoils of war probably led them to invade areas of Europe. ⇓• They sacked towns, destroyed churches, and defeated armies. (pages 291–292) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 56. The Invaders (cont.)• The Vikings were superb warriors, sailors, and shipbuilders. ⇓• Their famous ships were long and narrow with carved, arched prows. ⇓• These dragon ships carried about 50 men. ⇓• Their construction allowed sailing up shallow rivers to attack inland. ⇓• By the mid-ninth century, Vikings began to settle areas of Europe. (pages 291–292) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 57. The Invaders (cont.)• The Franks had a policy of settling and Christianizing the Vikings. ⇓• In 911, a Frankish ruler gave a band of Vikings the land that became known as Normandy. (pages 291–292) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 58. The Invaders (cont.) What did the Vikings do long before 1492? Evidence in Canada shows that Vikings were the first Europeans to sail to the Americas, landing about 500 years earlier than Christopher Columbus. The Vikings did not colonize where they landed, however. (pages 291–292) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 59. The Development of Feudalism• Invaders posed a threat to the safety of the people, especially in the absence of a strong central government. ⇓• People began to turn to local landed aristocrats or nobles to protect them. ⇓• This change led to the new political and social system called feudalism. ⇓• It arose between 800 and 900 and thrived for four hundred years. ⇓• Similar systems were found in Japan and among the Aztec. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 60. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)• At the heart of this system was the idea of vassalage. ⇓• It came from Germanic society, where warriors swore an oath to their leader. ⇓• By the eighth century, a man who served a lord militarily was known as a vassal. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 61. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)• The Frankish army initially was made up of foot soldiers in mail (armor made of metal links or plates) armed with swords and horsemen who threw spears. ⇓• In the eighth century, larger horses and the stirrup were introduced. ⇓• Horsemen now wore mail and used long lances as battering rams. ⇓• For the next five hundred years, heavily armored cavalry called knights dominated warfare. ⇓• They had great prestige and formed the backbone of the European aristocracy. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 62. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)• In the Early Middle Ages (500–1000), wealth was based on owning land. ⇓• There was little trade. ⇓• When nobles wanted men to fight for them, the nobles granted the vassal a piece of land that supported the vassal and his family. ⇓• The relationship between lord and vassal was made official by a public act of homage of vassal to the lord. ⇓• Loyalty to one’s lord was feudalism’s chief virtue. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 63. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)• By the ninth century the land the lord granted to a vassal was known as a fief. ⇓• Vassals had political authority in their fiefs. ⇓• The number of separate powerful lords and vassals increased; many different people were now responsible for keeping order. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 64. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)• Feudalism became complicated. ⇓• Kings had vassals who themselves had vassals. ⇓• Feudalism came to be characterized by a set of unwritten rules known as the feudal contract. ⇓• These rules determined the relationship between lord and vassal. ⇓• The major obligation of a vassal was military service, about 40 days a year. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 65. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)• Vassals also were summoned to advise the lord and had financial obligations to the lord on such occasions as the marriage of the lord’s eldest daughter, knighting of his eldest son, or ransoming the lord. ⇓• The lord had responsibilities to the vassal. ⇓• He supported the vassal with a land grant and protected him militarily and in court. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 66. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)• The growing number of castles made visible the growth of the nobility in the High Middle Ages (1000 to 1300). ⇓• They were permanent residences and fortresses. ⇓• Castles had two parts, the motte–a natural or artificially created hill–and the bailey–an open space. ⇓• The castle’s central building, the keep, was built on the motte. ⇓• All were encircled by large stone walls. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 67. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)• The keep included a great hall where the lord held court and received visitors, and people ate and even slept. ⇓• As lords got wealthier, the castles became more complex and ornate. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 68. The Development of Feudalism (cont.)What changes made it possible for heavilyarmored knights to use lances as they did?The larger horses could carry the weightof armored horsemen and stirrups keptthe knights on their horses when theyfought with large lances and used themas battering rams. (pages 292–294) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 69. The Nobility of the Middle Agesand Aristocratic Women• In the Middle Ages, nobles dominated European society. ⇓• The main concern of many was warfare. ⇓• The nobles were kings, dukes, counts, barons, and even bishops and archbishops. ⇓• They formed a wealthy aristocracy, or nobility, with political, economic and social power. ⇓• The institution of knighthood united lords and knights in the aristocracy. (pages 295–296) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 70. The Nobility of the Middle Agesand Aristocratic Women (cont.)• Trained as warriors but with no adult responsibilities, young knights began to hold tournaments in the twelfth century. ⇓• These were contests for knights to show their skills. ⇓• The joust became the main attraction. (pages 295–296) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 71. The Nobility of the Middle Agesand Aristocratic Women (cont.)• In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, under the influence of the Church, an ideal of civilized behavior among the nobility evolved. ⇓• It was called chivalry. ⇓• Knights were to defend the Church and defenseless people, treat captives as honored guests, and fight for glory and not material rewards. (pages 295–296) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 72. The Nobility of the Middle Agesand Aristocratic Women (cont.)• Women could legally hold property, but most women still remained under the control of men–first their fathers, then their husbands. ⇓• The lady of the castle commonly had to manage the often large household, the estate, and the financial accounts. (pages 295–296) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 73. The Nobility of the Middle Agesand Aristocratic Women (cont.)• Feudalism saw many strong women who advised, and sometimes dominated, their husbands. ⇓• One of the most famous was Eleanor of Aquitaine. ⇓• An heiress to the duchy of Aquitaine in southwestern France, at 15 she married King Louis VII of France. (pages 295–296) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 74. The Nobility of the Middle Agesand Aristocratic Women (cont.)• The unhappy marriage was annulled, and only eight weeks later Eleanor married the duke who became Henry II of England. ⇓• They also had a stormy relationship. ⇓• Eleanor spent most of her time in Aquitaine, where she created a brilliant court. ⇓• Two of her eight children became kings of England. (pages 295–296) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 75. The Nobility of the Middle Agesand Aristocratic Women (cont.) Why in the male-dominated society of feudal Europe did noble women often have to manage the households, estates, and financial accounts of their families? The lords were often away at court or at war. (pages 295–296) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 76. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 1. under feudalism, a manB A. feudalism who served a lord in a B. vassal military capacity C. knight__ 2. in the Middle Ages, theE ideal of civilized behavior D. fief that developed among the E. chivalry nobility; it was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold__ 3. under feudalism, a member of the heavilyC armored cavalry__ 4. under feudalism, a grant of land made to aD vassal, who held political authority within it Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 77. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 5. political and social systemA A. feudalism that developed during the B. vassal Middle Ages, when royal governments were no C. knight longer able to defend their D. fief subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return E. chivalry for service Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 78. Checking for Understanding Describe the benefits granted a vassal under feudalism. What was a vassal’s primary obligation to his lord? Land and protection were granted to a vassal under feudalism. The vassal’s primary obligation to his lord was military service. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 79. Checking for Understanding List the invasions that besieged the Carolingian Empire in the ninth and tenth centuries. Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings invaded the Carolingian Empire. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 80. Critical Thinking Summarize What factors helped feudalism develop in western Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries? The collapse of central authority and invasions by Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings helped feudalism develop. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 81. Analyzing Visuals Examine the image shown on page 291 of your textbook. How does this image visually represent the medieval system of feudalism? The lesser lord (kneeling) is paying homage to the greater lord (elevated). The presence of people shows that feudalism was a communal contract. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 82. Close Discuss feudalism.
  • 83. The Growth of European KingdomsMain Ideas• During the High Middle Ages, European monarchs began to extend their power and build strong states. ⇓• The Slavic peoples formed three distinct groups, and they settled in different parts of eastern Europe. ⇓Key Terms• common law ⇓• Magna Carta ⇓• estate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 84. The Growth of European KingdomsPeople to Identify• William of Normandy ⇓ • Philip II Augustus ⇓• Henry II ⇓ • Otto I ⇓• Thomas à Becket ⇓ • Alexander Nevsky ⇓Places to Locate• Paris ⇓• Hungary ⇓• Kiev Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 85. The Growth of European KingdomsPreview Questions• How did centralized monarchies develop in Europe? ⇓• What caused conflicts between popes and monarchs? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 86. The Growth of European KingdomsPreview of Events
  • 87. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 88. Eleanor of Aquitaine helped turn the courtof Poitiers, frequented by the most famoustroubadours of her time, into a center ofpoetry. She was a patron of the twodominant poetic movements of the time:the courtly love tradition and the historical“legends of Brittany.”
  • 89. England in the High Middle Ages• Since King Alfred the Great had united various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the late ninth century, Anglo-Saxon kings had ruled England. (pages 297–299)
  • 90. England in the High Middle Ages(cont.)• In 1066, an army commanded by William of Normandy defeated King Harold of England at the Battle of Hastings. ⇓• William was crowned king of England. ⇓• He gave fiefs to Norman knights, and all nobles had to swear loyalty to him as the ruler of England. ⇓• The French-speaking Normans and the Anglo-Saxon nobility gradually merged into a new English culture. (pages 297–299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 91. England in the High Middle Ages(cont.)• William took the first census in western Europe since Roman times, known as the Domesday Book. ⇓• He also developed the system of taxation and royal courts earlier Anglo-Saxon kings had begun. (pages 297–299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 92. England in the High Middle Ages(cont.)• Henry II, who ruled from 1154 to 1189, enlarged the power of the English monarchy. ⇓• He expanded the royal courts’ powers to cover more criminal and property cases. ⇓• Because royal courts were all over the land, a body of common law–law common to the whole kingdom–began to replace varying local codes. (pages 297–299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 93. England in the High Middle Ages(cont.)• Henry claimed he had the right to punish the clergy in royal courts. ⇓• Thomas à Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, disagreed. ⇓• The angry king expressed his desire to be rid of Becket. ⇓• Four knights took the challenge and killed the archbishop in the cathedral. ⇓• An outraged public caused Henry to back off his struggle with the Church. (pages 297–299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 94. England in the High Middle Ages(cont.)• Resenting the monarchy’s expanding power, many nobles rebelled against King John. ⇓• In 1215 at Runnymede, John was forced to agree to a document of rights called the Magna Carta, or Great Charter. ⇓• The Magna Carta recognized the longstanding feudal idea of mutual rights and obligations between lord and vassal. (pages 297–299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 95. England in the High Middle Ages(cont.)• In the thirteenth century, during the reign of Edward I, the English Parliament emerged. ⇓• Parliament was an important step in developing a representative government. ⇓• Under Edward I it granted taxes and passed laws. ⇓• It was composed of two knights from each county, two people from each town, and all of England’s nobles and bishops. (pages 297–299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 96. England in the High Middle Ages(cont.)• Later, nobles and church lords formed the House of Lords, and knights and townspeople formed the House of Commons. ⇓• These two houses still make up the British Parliament. (pages 297–299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 97. England in the High Middle Ages(cont.) What later political movements did the Magna Carta affect? The Magna Carta was used against the idea that a monarch’s power was absolute. Therefore, it affected all movements that tried to restrict the power of the king, including the American democratic movement for independence from Britain. (pages 297–299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 98. The French Kingdom• The west Frankish lands formed the core of the eventual kingdom of France. ⇓• After the death of the last Carolingian king in 987, the west Frankish nobles chose Hugh Capet as king, establishing the Capetian dynasty of French kings. ⇓• The Capetians had little power. ⇓• Their domain included only the area around Paris. ⇓• Many of the French dukes were more powerful than the Capetian kings. (page 299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 99. The French Kingdom (cont.)• The French monarchy’s power grew under King Philip II Augustus, who ruled from 1180 to 1223. ⇓• Through making war, Philip took back the French territories of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine from the English. ⇓• He thereby greatly increased the income and power of the French monarchy. (page 299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 100. The French Kingdom (cont.)• Capetian rulers after Philip continued to add lands to the royal domain. ⇓• Philip IV, also known as Philip the Fair, greatly expanded the royal bureaucracy. ⇓• He also began the first French parliament, the Estates-General, by meeting with representatives of the three estates (classes): clergy (first estate), nobles (second estate), and townspeople (third estate). (page 299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 101. The French Kingdom (cont.) What group is now sometimes called the Fourth Estate? The group is journalists. (page 299) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 102. The Holy Roman Empire• In the tenth century, powerful Saxon dukes became kings of the eastern Frankish kingdom. ⇓• The best-known was Otto I, who was crowned emperor of the Romans by the pope in return for protecting him. (page 300) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 103. The Holy Roman Empire (cont.)• As leaders of a new Roman Empire, the German kings tried to rule both German and Italian lands. ⇓• Frederick I considered Italy the center of a “holy empire,” hence the name Holy Roman Empire. ⇓• An alliance of northern Italian cities and the pope defeated Frederick’s army in 1176. ⇓• They were afraid he wanted to rule all of Italy. (page 300) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 104. The Holy Roman Empire (cont.)• Frederick II was also unsuccessful in establishing rule over a strong, centralized Italian state. (page 300)
  • 105. The Holy Roman Empire (cont.)• The struggle between popes and emperors had profound effects on the Holy Roman Empire. ⇓• With the emperor gone to war, the German nobles created many independent states. ⇓• The German monarch could not maintain a strong monarchy. (page 300) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 106. The Holy Roman Empire (cont.)• Unlike England and France, neither Italy nor Germany created a national monarchy in the Middle Ages. ⇓• They both consisted of small states and did not unify until the nineteenth century. (page 300) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 107. The Holy Roman Empire (cont.) The French philosopher Voltaire observed ironically that the Holy Roman Empire was not holy, Roman, or an empire. What do you think he meant? He meant that its origin and actions were not holy; it was not Roman because eastern Frankish Saxons headed it; and it was not an empire because the “emperors” never were able to conquer Italy and other former parts of the Roman Empire, as they wished. They did not have the power or lands associated with empire. (page 300) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 108. Central and Eastern Europe andThe Development of Russia• The Slavic peoples of central Europe gradually divided into three groups: western, southern, and eastern Slavs. ⇓• Western Slavs formed the Polish and Bohemian kingdoms. ⇓• German monks had converted the Czechs in Bohemia and the Slavs in Poland to Christianity. ⇓• Non-Slavic Hungary was also converted. ⇓• The Poles, Czechs, and Hungarians accepted western Christianity–the Roman Catholic Church. (pages 300–301) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 109. Central and Eastern Europe and TheDevelopment of Russia (cont.)• The southern and eastern Slavs took a different route. ⇓• Beginning in 863 two Byzantine missionary brothers, Cyril and Methodius, converted the eastern Slavs to Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ⇓• The southern Slavs included the Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians. ⇓• The Croats accepted the Roman Catholic Church, but the other two groups accepted Eastern Orthodoxy. (pages 300–301) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 110. Central and Eastern Europe and TheDevelopment of Russia (cont.)• Accepting Eastern Orthodoxy meant that those people’s cultural life was linked to the Byzantine state. (pages 300–301)
  • 111. Central and Eastern Europe and TheDevelopment of Russia (cont.)• Eastern Slavs had also settled in present- day Ukraine and Russia. ⇓• They encountered Swedish Vikings, who came for plunder and trade. ⇓• The Vikings came to dominate the native peoples, who called the Viking rulers the Rus. ⇓• The name Russia is derived from this term. (pages 300–301) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 112. Central and Eastern Europe and TheDevelopment of Russia (cont.)• The Viking leader Oleg created the Rus principality of Kiev in the tenth century. ⇓• Successors expanded Kiev until it included territory between the Baltic and Black Seas and the Danube and Volga Rivers. ⇓• Through intermarriage, the Vikings were assimilated into the Slavic population. (pages 300–301) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 113. Central and Eastern Europe and TheDevelopment of Russia (cont.)• The growth of Kiev attracted Byzantine missionaries. ⇓• The Rus ruler Vladimir accepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity for himself and his people in 988. ⇓• It became the state religion. ⇓• Civil wars and invasions brought an end to the first Russian state of Kiev in 1169. (pages 300–301) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 114. Central and Eastern Europe and TheDevelopment of Russia (cont.)• In the thirteenth century, Mongols conquered Russia. ⇓• They occupied Russia and required Russian princes to pay them tribute. ⇓• One powerful prince, Alexander Nevsky, defeated an invading German army in 1242. ⇓• The khan, leader of the western Mongols, rewarded Nevsky with the title of grand- prince. ⇓• His descendants became princes of Moscow and then leaders of all Russia. (pages 300–301) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 115. Central and Eastern Europe and TheDevelopment of Russia (cont.) Should religions and churches send missionaries to areas with different faiths, or is doing so a violation of those the missionaries are there to convert? Possible answer: People do not have to accept what the missionaries teach; missionaries can also be part of eradicating an indigenous culture. (pages 300–301) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 116. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 1. one of the three classesC A. common law into which French society B. Magna Carta was divided before the revolution: the clergy C. estate (first), the nobles (second), and the townspeople (third)__ 2. a uniform system of law that developed inA England based on court decisions and on customs and usage rather than on written law codes; replaced law codes that varied from place to place__ 3. the “Great Charter” of rights, which King JohnB was forced to sign by the English nobles at Runnymeade in 1215 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 117. Checking for Understanding Explain what Henry II accomplished when he expanded the power of the royal courts in England. Henry II expanded the king’s power and helped create common law. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 118. Checking for Understanding List the three estates in France. The clergy, the nobles, and the townspeople and peasants were the three estates in France. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 119. Critical Thinking Explain Unified national monarchies did not develop in Germany and Italy as they did in France and England in the High Middle Ages. Why not? While the German kings were in Italy, powerful nobles back home established independent kingdoms. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 120. Analyzing Visuals Examine the photograph of the medieval castle shown on page 294 of your textbook. Identify the major architectural elements that helped inhabitants of the castle to defend themselves against attack. Turrets, moat, and gated windows helped castle inhabitants defend themselves against attack. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 121. Close Discuss the major figures of this section, such as William of Normandy, Henry II, King John, Philip II Augustus, Louis IX, Frederick I and II, and Alexander Nevsky.
  • 122. The Byzantine Empire and theCrusadesMain Ideas• The Byzantine Empire created its own unique civilization in the eastern Mediterranean. ⇓• The Crusades impacted medieval society in both the East and the West. ⇓Key Terms• patriarch ⇓ • Crusades ⇓• schism ⇓ • infidel Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 123. The Byzantine Empire and theCrusadesPeople to Identify• Justinian ⇓ • Saladin ⇓• Saint Bernard of • Pope Innocent III ⇓ Clairvaux ⇓Places to Locate• Constantinople ⇓ • Palestine ⇓• Syria ⇓ • Balkans Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 124. The Byzantine Empire and theCrusadesPreview Questions• What were the major characteristics of the Byzantine Empire? ⇓• What was the impact of the Crusades? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 125. The Byzantine Empire and theCrusadesPreview of Events
  • 126. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 127. In the Middle Ages churches generally tooka very long time to construct, but HagiaSophia was built in the amazingly shortperiod of five years, 10 months, and fourdays.
  • 128. The Reign of Justinian• In the fifth century, as Germanic tribes moved into the western part of the Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire continued to exist. (pages 303–304)
  • 129. The Reign of Justinian (cont.)• Justinian became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527. ⇓• He wanted to restore the full Roman Empire. ⇓• By 552 he almost had, but only three years after his death in 565, the Lombards had conquered much of Italy. ⇓• Other areas were soon lost. (pages 303–304) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 130. The Reign of Justinian (cont.)• Justinian’s most important contribution was his codification of Roman law in The Body of Civil Law. ⇓• It was the basis of imperial law until the Eastern Roman Empire ended in 1453. ⇓• It also became the basis for much of the legal system of Europe. (pages 303–304) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 131. The Reign of Justinian (cont.) Why is having a consistent, basic body of law important to a civilization? Possible answer: Such a body of law provides a basis for the stability and peace necessary for a culture and civilization to flourish. (pages 303–304) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 132. From Eastern Roman Empire toByzantine Empire• Justinian’s conquests left the Eastern Roman Empire in serious trouble: too much territory far from Constantinople to protect, an empty treasury, a population decline due to plague, and renewed threats along its frontiers. ⇓• The most serious challenge was Islam, which created a powerful new unified Arab force that invaded the Eastern Roman Empire. (pages 304–305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 133. From Eastern Roman Empireto Byzantine Empire (cont.)• The empire lost Syria and Palestine after a defeat at Yarmuk in 636. ⇓• In the north, Bulgars defeated the empire’s forces and created a kingdom in the lower Danube Valley. (pages 304–305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 134. From Eastern Roman Empireto Byzantine Empire (cont.)• By the beginning of the eighth century, the much-reduced Eastern Roman Empire consisted only of the eastern Balkans and Asia Minor. ⇓• Historians call this smaller Eastern Roman empire the Byzantine Empire. ⇓• It was its own distinctive civilization and lasted until 1453. (pages 304–305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 135. From Eastern Roman Empireto Byzantine Empire (cont.)• The Byzantine Empire was both Christian and Greek. ⇓• Greek became the empire’s official language, but the empire was built on the Eastern Orthodox Church. ⇓• A great deal of artistic talent went into church building, church ceremonies, and church decoration to honor this Christian faith. (pages 304–305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 136. From Eastern Roman Empireto Byzantine Empire (cont.)• The emperor’s power was absolute because he was seen as chosen by God and crowned in sacred ceremonies. ⇓• He exercised political control over the Eastern Orthodox Church because he appointed the head of the Church, called the patriarch. ⇓• Byzantines believed that God had commanded their state to preserve the true Christian faith. (pages 304–305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 137. From Eastern Roman Empireto Byzantine Empire (cont.) What is the origin of the name Byzantine in Byzantine Empire? The word means an inhabitant of Byzantium, which was the name of the ancient Greek colony that became Constantinople. (pages 304–305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 138. Life in Constantinople• Justinian rebuilt Constantinople in 532 after riots had destroyed much of the city. ⇓• Constantinople was the largest city in Europe during the Middle Ages, with a population estimated in the hundreds of thousands. (page 305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 139. Life in Constantinople (cont.)• Up to the twelfth century Constantinople was Europe’s chief center for trading goods between West and East. ⇓• Europe prized Chinese silk, spices from Southeast Asia, spices, ivory and jewelry from India, wheat and furs from Russia, and honey and flax from the Balkans. ⇓• Justinian smuggled in silkworms from China. ⇓• Silk cloth became the city’s most lucrative product. (page 305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 140. Life in Constantinople (cont.)• Constantinople’s appearance in the Middle Ages is due largely to Justinian’s sixth-century rebuilding program. ⇓• He built an immense palace, hundreds of churches, a Hippodrome, and extensive public works, including immense underground reservoirs for the city’s water supply. (page 305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 141. Life in Constantinople (cont.)• His greatest building was the Hagia Sophia–Church of the Holy Wisdom– completed in 537. ⇓• An enormous dome crowns four large piers. ⇓• The dome seems to float in space. Forty- two windows ring the base, which creates an incredible play of light in the church. ⇓• The light symbolizes the presence of God in the world. (page 305) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 142. Life in Constantinople (cont.) Consider your state capital or Washington, D.C. What building or buildings dominate the city? What are the effects of the architecture, or what does the architecture symbolize? (page 305)
  • 143. New Heights and New Problems• The Byzantine Empire expanded under a new dynasty of emperors, the Macedonians. ⇓• They ruled from 867 to 1081. ⇓• They expanded the empire to include Bulgaria, Cyprus, Crete, and Syria. ⇓• The Macedonians helped the economy by expanding trade with the West, especially of silks and metalworks. ⇓• Constantinople continued to prosper. (pages 305–306) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 144. New Heights and New Problems (cont.)• Incompetent successors to the Macedonian dynasty undid most of its gains. ⇓• Internal struggles for power by military leaders and aristocratic families led to the late eleventh-century political and social disorder in the empire. (pages 305–306) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 145. New Heights and New Problems (cont.)• The Byzantine Empire was also troubled by a growing split between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. ⇓• The Eastern Church would not accept the pope as the head of the Christian faith. ⇓• In 1054 Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other. ⇓• This created a schism, or separation, between these two branches of Christianity. ⇓• The schism has not completely healed even today. (pages 305–306) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 146. New Heights and New Problems (cont.)• The empire was threatened from abroad as well. ⇓• The Seljuk Turks, who moved into Asia Minor, were the greatest threat. ⇓• Asia Minor was the empire’s chief source of food and workers. ⇓• In 1071 a Turkish army defeated Byzantine forces at Manzikert. ⇓• Emperor Alexius I turned to Europe for help. (pages 305–306) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 147. New Heights and New Problems (cont.) Why was silk so highly prized? Possible answers: Silk came from the East, which was exciting and exotic to the European imagination. Silk has a wonderful texture, and owning and wearing silk signified status. (pages 305–306) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 148. The Crusades• From the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, European Christians went on a series of military campaigns to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims, regarded as infidels (nonbelievers). ⇓• These expeditions are known as the Crusades. ⇓• They started when Pope Urban II agreed to Alexius I’s request. ⇓• Among other reasons, the pope wanted to provide papal leadership for a great cause. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 149. The Crusades (cont.)• At the Council of Clermont in 1095, Pope Urban II urged Christians to take up arms in a holy war. ⇓• Warriors from western Europe, especially France, joined up. ⇓• Some were moved by the cause; others were moved by adventure, the prospect of fighting, and an opportunity to gain territory, riches, or even a title. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 150. The Crusades (cont.)• The First Crusade had an army of several thousand cavalry and ten thousand infantry. ⇓• The crusaders went down the Palestinian coast and reached Jerusalem in 1099. ⇓• They took the city and massacred thousand of inhabitants. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 151. The Crusades (cont.)• The victors formed four Latin crusader states, which were surrounded by Muslims. ⇓• These kingdoms depended on supplies from Europe coming through Italian cities. ⇓• Genoa, Pisa, and especially Venice grew rich and powerful. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 152. The Crusades (cont.)• By the 1140s, the Muslims began to strike back. ⇓• When one of the Latin states fell, the monastic leader Saint Bernard of Clairvaux attained the help of King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany in a Second Crusade. ⇓• It failed entirely. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 153. The Crusades (cont.)• In 1187, Jerusalem fell to the Muslims under Saladin. ⇓• Three Christian rulers then agreed to lead a Third Crusade: Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany; Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted) of England; and Philip II Augustus of France. ⇓• The Crusade was not successful. ⇓• Frederick drowned in a local river, Philip went home, and Richard negotiated an agreement with Saladin allowing Christian pilgrims access to Jerusalem. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 154. The Crusades (cont.)• About six years after Saladin’s death in 1193, Pope Innocent III started a Fourth Crusade. ⇓• The Venetian leaders of the Fourth Crusade, however, used this situation to weaken their largest commercial competitor, the Byzantine Empire. ⇓• The crusaders sacked Constantinople in 1204. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 155. The Crusades (cont.)• A Byzantine army recaptured the city in 1261, but the empire was never again a great power. ⇓• The shrunken empire continued for another 190 years until the Ottoman Turks conquered it in 1453. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 156. The Crusades (cont.)• As a final gasp of the Crusades, there were two “children’s crusades.” ⇓• In 1212, a German youth named Nicholas of Cologne brought thousands of children to the pope, saying that God had inspired him to lead the children to the Holy Land. ⇓• The pope sent them home. ⇓• At about the same time, a group of twenty thousand French children sailed for the Holy Land. ⇓• Two ships went down at sea, and the remainder of the children were sold into slavery on reaching North Africa. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 157. The Crusades (cont.)• Historians disagree on the effects of the Crusades. ⇓• Certainly they benefited some Italian cities economically, but the states probably would have grown economically anyway. ⇓• One unhappy effect was that the first widespread European attacks on the Jews began during the Crusades. ⇓• Perhaps the greatest impact of the Crusades was political. ⇓• The eventually helped to break down feudalism, which led to strong nation- states. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 158. The Crusades (cont.) How did the Crusades help break down feudalism? As kings lowered taxes and raised armies, the nobles lost power. Taxing trade with the East also provided kings with new wealth, and they no longer depended on their feudal relationship with vassals for protection. (pages 306–308) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 159. Checking for UnderstandingDefine Match each definition in the left column with theappropriate term in the right column.__ 1. the separation between theB A. patriarch two great branches of B. schism Christianity that occurred when the Roman Pope Leo IX and C. Crusades the Byzantine patriarch Michael D. infidel Cerularius excommunicated each other in 1054__ 2. an unbeliever, a term applied to the MuslimsD during the Crusades__ 3. the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church,A originally appointed by the Byzantine emperor__ 4. military expeditions carried out by EuropeanC Christians in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 160. Checking for Understanding Explain how church and state were linked in the Byzantine Empire. The emperor was widely believed to be chosen by God, and he appointed the patriarch. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 161. Checking for Understanding List Justinian’s accomplishments. Justinian restored the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean and codified Roman law. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 162. Critical Thinking Explain Why did cities such as Venice flourish as a result of the Crusades? Trade increased, since supplies from Europe went through the city. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 163. Analyzing Visuals Examine the medieval illustration of one of the battles of the Crusades shown on page 306 of your textbook. How does this visual portrayal of a battle compare to the idealistic goals of the Crusades themselves? The Crusades were conducted in God’s name, but many people died violently. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 164. Close Discuss the positive and negative effects of the Crusades on Western civilization.
  • 165. Chapter SummaryEurope and the Byzantine Empire changedand developed in many ways during theMiddle Ages.
  • 166. Using Key TermsInsert the key term that best completes each of the followingsentences. feudal contract1. The _______________ determined the relationship between a lord and his vassals. Wergild2. _______________ was the amount paid by a wrongdoer to the family of an injured person.3. A series of Christian military expeditions were called Crusades the _______________. patriarch4. The _______________ is the Byzantine counterpart to the pope in Rome. fief5. A _______________ was the grant of land from the lord to a vassal in return for military service. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 167. Reviewing Key Facts Citizenship How did the bond of extended family affect the way Germanic law treated the problem of crime and punishment? Germanic law was personal; crimes were considered family feuds and were handled by a system of determination of guilt and payment for injury. Payment was based on rank in society. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 168. Reviewing Key Facts History What two important functions did monks perform? They were Christian missionaries, and they spread learning. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 169. Reviewing Key Facts Government Name one basic difference between the Roman and Germanic legal systems. In the Roman system, a crime such as murder was considered an offense against society or the state; in Germanic law, such a crime was considered personal, calling for the wrongdoer to pay wergild to the family of the wronged party. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 170. Reviewing Key Facts Government How did Henry II enlarge the power of the English monarchy? Henry II enlarged the power of the English monarch by expanding the power of the royal courts. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 171. Reviewing Key Facts Culture What was the historical context in which the code of chivalry emerged? It was a code of civilized behavior for the nobility that evolved under the influence of the Catholic Church. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 172. Critical Thinking Analyzing What factors helped feudalism to develop in western Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries? Describe the major characteristics of the political system of feudalism. The disintegration of authority in the Carolingian world and invasions of Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings helped feudalism develop. Invaders posed a threat to inhabitants, who sought protection from local nobles. Lords created private armies to provide protection and gave land to vassals in return for an oath of loyalty and military service as knights. Vassals in turn protected the serfs, who worked the land they received from the lords. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 173. Critical Thinking Cause and Effect What caused the schism in Christianity in the eleventh century? Could the split have been prevented? The unwillingness of the Eastern Orthodox Church to accept the pope’s claim that he was the sole head of the Christian faith caused the schism in Christianity. The split probably could not have been prevented, since it was essentially an attempt of the popes to assert their power over all of Christendom, and there was no room for compromise. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 174. Analyzing Maps and ChartsExamine the map below showing the expansion of Moscowfrom 1300 to 1462 and answer the following questions.
  • 175. Analyzing Maps and Charts By what year had the Volga River been added to Russia’s holdings? By 1425 the Volga River had been added to Russia’s holdings. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 176. Analyzing Maps and Charts What geographic features enabled the princes of Russia to expand their holdings? Rivers enabled Russian princes to expand their holdings. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 177. Analyzing Maps and Charts By 1493 Moscow’s ruler claimed to be “Sovereign of All Russia.” About how far did Moscow’s territory stretch from north to south in 1462? Moscow’s territory stretched approximately 550 miles south. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 178. Standardized Test PracticeDirections: Choose the best answer to the following question.Between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, both England andFranceA defeated Frankish rulers and established autonomouskingdoms.B were rebuilt by Emperor Justinian.C established parliaments to help royal authorities rule.D were accomplished shipbuilders and sailors. Test-Taking Tip Questions that ask about a specific fact can be difficult if you do not know the answer. Increase your chances of choosing the correct answer by looking at each answer choice and thinking about the context in which it was discussed in class and in the textbook. Then, eliminate choices you know are wrong. Finally, ask yourself which remaining choice makes the most sense and select that as your answer. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 179. Explore online information about the topicsintroduced in this chapter.Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go tothe Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will findinteractive activities, current events information, and Web sitescorrelated with the chapters and units in the textbook. Whenyou finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to thispresentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Website, manually launch your Web browser and go tohttp://wh.glencoe.com
  • 180. Economics Although advancements in weaponrymade the knights of Europe more powerful, the costof supplying these soldiers also increased. Explainhow this practice and the taxes placed on peasantswho supported the knights affected the feudaleconomy.
  • 181. Government Explain why a government based onthe administrative ability of the leader’s householdstaff, as was Charlemagne’s, is likely to declineafter his or her death. Compare this personalmethod of choosing government officials with thecivil service examinations that were used in China.
  • 182. EconomicsLiterature Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 183. Economics Explain why Constantinople, thecapital of the Byzantine Empire, was particularlywell located to become a wealthy and powerful city.Do you think the Byzantine Empire could havebeen an important force in history without thewealth generated in Constantinople?
  • 184. Literature Read Sir Walter Scott’s Ivanhoe, whosemain character is a Crusader. Report to the classon the Christian-Jewish interactions described inthe novel.
  • 185. Missionaries Pope Gregory I was so impressedwith the Benedictine Rule that he adopted it tospread Christianity in Europe. In 597, he sentmonks to England to convert the Anglo-Saxons.From England, missionaries carried Christianityto northern Germany. Irish missionaries traveledwidely during the 600s. By the mid 1000s, mostwestern Europeans had become Catholics.
  • 186. Armor Early medieval armor, called chain mail,consisted of small metal rings linked closelytogether. With the development of more deadlyweaponry–crossbows, maces, and axes–heavierprotection was needed. By the 1400s, most knightswore suits of plate armor.
  • 187. Louis IXTrade Routes Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 188. Louis IX advised his son: “[Have] a tender pitifulheart for the poor . . . [and] hold yourself loyaltoward your subjects and your vassals. . . . If a poorman have a quarrel with a rich man, sustain thepoor until the truth is made clear, and when youknow the truth, do justice to them.”
  • 189. Trade Routes Among the most famous of theancient trade routes was the one that went fromScandinavia to the Byzantine Empire. To a largeextent, Kiev and Novgorod, the principal cities ofancient Rus, flourished because they were locatedalong the waterways of this important route.
  • 190. Unlike the United States, the United Kingdom hasno single written constitution. Instead, it is governedaccording to a series of laws and charters. Amongthe oldest of them is the Magna Carta. How has theMagna Carta changed the balance of power ingovernment?
  • 191. Distinguishing Between Fact and OpinionWhy Learn This Skill?Imagine that you are watching two candidates for presidentdebate the merits of the college loan program. One says, “Inmy view, the college loan program must be reformed. Sixtypercent of students do not repay their loans on time.”The other replies, “College costs are skyrocketing, but only30 percent of students default on their loans for more thanone year. I believe we should spend more on this worthyprogram.”How can you tell who or what to believe? You must learn todistinguish fact from opinion in order to effectively evaluateand analyze information acquired from a variety of sourcessuch as books, television, and the Internet. This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook.
  • 192. Distinguishing Between Fact and OpinionLearning the SkillA fact is a statement that can be proved to be true or false. Inthe example above, the statement “Sixty percent of studentsdo not repay their loans on time” is a fact. By reviewingstatistics on the number of student loan recipients who repaytheir loans, we can determine whether it is true or false. Toidentify facts, look for words and phrases indicating specificpeople, places, events, dates, and times. ⇓An opinion, on the other hand, expresses a personal belief,viewpoint, or emotion. Because opinions are subjective, wecannot prove or disprove them. In the opening example,most statements by the candidates are opinions. This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 193. Distinguishing Between Fact and OpinionLearning the SkillOpinions often include qualifying words and phrases such asI think, I believe, probably, seems to be, may, might, could,ought, in my judgment, or in my view. Also, look forexpressions of approval or disapproval such as good, bad,poor, and satisfactory. Be aware of superlatives such asgreatest, worst, finest, and best. Notice words with negativemeanings and implications such as squander, contemptible,and disgrace. Also, identify generalizations such as none,every, always, and never. This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook.
  • 194. Distinguishing Between Fact and OpinionPracticing the SkillFor each pair of statements below, determine which is factand which is opinion. Give a reason for each choice. a The Byzantine Empire came to a pitiful end at the hands of the savage Turks. b The Byzantine Empire ended when Constantine XI died while defending Constantinople in 1453. a opinion; contains words with negative implications (pitiful, savage) b fact; contains facts (specific name, date, and event) This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 195. Distinguishing Between Fact and OpinionPracticing the SkillFor each pair of statements below, determine which is factand which is opinion. Give a reason for each choice. a The alliance with the Byzantine Empire made Kiev a major trading link between Europe and Asia and between Scandinavia and Southwest Asia. b In the 900s, Kiev was the most isolated, uncivilized place and it possessed little in the way of culture. a fact; includes specific names b opinion; contains superlatives (most isolated, uncivilized) and a phrase with negative implications (little in the way of culture) This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 196. Distinguishing Between Fact and OpinionPracticing the SkillFor each pair of statements below, determine which is factand which is opinion. Give a reason for each choice. a The Byzantine culture was more advanced than any other of its day. b Vladimir’s conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy brought Byzantine culture to Kievan Rus. a opinion; includes an expression of personal viewpoint (more advanced than any other) that is not backed up by any specifics b fact; includes specific names This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 197. Read The Crowning of Charlemagne on page284 of your textbook. Then answer the questionson the following slides. This feature can be found on page 284 of your textbook.
  • 198. Why would a strong king like Charlemagneagree to be crowned by the leader of a religionthat appeared to be in decline?He welcomed his new title and stature. This feature can be found on page 284 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 199. Why would the pope agree to crown a king ofRome?The pope wanted to show his gratitude forCharlemagne’s help. This feature can be found on page 284 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 200. Why did the Byzantine Empire provide westernEurope with some safety from invasions from theEast?The Byzantine empire served as a bufferbetween Europe and eastern peoples. This feature can be found on page 284 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 201. Click the image on theright to listen to anexcerpt from page 302of your textbook. Readthe information onpage 302 of yourtextbook. Then answerthe questions on thefollowing slides. This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 202. How did Ibn Fadlan’s impression of the physicalattributes of the Swedish Rus differ from hisimpression of their hygiene?Ibn Fadlan considered the Rus to be perfectphysical specimens, but he also found them tobe “the filthiest of God’s creatures.” This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 203. What does the way in which the Rus handledsickness and death tell you about their culture?The Rus, as described in this excerpt, do notseem to be very compassionate. On the otherhand, the isolation of those who were sick maydemonstrate an understanding of thecommunicable nature of disease in a timewhen there were few cures available. This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 204. Why would the Rus way of dealing with hygieneand death be especially repulsive to a Muslim?Because the Muslims were concerned withcleanliness, the habits of the Rus would havebeen particularly repulsive. This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 205. The Castles of the Aristocrats The growth of the European nobility in the High Middle Ages (1000 to 1300) was made visible by a growing number of castles scattered across the landscape. Castles varied considerably but possessed two common features: they were permanent residences for the noble family, its retainers, and servants, and they were defensible fortifications. Read the excerpt on pages 294– 295 of your textbook and answer the questions on the following slides.This feature can be found on pages 294–295 of your
  • 206. Explaining What architectural and designfeatures supported the two basic functions ofcastles?The keep provided a residence for the noblefamily, retainers, and servants; the moat,walls, gatehouse, and towers provided fordefense. This feature can be found on pages 294–295 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 207. Describing What was the lifestyle of theEuropean nobility in the High Middle Ages?Growing wealth made it possible for them tobuy luxury goods such as jewelry and exoticspices, as well as to build elaborate castleswith rooms that were well furnished andelaborately decorated. This feature can be found on pages 294–295 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 208. Writing about History Does a nobility existtoday? Where?Yes, several countries in Europe andelsewhere still have nobility. Probably thebest-known example is the United Kingdom. This feature can be found on pages 294–295 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 209. Charlemagne and His WorldObjectivesAfter viewing “Charlemagne and His World,” you should: ⇓• Understand that Charlemagne brought Europe out of the Dark Ages and into the medieval period. ⇓• Know that the Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three important renaissance periods in Europe. ⇓• Recognize the importance of Charlemagnes contributions to the Europe that exists today. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click in the window above to view a preview of the World History video.
  • 210. Charlemagne and His WorldAccording to Professor Hodges, whatexperience may have shaped Charlemagnesdesire to reinvent himself as a latter-dayRoman emperor?Traveling the old Roman roads in Italy,Charlemagne may have conceived of anempire based on the Roman model. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 211. Charlemagne and His WorldWhat accomplishments does the CharlemagnePrize honor?The Charlemagne Prize honorsaccomplishments in fostering a Europe basedon shared economic and social values. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 212. MapsEurope, 1160Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 213. MapCarolingian Empire, 768–814ChartCharlemagne, King of the Franks Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 214. MapsCrusades, 1096–1204Children’s Crusade 1212Third Crusade, 1189–1192 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 215. Pepin the Short Charles Martel Many rulers had the same name, so an adjective such as “bald,” or “short” could help people identify them; sometimes numbers were used. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 216. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answers.
  • 217. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answers.
  • 218. the Bosporus straitthe Dardanelles straitspices and jewelry Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • 219. End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not RemoveThis slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

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