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EARTHQUAKE
Earthquakes
Types of earthquake
Tectonic earthquakes
these occur when rocks in the
earth’s crust break due to geological
forces creat...
Collapse earthquakes
are small earthquakes in
underground caverns and mines.
Explosion earthquakes
result from the explo...
Focus and Epicenter
• FOCUS = place deep within the
Earth and along the fault where
rupture occurs
• EPICENTER = geographi...
Seismologists are scientists that study
earthquakes and seismic waves.
Seismic Waves – shock waves of
energy sent out as t...
Seismograms zigzag line made
by a seismograph.
• Amplitude of seismic waves (how much
rock moves or vibrates)
• Distance t...
Types of seismic waves
1. Body waves -- travel through
interior
2. Surface waves -- travel on
surface of earth
Slowest
2 kinds of Body Waves
1.P-waves (Primary waves)
Fastest of the three waves and the first
detected by seismographs.
• Can ...
2. S-waves (Secondary waves)
• Travel slightly slower than P waves
• When they reach Earth’s surface they
cause it to move...
2 types of Surface waves
1.Love waves– that move like S
waves but only horizontally.
2.Rayleigh waves– that move
both hori...
EARTHQUAKE WAVES
P waves move through solids & liquids
S waves move through solids only!!!
EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
• Landsides
• Building damage
• Liquefaction
LIQUEFACTION
• Results in a loss of soil strength & the ability of the soil to
support weight
when a solid (sand and soil)...
EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
Most caused by SURFACE waves (arrive last)
• Foreshocks are small bursts of shaking
that may precede a large earthquake.
• Aftershocks are small tremors that
follow ...
EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY
Modified Mercalli scale= measurement of damage to structures
• From I to XII
(Roman numerals)
• Descr...
EARTHQUAKE WAVES
P waves move through solids & liquids
S waves move through solids only!!!
EARTHQUAKE WAVES
Lets test your understanding!!
Is this a P or an S wave?
P wave!
S Wave
EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY
Modified Mercalli scale= measurement of damage
to structures
• From I to XII
(Roman numerals)
• Descr...
EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE
measures the size of seismic waves 
the energy released by the earthquake
Richter scale=measurement ...
VOLCANOES
VOLCANOES
• An opening in Earth’s surface through
which melted rock, hot gases, rock
fragments, and ash burst forth, or er...
Earthquakes(1)
Earthquakes(1)
Earthquakes(1)
Earthquakes(1)
Earthquakes(1)
Earthquakes(1)
Earthquakes(1)
Earthquakes(1)
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Earthquakes(1)

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Transcript of "Earthquakes(1)"

  1. 1. EARTHQUAKE
  2. 2. Earthquakes
  3. 3. Types of earthquake Tectonic earthquakes these occur when rocks in the earth’s crust break due to geological forces created by the movement of tectonic plates. Volcanic earthquakes occur in conjunction with volcanic activity.
  4. 4. Collapse earthquakes are small earthquakes in underground caverns and mines. Explosion earthquakes result from the explosion of nuclear and chemical devices.
  5. 5. Focus and Epicenter • FOCUS = place deep within the Earth and along the fault where rupture occurs • EPICENTER = geographic point on surface directly above focus
  6. 6. Seismologists are scientists that study earthquakes and seismic waves. Seismic Waves – shock waves of energy sent out as the crust shakes Seismograph is the instrument they use to obtain a record of seismic waves from all over the world.
  7. 7. Seismograms zigzag line made by a seismograph. • Amplitude of seismic waves (how much rock moves or vibrates) • Distance to the epicenter • Earthquake direction
  8. 8. Types of seismic waves 1. Body waves -- travel through interior 2. Surface waves -- travel on surface of earth Slowest
  9. 9. 2 kinds of Body Waves 1.P-waves (Primary waves) Fastest of the three waves and the first detected by seismographs. • Can travel through Earth’s interior in less than an hour • Pass through solids & liquids • As they pass through the liquid of the outer core they change directions • As they return to Earth’s surface they cause back-and-forth motions of rock
  10. 10. 2. S-waves (Secondary waves) • Travel slightly slower than P waves • When they reach Earth’s surface they cause it to move up and down • They can travel ONLY through solids • When they pass through the mantle to the liquid core they lose their energy and do not return to the surface
  11. 11. 2 types of Surface waves 1.Love waves– that move like S waves but only horizontally. 2.Rayleigh waves– that move both horizontally and vertically in a vertical plane pointed in the direction of travel
  12. 12. EARTHQUAKE WAVES P waves move through solids & liquids S waves move through solids only!!!
  13. 13. EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE • Landsides • Building damage • Liquefaction
  14. 14. LIQUEFACTION • Results in a loss of soil strength & the ability of the soil to support weight when a solid (sand and soil) becomes saturated with water and acts like a heavy liquid
  15. 15. EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE Most caused by SURFACE waves (arrive last)
  16. 16. • Foreshocks are small bursts of shaking that may precede a large earthquake. • Aftershocks are small tremors that follow an earthquake, lasting for hours or even days after the earthquake.
  17. 17. EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY Modified Mercalli scale= measurement of damage to structures • From I to XII (Roman numerals) • Descriptive, changes with distance from epicenter • Can change from location to location What you need: • Your senses! measures damage to man-made structures at certain location
  18. 18. EARTHQUAKE WAVES P waves move through solids & liquids S waves move through solids only!!!
  19. 19. EARTHQUAKE WAVES Lets test your understanding!! Is this a P or an S wave? P wave! S Wave
  20. 20. EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY Modified Mercalli scale= measurement of damage to structures • From I to XII (Roman numerals) • Descriptive, changes with distance from epicenter • Can change from location to location What you need: • Your senses! measures damage to man-made structures at certain location
  21. 21. EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE measures the size of seismic waves  the energy released by the earthquake Richter scale=measurement of energy released based upon wave amplitude (size of vibration) • <2 to ~10 • Amplitude of wave goes up by 10 (Logarithmic scale)
  22. 22. VOLCANOES
  23. 23. VOLCANOES • An opening in Earth’s surface through which melted rock, hot gases, rock fragments, and ash burst forth, or erupt • Volcano – comes from the ancient Roman god of fire, Vulcan • Start 37 – 100 miles below surface • Rock melts and is called Magma
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