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“ Smallholder  Cassava Production”  Tin Maung Aye   CIAT Bangkok Office Start-up Stakeholders’ Workshop Food, Feed, Fuel, ...
<ul><li>In Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava is traditionally grown as a subsistence crop, it is one of the main so...
<ul><li>The crop  is becoming an economically important crop for smallholder farmers </li></ul><ul><li>This crop not only ...
<ul><li>but also act as catalysts that can transform  subsistence farming  into  income-generating farming , allowing smal...
<ul><li>Cassava production </li></ul><ul><li>Produced mainly by smallholder farmers with local varieties </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>World Cassava Germplam Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Over 6000 accessions </li></ul>
CIAT-related 1)  cassava varieties that have been released in Asia and their most important characteristics. Country Varie...
Cassava Clonal Evaluation in Nonghed district, Xieng Khoung, Lao PDR Elevation  1318 masl N 19 ْ   30’ 23.0” E 104 ْ   03’...
<ul><li>Farmers can grow as a cash crop with little investment (such as fertilizers)  </li></ul>Can farmers produce cassav...
Soil Productivity Decline due  to  1) Nutrient Depletion 2) Erosion
cassava upland rice Years of continuous cropping Relative yield (%) Yield reduction of upland rice and cassava due to fert...
<ul><li>Research has shown that cassava production can result in serious erosion </li></ul><ul><li>but that there are many...
 
 
<ul><li>Research has shown that various agronomic and soil conservation practices are very effective in reducing erosion a...
Fertilizer application improves canopy development and markedly reduces runoff and erosion
With  adequate and well-balanced fertilizer  application, high yields can be maintained for at least 27 years of continuou...
Double row hedgerows of  Tephrosia candida
Hedgerows of  Paspalum atratum
Contour hedgerows  (Seven years after planting vetiver grass) caused the of natural terraces formation
Intercropping : intensify land resource, stabilize cash flow and prevent soil erosion
Cassava Erosion Control Treatments (Tuyen Quang, VN) Erosion Control Treatments Root Yield (t/ha) Soil Loss (t/ha) Cassava...
Cassava Intercropping with Legumes (Tuyen Quang, VN) Intercropping Treatments Cassava Root Yield (t/ha) Legume Yield (t/ha...
Results of Soil Erosion Control Trial  (Xieng Khouang, Lao PDR in 2007/08)  No Treatments Dry soil loss (t/ha) 1. Traditio...
Mulching
<ul><li>Cassava pests </li></ul><ul><li>Mealybugs  </li></ul><ul><li>Whiteflies </li></ul><ul><li>Mites </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cassava disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava bacterial blight  (CBB) </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasm? </li></ul>
Enhance sustainable cassava-based cropping systems by increasing soil fertility and reducing soil erosion
Increase labor efficiency and reduce women’s workload
integrating cassava and improved cropping and livestock management strategies into upland farming systems using participat...
“ Improving the Livelihoods of Smallholder Upland Farmers in Lao PDR and Cambodia Through Improved and Integrated Cassava-...
Bright Future!
 
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Tin Smallholder Cassava Production Hanoi June 09

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Transcript of "Tin Smallholder Cassava Production Hanoi June 09"

  1. 1. “ Smallholder Cassava Production” Tin Maung Aye CIAT Bangkok Office Start-up Stakeholders’ Workshop Food, Feed, Fuel, and Fiber for a Greener Future Project Hanoi, Viet Nam 22-24 June 2009
  2. 2. <ul><li>In Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava is traditionally grown as a subsistence crop, it is one of the main sources of food calories for many people, especially those living in remote rural areas </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The crop is becoming an economically important crop for smallholder farmers </li></ul><ul><li>This crop not only provide farmers with food , feed and income </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>but also act as catalysts that can transform subsistence farming into income-generating farming , allowing smallholder farmers to join the market economy </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cassava production </li></ul><ul><li>Produced mainly by smallholder farmers with local varieties </li></ul><ul><li>No inputs except for family labor </li></ul><ul><li>It can be grown on poor soils with prolong dry periods </li></ul><ul><li>Usually get low yields </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>World Cassava Germplam Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Over 6000 accessions </li></ul>
  7. 7. CIAT-related 1) cassava varieties that have been released in Asia and their most important characteristics. Country Variety name Year of release Clonal code or pedigree Location of hybridization Main features Cambodia Malaysia 2) KM 94 = KU 50 KU high yield, high starch China Nanzhi 188 1987 CM321-188 CIAT high yield Nanzhi 199 1987 MPan19 CIAT high yield, high starch GR 891 1998 MCol2215 CIAT high yield, high starch GR 911 1998 MBra35xCM523-7 CIAT high yield SC5 2002 ZM9057 CATAS high yield SC 6 2002 OMR33-10-4 RFCRC high starch SC 7 2005 ZM8639 CATAS high yield SC 8 2005 CMR38-120-10 RFCRC high yield Gui Re 3 2006 CMR 36-31-1 RFCRC high yield, high starch Philippines VC-1 1986 CM323-52 CIAT high yield VC-2 1988 CMC40 Brazil high yield, edible VC-3 1990 CM3590-1 CIAT dual purpose VC-4 1990 CM4014-3 CIAT high yield, dual purpose VC-5 1990 MCol1684 Colombia high yield, bitter PSB Cv-11 1995 CM3419-2A CIAT dual purpose PSB Cv-12 1995 SM972-20 CIAT dual purpose PSB Cv-15 1999 CM3422-1 CIAT dual purpose PSB Cv-19 2000 SM808-1 CIAT mite resistant NSIC Cv-22 2008 Kasetsart 50 KU high yield, high starch Thailand Rayong 3 1983 MMex 55xMVen 307 CIAT high starch Rayong 2 1984 MCol 113xMCol 22 CIAT for snack food Rayong 60 1987 MCol 1684xRayong 1 RFCRC high early yield Sriracha 1 1991 MCol 113xMCol 22xRayong 1 KU high DM Rayong 90 1991 CMC 76xV 43=CMR 21-1 RFCRC high DM, rel. high yield Kasetsart 50 1992 R1xR90=MKUC28-77-3 KU high yield, high DM Rayong 5 1994 CMR27-77-10xR3=OMR25-105-112 RFCRC rel. high yield, high DM Rayong 72 1999 Rayong 1xRayong 5 RFCRC high yield, drought tol. Huay Bong 60 2003 R5xKasetsart50 = MKUC 34-114-206 KU high yield, high starch Rayong 7 2005 CMR35-64-1=CMR30-71-25xOMR29-20-118 RFCRC high yield, high starch Rayong 9 2005 CMR35-48-196=CMR31-19-23xOMR29-20-118 RFCRC good for ethanol production Huay Bong 80 2008 R5xKasetsart50 KU high yield, high starch Vietnam KM 60 1993 Rayong 60 RFCRC high early yield KM 94 1995 Kasetsart 50 KU high yield, high starch SM 937-26 1995 SM937-26 CIAT high yield, high starch KM 95 1995 OMR33-17-15 RFCRC high yield; dual purpose KM 95-3 1998 SM1157-3 RFCRC high yield; dual purpose KM 98-7 1998 SM17-17-12 CIAT high yield KM 98-1 1999 Rayong 1 x Rayong 5 RFCRC high yield; dual purpose KM 140 2005 KM36xKM98-1 IAS high yield, dual purpose, early KM 98-5 2005 Rayong 90xKM 98-1 IAS high yield, dual purpose, early
  8. 8. Cassava Clonal Evaluation in Nonghed district, Xieng Khoung, Lao PDR Elevation 1318 masl N 19 ْ 30’ 23.0” E 104 ْ 03’ 47.6” Assessment of cassava t rue seeds from the CIAT breeding program in Colombia
  9. 9. <ul><li>Farmers can grow as a cash crop with little investment (such as fertilizers) </li></ul>Can farmers produce cassava without inputs on marginal soils?
  10. 10. Soil Productivity Decline due to 1) Nutrient Depletion 2) Erosion
  11. 11. cassava upland rice Years of continuous cropping Relative yield (%) Yield reduction of upland rice and cassava due to fertility decline as a result of continuous cropping without fertilizer application. 100% corresponds to 18.9 t/ha of fresh cassava roots and 2.55 t/ha of rice) Source: adapted from Nguyen Tu Siem, 1992. 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4
  12. 12. <ul><li>Research has shown that cassava production can result in serious erosion </li></ul><ul><li>but that there are many simple cultural and soil conservation practices that can reduce erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers seldom adopt soil conservation practices </li></ul><ul><li>because most of these practices require additional money or labor and do not provide any short-term economic benefits </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Research has shown that various agronomic and soil conservation practices are very effective in reducing erosion and maintain soil fertility, and will also increase cassava yields </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining adequate soil fertility using fertilizers, animal manures, green manures or alley cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Planting contour hedgerows of grasses or legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Contour plowing and ridging </li></ul><ul><li>Intercropping </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch application </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum tillage </li></ul>
  14. 16. Fertilizer application improves canopy development and markedly reduces runoff and erosion
  15. 17. With adequate and well-balanced fertilizer application, high yields can be maintained for at least 27 years of continuous cassava production on the same land
  16. 18. Double row hedgerows of Tephrosia candida
  17. 19. Hedgerows of Paspalum atratum
  18. 20. Contour hedgerows (Seven years after planting vetiver grass) caused the of natural terraces formation
  19. 21. Intercropping : intensify land resource, stabilize cash flow and prevent soil erosion
  20. 22. Cassava Erosion Control Treatments (Tuyen Quang, VN) Erosion Control Treatments Root Yield (t/ha) Soil Loss (t/ha) Cassava Monocrop No Hedgerows 32 18.0 Cassava Intercrop with Peanut (2 rows) No Hedgerows 31 8.6 Cassava Intercrop with Peanut (2 rows) Tephrosia Hedgerows 34 3.6 Cassava Intercrop with Peanut (2 rows) Stylo Hedgerows 32 6.8 Cassava Intercrop with Peanut (2 rows) Paspalum Hedgerows 36 3.2
  21. 23. Cassava Intercropping with Legumes (Tuyen Quang, VN) Intercropping Treatments Cassava Root Yield (t/ha) Legume Yield (t/ha) Economic Yield compared to Monocrop (%) Cassava Monocrop (farmer practice) 39 -- -- Cassava w/ 2 rows Peanut 41 1.4 + 73 % Cassava w/ 2 rows Soybean 35 0.8 - 5 % Cassava with 2 rows Black Bean (cowpea) 42 0.6 + 66 %
  22. 24. Results of Soil Erosion Control Trial (Xieng Khouang, Lao PDR in 2007/08) No Treatments Dry soil loss (t/ha) 1. Traditional practice: no fertilizer or lime, no hedgerows, 2 stakes/hill, no ridging, 0.9 m x 0.9 m 16.8 2. No ridging, with fertilizers and lime; no hedgerows, 1 stake/hill; 0.9 x 0.9 m 11 3. Intercrop with 2 rows of peanut; with fertilizers and lime; no hedgerows, 1 stake/hill; 0.9 x 0.9 m 8.5 4. Hedgerow of pineapple; with fertilizers and lime; 1 stake/hill; 0.9 x 0.9 m 10 5. Hedgerow of Paspalum atratum ; with fertilizers and lime; 1 stake/hill; 0.9 x 0.9 m 6.6 6. Hedgerow of Tephrosia candida ; with fertilizers and lime; 1 stake/hill; 0.9 x 0.9 m 7.4 7. Hedgerow of vetiver grass (Vietnam); with fertilizers and lime; 1 stake/hill; 0.9 x 0.9 m 8.02 8. Closer plant spacing (0.7 m x 0.7 m); with fertilizers and lime; 1 stake/hill; no hedgerow 8.44 9. Contour ridging, with fertilizers and lime; 1 stake/hill; 0.9 x 0.9 m, no hedgerows 8.1 10. Up-down ridging, with fertilizers and lime; 1 stake/hill; 0.9 x 0.9 m, no hedgerows 30
  23. 25. Mulching
  24. 26. <ul><li>Cassava pests </li></ul><ul><li>Mealybugs </li></ul><ul><li>Whiteflies </li></ul><ul><li>Mites </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Cassava disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava bacterial blight (CBB) </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasm? </li></ul>
  26. 28. Enhance sustainable cassava-based cropping systems by increasing soil fertility and reducing soil erosion
  27. 29. Increase labor efficiency and reduce women’s workload
  28. 30. integrating cassava and improved cropping and livestock management strategies into upland farming systems using participatory approaches to technology development
  29. 31. “ Improving the Livelihoods of Smallholder Upland Farmers in Lao PDR and Cambodia Through Improved and Integrated Cassava-based Cropping and Livestock Systems” (April 2004 - March 2009) “ Improving the Livelihoods of Smallholder Upland Farmers in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam Through More Productive and Sustainable Cassava-based Cropping and Livestock Systems” (April 2009 - March 2014) Funded by
  30. 32. Bright Future!
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