Introductions: Sarah‟s story • Course websites: provide info1999-2004 • Student group websites: share info • Give students access to students in other parts of the 2005- worldpresent • Use of Web 2.0 to give students access to authentic contexts of use (e.g. blogs, forums, Facebook), updated 2007-present information, and many different online resources
Introductions: Francesca‟sstory •MA in TESOL by distance learning with Institute of Education, University of London1996-2000 •Online Education and Training Course, worked as facilitator •Started doing exchanges between students in Italy and the 2000- US, then Guatemala, Jordan, Holland, Kuwait, Palestine present •Collaborate with Soliya as coordinator for Padova, facilitator training, facilitator and now coach. Using blogs with 2008- students for English courses at Faculty of Political Science. present
Introductions: your story? • Do you use CALL? If so, how? Since when? • What benefits do you think it can offer? • Why are you here? What do you hope to learn during these workshops?
Why use CALL?What „they „ say, or originally said: To cut costs To reduce number of teachers To cater for a growing number of studentsWhat CALL practioners know: To increase access to education To enhance the learning experience To innovate and change Because technology is now part of our life
Key words in online education authenticity connectivity flexibility interactivity exploration accessibility multisensory collaboration communityAdapted from G.Kearsley: Learning and Teaching in Cyberspacehttp://home.sprynet.com?~gkearsley?chapts.htm
What can we use CALL for?Some educational uses of technology: publishing and disseminating information retrieving information communicating collaborating developing online literacies
What is literacy? Basic human right: reading and writing In today‟s society we have new literacies: Computer literacy Internet literacy Information literacy Multimedia literacy Participation literacy
SLA/FL RESEARCHTECHNOLOGI CALDEVELOPMENT S CALL
A brief history: stage 1 Computer as Tutortechnology •Mainframe computers, mostly available only at institutions and not in people‟s homes •Behaviouristic approach research •learning takes place through mechanical production, memorization and repetition of given grammar patterns •repetitive language drills which aimed at helping practice learners master the foreign grammar and vocabulary by responding to the stimuli made available through technology
A brief history: stage 2 Computer as Tool to stimulate learningtechnology •Advent of personal computers and increasing multimedia capabilities of software programs research •Communicative approach •focus on the actual use of language forms in context •computer as a means to access, gather and process information through hands-on experiments, hypothesis practice testing and problem-solving to stimulate students discussion, writing, or critical thinking: learner as researcher, teacher as facilitator
A brief history: stage 3 Computer for communication •Advent of the World Wide Web and the Internet in the 1990stechnology •Advent of Web 2.0 in the first decade of the 21st Century •Greater access to computers and broadband •Sociocognitive approach/socioconstructivism research •learning takes place through social interaction in authentic contexts •NBLT : «language teaching that involves the use of computers connected to one another in either local or practice global networks» •the machine serves to support collaborative activity and enhance the learning process both on-line, during the interaction, and off-line, in reflective practices
Today, in 2012? Although practices from all 3 stages are still in use, during the next few days we will focus on the types of activities that characterized stages 2 and 3, i.e.: Using the computer to access resources Using the computer to access other people
PART 2How to integrate CALL into the classroom: Blends & Tools
Is blended coffee better? Many coffee manufacturers claim that their blends of Ethiopian coffee with beans from other places, such as Yemen or Colombia, is „better‟ than pure Ethiopian coffee. Is the blend better? We can‟t argue about coffee, but in the foreign language classroom, it often is.
Blending classroom & lab What can you do in a lab that you can‟t do in a classroom? What can you do better in a classroom rather than in a lab?
Blending F2F and online Can your students only attend, let‟s say, one F2F lesson a week? And do they have Internet access? Or, are there things that are just as well done autonomously online? Or, do you want to develop your students‟ ability to communicate effectively online?
Tools: what‟s changed (expensive) proprietary software for language practice Resources on the Internet (expensive) software for creating Web contents Resources on the InternetFree Web-based tools for creating contents
The changing nature of the Web Web 2.0 users produce and share content the „wisdom of the crowds‟ (Surowiecki, 2005) websites where knowledge and content are created and shared
Benefits access and produce real language real audience: increased responsibility new tools: increased autonomy, competence and confidence In your opinion, proactive learning what might the improved information literacy improved reflective and criticalbe? skills benefits thinking improved participation literacy potential for informal learning
Challenges technical challenges: broadband, computer access, etc. tools don‟t necessarily appeal to all students In your opinion, what time consuming for students and teachers learning how to effectively collaborate mightstable challenges the not all tools are be? assessment: process or product? individual or group? teacher needs basic skills in e-tutoring empowering students means teacher giving up control
Have we forgotten anything? What is our main aim? To help students learn Don‟t be dazzled by technology Remember basic pedagogical practice In a structured institutional context, tasks are a good way to ensure we are working towards our main aim
A practical example Learning aims: improve listening for intermediate learners discuss and reflect on culture How:find a web-based audio/video students can access on their own
Step 1: Explore Surf the Web for appropriate materials, this involves: Choosing appropriate key words (such as…?) Evaluating the websites you find (based on what criteria…? So, we eventually found a website which met these criteria: Site hosted by a respectable organization that openly shares inspiring talks on the Web Videos can be downloaded and embedded in other webpages, such as blogs Subtitles available in numerous languages, translation in some and interactive tapescript
Step 2: Develop a task Word association & discussion Listening Discussion & with guiding writing questions
Step 3: What tools? Word associations: google forms Comprehension and discussion questions: course blog Video: embedded in course blog, link to website (where it can also be downloaded) Student reflection and discussion: first as comments to the blog, then class discussion
Recycling language Listening skills Reading questions/writing answers Reading peer comments Speaking during class discussion Writing your own single story
Africa Nigeria USA Pre- taskVillaggi, savana, elefanti Guerra, calcio, petrolio Repubblicani,povertà, terzo mondo, sud, Africa, nero hamburger, Wall Streetinfibulazione africa, niger fastfood, gran canion, 11deserto, povertà. egitto povertà, guerra, quarto settembredeserto, safari, animali mondo obama, 4 luglio, footballselvatici miniere di diamanti, fastfood, NYC, obama,Mandela, safari, piramidi guerre interne, Martin Luther King,tanzania safari deserto dispotismo schiavitù, zio SamGazzella, Povertà, guerra povertà quarto obama oceano worldSolidarietà mondo trade centertribù, riti magici Povertà, Immigrazione, Statua della Libertà,corno ghana Fango Dollaro, Obamapoverta povertà, capanne mc donalds, new yorkpovertà,acqua,savana povertà stelle strisce hamburgerColore, Leone, Sole guerra hamburgerZebra, deserto, Marocco scuro,altezza,bandiera hot dog,new york,gossippelle scura, deserto, Poveri, Fame, Aids girlpovertà Aids, caldo, missioni NewYork, Disney,Savana - Caldo - Animali rifugiati polaitci, Macchinesahara persecuzioni New York, hamburger,favelas, vestiti, capanne Fame - Povertà – California Diversità orgoglio nazionale nero baracche malaria
Pre- taskPreparatory questions: What is a story teller? What kind of stories did you use to read? Do you remember any of them in particular? What is raffia? A roommate? What do the following verbs mean? to patronize, to pity, to assume.
TaskRead these comprehension questions before you watch thevideo, and then try to answer them: What was Adichie‟s single story about books when she was a child? How did this change? What was her single story about Fide, their domestic helper? How did that change? What was her university room mate‟s single story about Africa? What is the origin of this single story about Africa that permeates the US, according to Adichie? When did she begin to identify herself as African? What did the American professor say about her novel? What was Adichie‟s single story about Mexicans? Where did it originate? “nkali” is an igbo word which relates to power. How does "nkali" relate to a single story? Why does she imply the American student seem to think that all Nigerian men are physical abusers? What is the problem with stereotypes? What are the consequences of a single story? How does she suggest we can reject the single story? GO
Post- task Discussion and/or on the course blog …Write your own single story you have or had about a place or people, or that you have experienced from other people towards you. Where did this single story originate?
Silvia 21 ottobre 2012 10:26My single story is about the stereotypes of one of my Norwegian familyabout the Italians.I lived one year in Norway and there I had two host families. This summerone of them came to visit my family and me.They lived in my house for five days, they tried to live as if they whereItalians, they strongly wanted to try this experience; but they came herewith a single story of “the Italian family and the Italian way of live”. Theythought that Italian children where spoiled and not able to think bythemselves. They believed that all the Italian women were submitted bytheir husbands, that all the Italian men were totally dependent from theirmothers also when they had left their family houses and so never readyto become good fathers or responsible mates.I could perceive that they felt pity for my mother just because she use tocook dinner and to wash the dishes, they where abrupt with my fatherand they where enables to see that he helped my mom in many otherways. They were angry with my brother because in their opinion he wasspoiled just because my sister and I like to play with him and to cuddlewith him, he is just ten years old and we are over twenty both so for us itsnormal to take care of him; in Norway parents don‟t have muchphysical contact with their children and they not use to hug or kiss themso they believed that to receive hug for my brother meant to neverbecame a strong man.