3. quality principles

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3. quality principles

  1. 1. Quality Principles andQuality Principles and PhilosophiesPhilosophies Imran HussainImran Hussain
  2. 2. Dr. W. E. DemingDr. W. E. Deming
  3. 3. Deming’s BackgroundDeming’s Background  Main architect for introducing Total Quality intoMain architect for introducing Total Quality into JapanJapan  Born 1900Born 1900  Graduated in Electrical EngineeringGraduated in Electrical Engineering  PhD in mathematical physicsPhD in mathematical physics  Became statistician for US govt.Became statistician for US govt.  Sent by US govt. to Japan after WWII to adviseSent by US govt. to Japan after WWII to advise on Japanese census.on Japanese census.
  4. 4. Deming’s PhilosophyDeming’s Philosophy  Quality is about people, not productsQuality is about people, not products  Suggested quality concept for designing productSuggested quality concept for designing product  Management need to understand nature ofManagement need to understand nature of variation and how to interpret statistical datavariation and how to interpret statistical data  Promoted importance of leadershipPromoted importance of leadership  85% of production faults responsibility of85% of production faults responsibility of management, not workersmanagement, not workers  Enumerated a 14-point management philosophyEnumerated a 14-point management philosophy
  5. 5. Product Development CycleProduct Development Cycle 1.1. Design the product.Design the product. 2.2. Make it.Make it. 3.3. Try to sell it.Try to sell it. 4.4. Do consumer research and test the product’sDo consumer research and test the product’s uses.uses. 5.5. Redesign – start the cycle all over again.Redesign – start the cycle all over again.
  6. 6. Achieving QualityAchieving Quality  Companies should direct efforts towards:Companies should direct efforts towards:  Innovation of productsInnovation of products  Innovation of processesInnovation of processes  Improvement of existing productsImprovement of existing products  Improvement of existing processesImprovement of existing processes
  7. 7. Quality Approach in ContextQuality Approach in Context
  8. 8. Quality Costs Prices Productivity Market Share Stay in business
  9. 9. Attributes of a LeaderAttributes of a Leader  Coaches – not judgesCoaches – not judges  Strives to understand variation and its causesStrives to understand variation and its causes  Strives to remove obstacles within theStrives to remove obstacles within the organizationorganization  Responds to all customer forcesResponds to all customer forces  Adopts consistency of purposeAdopts consistency of purpose  Places and emphasis on improving processesPlaces and emphasis on improving processes
  10. 10. Attributes of a LeaderAttributes of a Leader  Recognizes that people are not ‘assets’; they areRecognizes that people are not ‘assets’; they are ‘jewels’‘jewels’  Strives to recognize those who need help andStrives to recognize those who need help and the gives helpthe gives help  Creates and atmosphere of trustCreates and atmosphere of trust  Knows the work he supervisesKnows the work he supervises  Does not place an over-reliance on figuresDoes not place an over-reliance on figures  Encourages education and continuousEncourages education and continuous improvement of each personimprovement of each person
  11. 11. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 1.1. Create constancy of purpose for continualCreate constancy of purpose for continual improvement of productsimprovement of products  Create constancy of purpose for improvement ofCreate constancy of purpose for improvement of systems, products and services, with the aim tosystems, products and services, with the aim to become excellent, satisfy customers, and providebecome excellent, satisfy customers, and provide jobs. Reduced defects and cost of development.jobs. Reduced defects and cost of development.
  12. 12. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 2.2. Adopt a commitment to seek continualAdopt a commitment to seek continual improvementsimprovements  Constantly and forever improve the systemConstantly and forever improve the system development processes, to improve quality anddevelopment processes, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease the time andproductivity, and thus constantly decrease the time and cost of systems. Improving quality is not a one timecost of systems. Improving quality is not a one time effort.effort.
  13. 13. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 3.3. Switch from defect detection to defectSwitch from defect detection to defect preventionprevention  Cease dependencies on mass inspection (especiallyCease dependencies on mass inspection (especially testing) to achieve quality. Reduce the need fortesting) to achieve quality. Reduce the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into theinspection on a mass basis by building quality into the system in the first place. Inspection is not the answer. Itsystem in the first place. Inspection is not the answer. It is too late and unreliable – it does not produce quality.is too late and unreliable – it does not produce quality.
  14. 14. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 4.4. In dealing with suppliers one should end theIn dealing with suppliers one should end the practice of awarding business on price. Movepractice of awarding business on price. Move towards quality of product, reliability oftowards quality of product, reliability of delivery and willingness to cooperate anddelivery and willingness to cooperate and improve. Build partnerships.improve. Build partnerships.  Minimize total cost. Move towards a single supplier forMinimize total cost. Move towards a single supplier for any one item or service, making them a partner in aany one item or service, making them a partner in a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.
  15. 15. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 5.5. Improvement is not confined to products andImprovement is not confined to products and their direct processes but to all supportingtheir direct processes but to all supporting services and activitiesservices and activities  All functions in an organization need to become qualityAll functions in an organization need to become quality conscious to deliver a quality product.conscious to deliver a quality product.
  16. 16. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 6.6. Train a modern way.Train a modern way.  Institute training on the job. Everyone must be trained,Institute training on the job. Everyone must be trained, as knowledge is essential for improvement.as knowledge is essential for improvement.
  17. 17. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 7.7. Supervision must change from chasing, toSupervision must change from chasing, to coaching and support.coaching and support.  Institute leadership. It is a manger’s job to help theirInstitute leadership. It is a manger’s job to help their people and their systems do a better job.people and their systems do a better job.
  18. 18. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 8.8. Drive out fear and encourage two-wayDrive out fear and encourage two-way communication.communication.  Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively.Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively. Management should be held responsible for the faults ofManagement should be held responsible for the faults of the organization and environment.the organization and environment.
  19. 19. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 9.9. Remove barriers between departmentsRemove barriers between departments  Break down barriers between areas. People must workBreak down barriers between areas. People must work as a team. They must foresee and prevent problemsas a team. They must foresee and prevent problems during systems development and use.during systems development and use.
  20. 20. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 10.10. Do not have unrealistic targetsDo not have unrealistic targets  Set realistic targets. Do not place people underSet realistic targets. Do not place people under unnecessary pressure by asking them to do things whichunnecessary pressure by asking them to do things which are not achievable. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, andare not achievable. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets that ask for zero defects, and new levels oftargets that ask for zero defects, and new levels of productivity. Slogans do not build quality systems.productivity. Slogans do not build quality systems.
  21. 21. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 11.11. Eliminate quotas and numerical targetsEliminate quotas and numerical targets  Eliminate numerical quotas and goals. Substitute it withEliminate numerical quotas and goals. Substitute it with leadership. Quotas and goals (such as schedule) addressleadership. Quotas and goals (such as schedule) address numbers - not quality and methods.numbers - not quality and methods.
  22. 22. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 12.12. Remove barriers that prevent employeesRemove barriers that prevent employees having pride in the work that they performhaving pride in the work that they perform  Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. TheRemove barriers to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of project managers must change fromresponsibility of project managers must change from schedules to quality.schedules to quality.
  23. 23. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 13.13. Encourage education and self-improvementEncourage education and self-improvement for everyonefor everyone  Institute and vigorous program of education and self-Institute and vigorous program of education and self- improvement for everyone. There must be a continuingimprovement for everyone. There must be a continuing commitment to training and educating softwarecommitment to training and educating software managers and professional staff.managers and professional staff.
  24. 24. Deming’s 14-point ManagementDeming’s 14-point Management PhilosophyPhilosophy 14.14. Publish top management’s permanentPublish top management’s permanent commitment to continuous improvement ofcommitment to continuous improvement of quality and productivityquality and productivity
  25. 25. JuranJuran
  26. 26. Juran’s 10-point ProgramJuran’s 10-point Program 1.1. Identify customersIdentify customers 2.2. Determine customer needsDetermine customer needs 3.3. TranslateTranslate 4.4. Establishment units of measurementEstablishment units of measurement 5.5. Establish measurementsEstablish measurements 6.6. Develop productDevelop product 7.7. Optimize product designOptimize product design 8.8. Develop processDevelop process 9.9. Optimize process capabilityOptimize process capability 10.10. TransferTransfer
  27. 27. CrosbyCrosby
  28. 28. Crosby’s 14-step programCrosby’s 14-step program 1.1. Management commitmentManagement commitment 2.2. Quality improvement teamQuality improvement team 3.3. Quality measurementQuality measurement 4.4. Cost of quality evaluationCost of quality evaluation 5.5. Quality awarenessQuality awareness 6.6. Corrective actionCorrective action 7.7. Zero defect programZero defect program 8.8. Supervisor trainingSupervisor training
  29. 29. Crosby’s 14-step programCrosby’s 14-step program 9.9. Zero defects dayZero defects day 10.10. Goal settingGoal setting 11.11. Error cause removalError cause removal 12.12. RecognitionRecognition 13.13. Quality councilsQuality councils 14.14. Do it over againDo it over again
  30. 30. Crosby’s Maturity GridCrosby’s Maturity Grid  UncertaintyUncertainty (adhoc)(adhoc)  AwakeningAwakening (recognition begins but management(recognition begins but management unwilling to spend on quality)unwilling to spend on quality)  EnlightenmentEnlightenment (management begins to support(management begins to support quality improvement program, culture of openness)quality improvement program, culture of openness)  WisdomWisdom (management fully participates, defect(management fully participates, defect prevention is now part of the culture)prevention is now part of the culture)  CertaintyCertainty (the whole organization is involved in(the whole organization is involved in continuous improvement)continuous improvement)
  31. 31. ShingoShingo
  32. 32. Shingo’s PhilosophyShingo’s Philosophy  Poka Yoke (meaning mistake proofing)Poka Yoke (meaning mistake proofing)  This involves identifying potential error sources inThis involves identifying potential error sources in the process and monitoring these sources for errors.the process and monitoring these sources for errors.  A variant to this approach is FMEAA variant to this approach is FMEA
  33. 33. IshikawaIshikawa
  34. 34. Ishikawa’s PhilosophyIshikawa’s Philosophy  Quality Control Circles (QCC)Quality Control Circles (QCC)  A quality control circle consists of a small group ofA quality control circle consists of a small group of employees who do similar work and arrange to meetemployees who do similar work and arrange to meet regularly to identify and analyze work-relatedregularly to identify and analyze work-related problems, to brainstorm and to recommend andproblems, to brainstorm and to recommend and implement solutions.implement solutions.
  35. 35. Quality Control CirclesQuality Control Circles  Select problemSelect problem  State and re-state problemsState and re-state problems  Collect factsCollect facts  BrainstormBrainstorm  Build on each other ideasBuild on each other ideas  Choose course of actionChoose course of action  PresentationPresentation
  36. 36. Genichi TaguchiGenichi Taguchi
  37. 37. Taguchi’s PhilosophyTaguchi’s Philosophy  Defines quality in terms of lossDefines quality in terms of loss  ““the loss a product causes to society after beingthe loss a product causes to society after being shipped, other than losses caused by its intrinsicshipped, other than losses caused by its intrinsic function”function”  He defines a loss function as a measure of the cost ofHe defines a loss function as a measure of the cost of qualityquality  He also developed a method for determining theHe also developed a method for determining the optimum value of process variables which will minimizeoptimum value of process variables which will minimize the variation in a process while keeping mean on targetthe variation in a process while keeping mean on target
  38. 38. Peter DruckerPeter Drucker
  39. 39. Drucker’s PhilosophyDrucker’s Philosophy  Success is threefoldSuccess is threefold  Know your businessKnow your business  Know your competenciesKnow your competencies  Knowing how to keep focused on goalsKnowing how to keep focused on goals  Effective management and employeeEffective management and employee participationparticipation  Link between the bottom line and satisfying theLink between the bottom line and satisfying the customercustomer
  40. 40. Drucker’s PhilosophyDrucker’s Philosophy  ““Purpose of business lies outside itself – that isPurpose of business lies outside itself – that is in creating and satisfying a customer. Thein creating and satisfying a customer. The decision process is central, and structure has todecision process is central, and structure has to follow strategy and management has to befollow strategy and management has to be management by objectives and self-control.”management by objectives and self-control.”
  41. 41. Drucker’s 5 Principles ofDrucker’s 5 Principles of ManagementManagement 1.1. Setting objectivesSetting objectives 2.2. OrganizingOrganizing 3.3. Motivating and communicatingMotivating and communicating 4.4. Establishing measures of performanceEstablishing measures of performance 5.5. Developing peopleDeveloping people
  42. 42. Tom PetersTom Peters
  43. 43. Peter’s PhilosophyPeter’s Philosophy  Excellent firms believe in constant improvementExcellent firms believe in constant improvement and constant changeand constant change  Need to move from hierarchical management toNeed to move from hierarchical management to horizontal, fast, cross-functional co-operativehorizontal, fast, cross-functional co-operative organizationorganization
  44. 44. Peter’s Management GuidelinesPeter’s Management Guidelines  Actively create a quality revolutionActively create a quality revolution  Put the customer first in everything you doPut the customer first in everything you do  Listen actively to all stakeholdersListen actively to all stakeholders  Invest in people, training, education and recruitmentInvest in people, training, education and recruitment  Openly reward, recognize and support productivityOpenly reward, recognize and support productivity innovationinnovation  Openly support failures where people have tried toOpenly support failures where people have tried to improveimprove  Involve everyone in everything at all timesInvolve everyone in everything at all times
  45. 45. Peter’s Management GuidelinesPeter’s Management Guidelines  Setup simple and understandable measuresSetup simple and understandable measures  Fight against bureaucracy and inflexibilityFight against bureaucracy and inflexibility  Look through a different mirror: step outside theLook through a different mirror: step outside the company and look at it from a different perspectivecompany and look at it from a different perspective  Teamwork and trust: develop strong interpersonal andTeamwork and trust: develop strong interpersonal and team skillsteam skills  Work on attitudes and attention to detail: get thingsWork on attitudes and attention to detail: get things donedone  Be consistent and strive for improvements in all areasBe consistent and strive for improvements in all areas
  46. 46. ReferencesReferences  A Practical Approach to Software Quality, Ch. 1A Practical Approach to Software Quality, Ch. 1  Total Quality Management: A Total QualityTotal Quality Management: A Total Quality Approach, Ch. 1Approach, Ch. 1

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