Note on quality


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Note on quality

  1. 1. A NOTE ON QUALITY: THE VIEWS OF DEMING, JURAN, and CROSBY GROUP NO 3 Aravind Uppala 122 Dasari Pradeep 126 Kirti Raj Kataria 130 Libin Joseph 137 Sangam lalsiva raju 138
  2. 2. DEMING’S SPC  Continuous improvement of products and services to meet customers’ needs .—tools are SPC and problem-solving techniques.  Management is responsible for change.  Breakdown of department and worker-supervisor barrier.  Change the systems , operations to reduce common / systematic causes.
  3. 3. INCORPORATION OF SPC  Statistical process control , a probability method by Walter shewart.  Probability rules could determine whether variation was random or not.
  4. 4. IMPLICATIONS  Once the process was in control, readings fell outside the limits indicated a problem to be investigated.  To improve the system itself , common causes had to be removed.
  5. 5. JURAN  Joseph M. Juran's impact on Japanese Quality was usually considered second only to Deming’s.  He established Juran Institute in 1979 for seminars, consulting and conferences.  His clients were:  Texas Instruments  Du Pont  Monsanto  Xerox DEFINITION BY JURAN  Juran defined quality as “fitness for use”  The users of a product or service should be able to count on it for they needed to do with it.
  6. 6. FIVE DIMENSIONS OF FITNESS FOR USE  Quality of design  Quality of conformance Availability  Safety  Field Use      JURAN’S APPROACHES Comprehensive approach : Vendor relations, manufacturing control, distribution and field service Reliability: find effects & causes of failures and develop solutions for them. Analytical Methods: identify areas needing improvements and implement changes. Cost of Quality: cost of making, finding, and repairing.
  7. 7. JURAN’S APPROACHES FOR MAINTAINING MINIMUM COST OF QUALITY  Breakthrough Projects  The control Sequence  Annual Quality Programs Juan's Categories of Quality Costs A. Internal failure costs (Scrap, rework, retest, down time, yield loses, disposition) B. External failure costs (Complaint adjustment, Returned material, Warranty charges, Allowances) C. Appraisal costs Incoming materials inspection, Inspection and test, accuracy test equipments, evaluation of stocks, materials and service consumed) D. Prevention Costs Quality planning, product review, training, process control, Quality data acquisition and analysis, quality reporting, improvement projects)
  8. 8. MINIMIZING THE COST OF QUALITY Total  Quality Costs Internal + External failure costs  Cost Per good Unit Of product Minimal COQ Cost of Apprasal+Prevention 100% Defective 100% good Defect Rate Optimal conformance level
  9. 9. JURANS BREAKTHROUGH SEQUENCE Breakthrough in attitudes 2. Identify the vital few projects 3. Organize for breakthrough in knowledge Two organizational entities A. Steering group B. Diagnostic group 4. Conduct the analysis 5. Determine how to overcome resistance to change 6. Institute the change 7. Institute the controls 1.
  10. 10. CROSBY  He sought to change management perception and attitudes about quality ( typically top managers viewed quality as intangible or else to be found only in high –end products)  If quality were improved, total costs would inevitably fall, allowing companies to increase profitability  His goal was quality improvement rather than after the fact inspection  He came up with a quality management maturity grid for which was used for self-assessment and offered a 14 point program for quality improvement (this program was designed for securing management commitment and gaining employees involvement through actions such as zero defects day
  11. 11. CROSBY’S 14-POINT PROGRAM               Management commitment Quality improvement team Quality measurement Cost of quality evaluation Quality awareness Corrective action Zero defects planning Supervisor training Zero defects day Goal setting Error cause removal Recognition Quality councils Do it all over again
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