DOHA DEVELOPMENT ROUND
The idea of “pluralism” has its roots not just in western liberal
thought but in Indian philosophy as well.
Presenting By : Group:2
Dasari Pradeep – 126
Rajesh Mishra -151
WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION
• Officially commenced on 1st January 1995.
• Replaced the GATT with 153 member
• Represents 97 % of World trade.
• Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
• Governed by a ministerial conference, meeting
every two years, a General Council and a
• Supervise and Liberalize International Trade.
• Provides a framework for negotiating and
formalizing trade agreements.
• Dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing
participants' adherence to WTO
DOHA DEVELOPMENTAL ROUND
• Launched at the fourth ministerial
conference in Doha, Qatar in November 2001.
• Succeeded the Uruguay round and the three
ministerial conferences at Singapore
(1996), Geneva (1998) and Seattle (1999).
• Lower trade barriers around the world.
• Committing all countries to negotiations
opening agricultural and manufacturing
markets, as well as trade-in-services (GATS)
negotiations and expanded intellectual
property regulation (TRIPS).
• Make trade rules fairer for developing
KEY ISSUES AT DOHA
• Agriculture has become the linchpin of
the agenda for both developing and
• Compulsory licensing of medicines and
• A review of provisions giving special and
differential treatment to developing
• Resolve problems that developing
countries are having in implementing
current trade obligations.
• Key Interests for ASEAN countries –
Greater market access for industrial
Anti dumping and subsidies.
Effective dispute settlement mechanism
November 2001 — Minister Youssef
Hussain Kamal of Qatar at the Fourth
Ministerial Conference, Doha.
Principles of the trading system
Most favored nation
•Binding and enforceable commitments
•Agreement on Agriculture (AoA)
•General Agreement on Trade in Services
•Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual
Property Rights Agreement (TRIPs)
Cancun Conference 2003
The conference was aimed at forging agreement on the DDA.
Called for an end to agricultural subsidies within the EU and the
Hong Kong Conference 2005
• Countries agreed to phase out all their agricultural export
subsidies by the end of 2013.
• Agreement to introduce duty free, tariff free access for goods.
Geneva Conference 2008
• Negotiation over the special safeguard mechanism.
• The negotiations collapsed on July 29 over issues of
agricultural trade between the United States, India, and China.
Geneva Conference 2009
• On 26 May 2009, agreed to hold a seventh WTO ministerial
conference session in Geneva from 30 November–3 December 2009.
• "The WTO, the Multilateral Trading System and the Current Global
Types of Impasses of relevance at DOHA round
Parties could not agree to launch a
negotiation. (Impasse on initiation.)
Parties could not agree on the subjects for
the negotiation (Impasse on contents.)
After agreeing to start a negotiation the
parties take a long time to come to a
mutually agreeable outcome. (Impasse as
Having agreed to start a
negotiation, subsequently the parties
appear unable to conclude the
negotiation with an agreement. (Impasse
as high expected failure to agree.)
Having agreed to start a
negotiation, subsequently the parties can
only agree to conclude the activity of
negotiation without an agreement.
(Impasse as actual failure to agree—
fortunately the DDA has not reached this
INTERESTS OF INDIA
• Accelerating integration with
world economy (Globalization).
• Foster more rapid growth and
• Expand access to World Markets.
• Voice in formulation of rules and
Decision Making in the WTO.
• Guarding against the intrusion of
non-traded matters in WTO.
BENEFITS TO INDIA
• Increase in India’s textile & clothing
exports due to the phasing out of MFA
• The reduction in agricultural
subsidies & barriers to export of
agriculture products, agricultural
exports from India also increased.
• Market access to a number of
developing countries without trade
Disadvantages for India
• TRIPs agreement went against the Indian
Patents Act (1970)
• Introduction of product patents in India lead
to hike in drug prices by the MNCs. Hence the
poor were left with no generic option
• Extension of intellectual property right to
agriculture has negative effects on India and
Indian research institutions
• Application of TRIMs agreement undermines
any plan or strategy of self reliant growth
based on local technology.
• Service sectors in India are backward
compared to the service sectors in developed
countries. Hence inclusion of trade in services
is detrimental to the interest of India.
• The MFN clause proved to be detrimental to
India’s interest & provided grounds for
Chinese invasion in Indian market through
•In order not to discredit itself, globalization
would have to squarely address sustainable
development and poverty reduction .
• There must be an attempt to link the
strategies of development to something more
fundamental, the ends of economic and
social development .
• The international trade rules are
underpinned by an insufficient appreciation
of the adverse impact of rapid
liberalization, if it does not pay adequate
attention to the need to reduce asset and
• Without substantial investment in the
capacity to supply and, equally important, a
guaranteed safety net against falling prices
and import surges, sudden liberalization
would expose the constituents to unbearable
Agriculture Issues in Developing Nations
• One of the key issues is the Agreement on
• Areas related to Agriculture-Market
Access, Domestic Support, export
Competition, Trade Related Intellectual Property
• 40 to 50 % of support to the farmers in the form
of Green Box subsidies.
• Developed countries allowed to retain 80% of
their subsidies while developing countries can
subsidize their farmers not more than 10%.
• Increasing dependency on imports for food grains
could bring strain on external payment position of
Weakness Of World Trade Organization
• WTO is fundamentally undemocratic.
• WTO causes trampling of labor and
• Privatization of Essential services.
• Fuel issues.
• Food issues.
• Forest issues.
• Creating a Rich man’s world.