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Fundamentos de enseñanza del Inglés
 

Fundamentos de enseñanza del Inglés

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Eduardo Hernandez

Eduardo Hernandez

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    Fundamentos de enseñanza del Inglés Fundamentos de enseñanza del Inglés Document Transcript

    • .Fundamentos de enseñanza del inglés II Portfolio Licenciatura en Enseñanza del Inglés Autor: Eduardo Hernández Rangel
    • Contenido OBSERVATION AND REFLECTION ............................................................................... 2 RECEPTIVE AND PERCEPTIVE SKILLS ......................................................................... 3 CREATIVE WRITING .................................................................................................. 3 WRITING AS A COLLABORATIVE ACTIVITY ................................................................... 3 BUILDING THE WRITING HABIT ................................................................................... 4 GIVE FEEDBACK ...................................................................................................... 4 FIRST OBSERVATION ................................................................................................ 5 RESULT OF THE TEACHING LISTENING TECHNIQUES .................................................... 9 LISTENING SKILLS .................................................................................................. 10 MIND MAP ABOUT LISTENING ............................................................................... 10 SPEAKING SKILLS .................................................................................................. 11 SECOND OBSERVATION .......................................................................................... 14 BACKGROUND FROM THE TEACHER...................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE WRITING ......................................................................................... 18 SURVEY ABOUT WRITING HABITS ............................................................................. 20 NOTICING ............................................................................................................. 22 NOTICING ACTIVITY................................................................................................ 22 DISCOVERING THE TEXT THROUGH DICTATION AND GUESSING ............................ 22 TESTING AND EVALUATING ..................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A GOOD TEST? ...................................................................................... 23 TYPES OF TEST ITEM .......................................................................................... 24 EVOLUTION OF THE TEST IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING ...................................... 24 DIDACTIC MATERIALS DESIGN ................................................................................. 25 PROFILE OF THE BOOK ....................................................................................... 25 CHAPTER 8 SHOPPING ....................................................................................... 26 ACTIVITY ABOUT SHOPPING VOCABULARY ............................................................. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................... 30 TASK DESIGN REFERENCES BY JESÚS VILCHES & ROMERO ................................... 30 OBSERVATION AND REFLECTION BY EDUARDO HERNANDEZ AND VALERIA ............... 30 TEACHING MATERIALS BY CUAUHTÉMOC.............................................................. 31 READING BY GIORGIA & ROSY ............................................................................ 31 WRITING ........................................................................................................... 351
    • Saturday February 14, 2009Observation and reflection Questionnaire 1. What is the purpose of observation/evaluation? The purpose of observation and evaluation is to improve the teaching of the teachers; thus, student learning through applying strategies to enhance the acquisition of the language. 2. What is the focus of observation/evaluation? Both techniques refer to gauge through seeing, hearing, reviewing, and analyzing the attitude of the teacher inside the classroom and specific evaluation has a scope wider. It consists of making a judgment on all aspects of the teacher’s behavior. 3. Who is the observer/evaluator? The director, coordinator, supervisor or the principal have the responsibility for the appraisal of the teachers. 4. What forms are used by observation/evaluation? There are different forms for this activity; each one depends of what you need. In summary, we have different types: Narrative. It consists in written notes describing what the observers see in the classroom. Semi-structured. It consists in observing specific behavior that can affect the student learning. Highly structured. It consists of doing a checklist that the observer verifies in what grade the teacher show a specific behavior. 5. When is the observation/evaluation done? 2
    • No information found 6. When does a teacher see the form? No information found 7. When does discussion take place the observation/evaluation? Discussion about observation or evaluation can be take place during the planning, implementation or any other stage that the process of teaching and learning were more effective. Saturday February 21, 2009 Receptive and perceptive skills Harmer, J. (2001) The Practice of English Language Teaching (Third edition) Longman Creative writing It consist in writing poetry, plays ad stories in a creative way are activities that are considered as “creative writing” and that person who write, feel proud of it and they want to be read (Ur 1996:169). When teacher encourage to the student to write a “creative writing” they frequently try to strive harder in order to produce a good writing with an appropriate language. In this kind of writing, students look for the correct words for expressing their ideas correctly but there is always a risk, because the students can feel frustrate when they cannot find imaginative stories and they can fail. Writing as a collaborative activity Writing in a group always is more effective than writing individual. Students can produce writing with more quality because they can interact by themselves and give an effective feedback between each other. Ideas are produced lively working in a group. The students feel more proud of their work and they can create text successfully as result.3
    • Building the writing habit Process and Product in JeremyHarmerNo informationGive feedbackTeachers can give the feedback by doing comments in the same document, in aseparate sheet, in a “post-it notes”, or in the same page. The intension is that thestudent should understand what is wrong and why is wrong in the writing.Depending of what is the size of the group, the teachers do the following: They review by the intention of giving a grade. They want to correct the student’s errors. They can make suggestions. They rewrite some unclear sentences. They comment about the writing looking for logical situations. 4
    • Saturday February 21, 2009 First observation PROFESSOR: Eloy Martinez LEVEL: English I DATE: March 20, 2009 TIME: 7:00am - 09:00am LOCATION: CBTIS #173, Guanajuato, Gto. FOCUS: Organization class During the class, the teacher arrived to the class at 10:00am. The teacher started regarding to the student, after that, he wrote on the whiteboard the next questions: 1.- ¿Puedo ir al baño? = Can I go to the bathroom? 2.- ¿Qué significa esto o eso? = What does it mean? It = the word or frase. 3.- ¿Puedo entrar al salón de clases? = May I coming? He explained these questions are the basic communications inside the classroom. He drew a square on the whiteboard and wrote a title “words of the day”. He wrote a word, regard = consideration and he explained a definition. He started the class with possessive adjectives. He wrote: I see with my eyes. He sees with his eyes. She sees with her eyes. It sees with its eyes. We see with our eyes. They see with their eyes.5
    • Some questions were done by the students refer to the topic (possessive adjectives).He wrote the next examples.“Los posesivos adjetivos REQUIEREN de un sustantivo”.My book.Her pencil.His computer.My = mi, her = su de ella, his = su de el.He continued the class explained the possessive pronouns.“Los pronombres posesivos NO necesitan de un sustantivo”This is mine = Es mío.This is yours = Es tuyo.Mine = Mío, hers = suyo de ella, ours = nuestro.For example Possessive Adjective Possessive PronounMaría tiene mi libro = María has my book. María tiene el mío = María has mine.After the explanation, he gives us some exercises.Possessive Possessive Adjectives Pronouns 6
    • My mine 1. Whose pen is this? Its -------------(Paul). your yours 2. Whose dog is that? Its __________we). his his 3. Whose computer is that? Its_____________ (the kids). her hers 4. Whose car is this? Its _________(Laura). its its 5. Whose book is that? Its __________(I). our ours 6. Whose glasses are these? Theyre ___________(Harry). your yours 7. Whose dictionary is this? Its __________(you). their theirs 8. Whose album is this? Its __________(they). 9. Whose hat is this? Its ________(Mark). 10. Whose gloves are these? Theyre ________(I). Reflection on Classroom Observations I tried to observe the whole class but I really felt bad because I could not focus and record all that happened inside the classroom. I could not detect what kind of strategies where applied by the teacher. During the class, the objective was clear; the teacher said that they were going to learn possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns but he started to put a song on the computer and the students began to sing. The song was “no one” by Alicia Keys. I did not really understand why he did that, he didn’t explain anything. After finish, the song the teacher began the class and he explained the first topic. To my surprise he drew a square on the whiteboard, writes at title inside it “words of the day”, and writes a word “regard”. He explained the definition of this word and gave some examples. He asked to do student about if they have understood the definition and they answered “yes”.7
    • He asked for some example from the student and nobody wants to answer. He gave aname and the student answered the question and gave an example.The first topic was explained, “possessive adjectives”; he exposed the topic and wrotesome examples on the whiteboard. Some of the students have doubts and he usedothers examples.Following the explanation, he divided the students into groups of 3 or 4 for an activity.He gave the instruction to the groups for preparing five sentences using possessiveadjective and they prepared the examples about the first topic. They spent 10 minutesdoing the activity and they passed to the whiteboard and wrote two examples of each.Most of the sentences were incorrect and he corrected them and explained why wereincorrect.After this activity, he explained the second topic “possessive pronoun”. In the same wayhe exposed the topic, wrote some sentences, and explained them.In the same groups, they worked with writing the five sentences using possessivepronouns. Now, there were a few mistakes, but the teacher corrected them.The teacher took 15 minutes to do another activity. The activity consisted in showingsome pictures and the teacher asks to the students about how they can describe thepictures and how they interpret the pictures. Of course, they had to use possessiveadjectives and possessive pronouns. 8
    • Saturday February 28, 2009 Result of the teaching listening techniques In this activity, we can see that according the participants, activities where the students can hear a tape can result more effective than an activity where they can guest what it is going to hear on the tape.9
    • Saturday March 7, 2009Listening skillsStorm brain shows how the listening skill became more productive, in the classroom orin real life.Mind Map about listeningIt is clear that during real life we have more opportunity to practice English language. 10
    • Speaking skills We did this activity to realize how the activities that we do in the classroom can be more effective to the students.11
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    • Saturday March 14, 2009 He used photocopies during the class. The professor did not use technology for his class. During this class, we analyze different activities that can be effective or ineffective when the students practice English inside or outside the classroom.13
    • Second observation:Professor Margarito Velazquez MartinezLevel Date Time English II March 20, 2009 7:00am - 09:00amLocation FocusCBTIS #173, Guanajuato, Organization class Gto.1. Pre-Class Behavior: What is the classroom climate like before class? How does the instructor make use of pre-class time?The class started at 8:00am. Unfortunately,not all the students were on time. Theyarrived almost every five minutes and theprofessor permit that they entranced to theclassroom.At the beginning of the class, the teacher asks the student about how was the weekendwhile all the students arrived. Some students gave their opinion about how the weekendwas, after that the teacher invited to the student to start an outdoor activity.While the activity was in progress, many students arrive and they were going toincorporate to the group.2. Organization: Was the instructor’s presentation of information organized insuch a way that students could follow the material? 14
    • After the group activity, the teacher gave to them a pair of photocopies and the objectives of the class were written on the whiteboard. 3. Presentation/Delivery Skills: Was the material enthusiastically presented? Clearly presented? Did the professor appear fully engaged in the act of teaching? The teacher start the class asking about if they had some doubts refers to the previous class. He spent five minutes explaining grammar rules of the class before. After he finished the previous explanation, he engaged the interaction in the group and the dialog between the students started. Every explanation refers to the objectives were accompanying with a group activity. 4. Teaching Methods: What were the primary teaching methods utilized in the class session? (e.g., lecture, discussion, group work, individualized student activities) Were these teaching methods well selected and well enacted in the classroom? In spite of the activities were very varied, the teacher forced to used the four skills. During some activities, the student ask him about some related to the grammar and the teacher recommended to them, Reading some books or searching information on Internet, given them the specific references. 5. Classroom Interaction: How did students react to the presentation of material, verbally and nonverbally? Were students given an opportunity to interact with the professor and the material? If so, how did the instructor encourage student participation? How well did the instructor respond to student comments/questions? Did the instructor keep class discussion on task or linked to learning? If the discussion strayed off course, was the instructor able to steer the discussion back on topic? Despite of the activities during the class he encourages the participation of the students, when the teacher asked the some specific information about “who knows….?” Nobody wants to talk. He enacted the class and drew lots to foment the participation. The discussions never strayed off course.15
    • 6. Technology: Was any instructional technology employed by the instructor inthe classroom? If so, was it utilized effectively? Did it assist or hinder thepresentation of material?Background from the teacher MARGARITO VELÁZQUEZ MARTÍNEZI. ANTECEDENTES ESCOLARESESCUELA AÑOS CURSADOS FECHASLicenciaturaUniversidad Autónoma Chapingo 4 años 1991-1995Carrera: Ingeniero Mecánico AgrícolaTITULADO_____________________________________________________________________II. CAPACITACIÓN.He recibido muchos cursos dentro y fuera del Plantel para obtener una actualización constante, entre los cursos están: MétodoCientífico un Proyecto de Vida, Aactivities and Procedures in Language Teaching, Proyecto de Vida, English in ActionAdeas for the Classroom II by Barbara Foley, Formación de Instructores para Certificación, entre otros.____________________________________________________________________________III. EXPERIENCIAL LABORALCentro de Bachillerato Tecnológico industrial y de servicios No. 173 CBTis 173)Lugar: Guanajuato, Gto.Fecha: 16 de agosta del 2004 a la fechaComo Docente con los siguientes cursos:2005: Tecnología y Práctica de Taller de Mecánica IV, Tecnología y Práctica de Taller de Mecánica VI, Física III, Dibujo Mecánico,Cursos de Desarrollo Humano (Autoestima y Sentido y Plenitud de Vida) 16
    • 2006: Inglés I, Fresadora y Desarrollo Humano (Autoestima Sentido y Plenitud de Vida), curso de Inducción y Tutor del 1º K 2007: Temas de Física, Inglés I, Inglés V, Álgebra, Desarrollo Humano (Autoestima Sentido y Plenitud de Vida), curso de Inducción y Tutor del 1º F 2008: Temas de Física, Elementos de Mecanismos, Inglés I y V, Desarrollo Humano y Tutor del 3o F Jefe del Departamento de Vinculación con el Sector Productivo Presidente de la Academia de Investigación Local (ALIDET)17
    • Saturday March 21, 2009Cooperative writingQuestions 1. How do you see reading and writing linked? R. Reading and writing share similar properties and students are more likely to benefit to the instruction. Either activities or skills are completely related. According to Krashens (1984). Writing and reading help learners to get the necessary language to construct grammatical structures and discourse rules for writing and reading. Krashens viewpoints also recognize the connection that reading can make to writing. Both skills are necessary for the process of composing 2. How would you teach these skills together? R. Most of the times students may not see the connection that exist between writing and reading but both are closely relate, now we can mention an activity that can encourage the use of both. Chose a text and generate questions about the title of the selected text. Use double-entry journals to provide a purpose for reading and encourage critical thinking. The student interrogates the text by generating questions and looking for answers to their questions as they read the selection. Read something and stop periodically while reading, and write predictions about what will happen. Write a summary of the reading. While reading keep list of unfamiliar words and try to write the meanings. After completing the reading, look up the words in the dictionary to check the meanings. Read some topic and do the student make a dictation to other student (we did this activity in class) 18
    • 19
    • Survey about writing habits 20
    • Saturday March 28, 2009 How do we can integrate skills in English teaching? During this activity, we could think about how we can integrate activities where the students can be capable to practice the four skills in the same activities. Here there are some examples that can help to integrate the four skills.21
    • Saturday April 04, 2009Noticing According to Spada, N. (2006) learners pay conscious attention to the input about specific characteristics of the language and that is known as “noticing”, especially when they notice how language has a relationship between their meanings and forms. Noticing is a complex process that involves meanings and forms; it encourage to the learners to improvesome specific points of the language and it helps to notice a particular grammaticalfeature or principleNoticing is a necessary condition for learning and it is a conscious awareness.Richard Schmidt (1990, 2001) suggests that nothing in the process of language learningis taught unless that part of the language will be “noticeable”.Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned. (3rd Ed.) China: Oxford University Press.Noticing activityDiscovering the text through dictation and guessingLevel IntermediateMain goals Students practice grammar and dictation and try to guess what word isnext.Language focus Nouns, verbs, adjectives, prepositions, adverbs, pronoun,conjunction and interjection.Preparation Students have different text 22
    • Method: One student has some part of text and the other has other part (complement). The first students say the first word in his/her text, the second student say the word that he/she has and write the word. The first student ask the second student about if he/she can guess next word in the text, if he/she does not guess the word, the word is dictated, and the second student write the word. The second student does the same and the activity continues to finish each text. Saturday April 25, 2009 Testing and evaluating Exist four categories of test each one has their own reasons for being applying. Placement test: This kind of test is used for place the students in the right level according their knowledge about grammar and vocabulary. An asses is necessary for measure the productive and receptive skills. Diagnostic Test: Design to exposes gaps of the knowledge, difficulties about the language and deficient skills during a course. Progress or achievement test: Measure the progress skills according to the syllabus follows. This test is valid just if the items are familiar for the students; the items must similar to the items they have answered during a class or exercise. If the items are not familiar with the students, the test will not measure the learning. This test takes place at the end of a topic or unit. Proficiency test: It measures the general knowledge and ability of the students in order to be admitted in a university, get a job or to get a certificate. What is a good test?23
    • Validity and reliability are characteristics that determine a good testValidity: A valid test is a test that it measures the knowledge or skill that supposesshould be test.Reliability: It consists in making the test enough clear that if two different groups take it,both group should get similar results.Types of test itemThere are two types of items, direct items and indirect items. Direct items try to measurehow much language knowledge know the students in real life and indirect items look forhow much language know with more controlled items, such as multiple choice items.Test Items that ask one thing at a time is called discrete-point items and items that aredesign to ask a variety of language like writing composition or conversational test iscalled integrative test items.A good test should be designed using both discrete-point and integrative test items.Evolution of the test in English language learningAccording to Genesse, F. and Upshur J.A. (1996) typically a test is a way of gatheringinformation in order to take educational decisions referent to the students andinstructional methodologies and this concept kept its meaning through the years. Thereare different types of testing: questionnaires, interviews, examination, and portfolioamongst others. In spite of these instruments of evaluation have their own purpose;Teachers refer to them as exams. The differences between them are mainly the scope,the importance, the function, and the care with they are prepared, but all of them consistof demonstrating observable knowledge, ability, or proficiency that students shouldhave. In the case of English language test, “there is a confusion regarding theterminology used to denote the different types of language test in use” (Heaton, 1991, p.171), but in recent years the use of portfolios, interviews, journals, project work, andself-peer assessment have increased their application in ESL classroom (Richards, J. C& Renandya, W. A., 2002, p. 235). These new forms of assessment are student-centered and help them to be more involved in their learning process, taking control 24
    • about their own learning. For the teachers, help them to get information refer to the instructional plans and practices in order to improve them. Genesse, F. & Upshur J.A. (1996). Classroom-based evaluation in second language education. Edinburg: Cambridge University Press. Heaton, J.B. (1991). Writing English language tests: a practical guide for teachers of English as a second or foreign language. New York: Logman. Richards C. J. (2002). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. New York: Cambridge University Press. Harmer J. (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching. (3rd. Edition). Edinburgh: Longman. Saturday May 9, 2009 Didactic materials design Profile of the book Name Touchstone Student Book 1 Authors Michael McCarthy, Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Touchstone is a packed course that offers English learning; designed for beginning students. According to the editorial, Students Book 1 includes vocabulary, grammar, and functions that the native English speakers encounter most often in real life. It also develops the strategies that students need for effective conversations, such as how to start and end a conversation and how to ask questions that are not too direct. Its design is attractive and includes a lot of color photos and illustrations. The chapters are organized in which form that the student starts with the basis English and end with something more complicate. A free self-study Audio CD/CD-ROM is included for focus in listening, speaking, and vocabulary. Key Features Conversation presented is about how vocabulary and grammar are typically used in conversation.25
    • Grammar is presented in natural contexts. A lot of vocabulary commonly used. Many languages and skills activities are used. Real life conversations are used in the listening.Chapter 8 ShoppingThis chapter shows the way of using like to, need to and have to in coordinating withothers verbs. In addition, the book present the use of this, that, these and those incombination with how much. Other topics that are included in the book are colors,shopping and prices.This unit pays special attention in how buy clothes and gifts, ask for prices and discussshopping habits. Use grammatical elements like “like to, want to, need to, have to,question with how much, this, these, that and those. The vocabulary that is includedrefers to the things that we normally buy and do when we are traveling.In my opinion, this chapter should be use functions and vocabulary relate with normallife, not traveling. Usually when we see a real conversation or a movie, the actors do nottalk about buying cars, jewelry and watches; they want to buy cigarettes, cokes, food,and other things necessary for a common life. For these reason I prose the next activity.Activity about shopping vocabularyLook at the expressions on the blackboard. Write a title for each category ofexpressions. 26
    • 27
    • Fill the chart with the correct answers according to the informationGetting Information:What did he buy at London Rolls Bakery? He bought ___________________.How much was it? It was _________ and ________________.How much was the total? With tax, the total came to ________How did he pay for it? He __________________________.Confirming Information:So that’s a total of _______________________. That’s right. 28
    • Fill the chart with the correct answers according to the image below Getting Information: What did he buy at __________? He bought ___________________. How much was it? It was _________ and ________________. How much was the total? With tax, the total came to ________ How did he pay for it? He __________________________. Confirming Information: So that’s a total of _______________________. That’s right.29
    • BibliographyTask design references by Jesús Vilches & Romero Stern, H. (1991). Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. o This book is about the theory of language teaching Parrott, M. (1993). Task for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. o The task in this book are intended to lead the users to increased awareness of the process involved in Language learning with range of option available to the teacher. Ellis, R. (2003). Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching. Great Clarendon: Oxford University Press. o The content of this book will engage teachers in the what of teaching and how to teach, Ts will find helpful information to develop and improve task design. Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for Task-Based Learning. Edinburgh Gate: Addison Wesley Longman. Nunan, D. (2004). Task-Based Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. o Here there is a really interesting passage, defining Task (p. 1)Observation and reflection by Eduardo Hernandez and Valeria Kenny B. & Savage W. (1997). Language and Development. (1st Ed.) ? :Addison Wesley Longman Limited. 30
    • Nunan D. & Lamb C. (2000). The Self-Directed Teacher. (4th Edition) Cambridge University Press. Duff T. (1988). Explorations In Teacher Training. (1st Edition) Longman Allwright D. (1993) Observation In The Classroom (4th Edition) Longman Michael Leguthe and Howard Thomas (1993) Process and experiences in the language classroom (Second edition) Longman Group. o Reflection in page 217-19 o Chapter 6 refers to issues in project learning and it talks about the process that involves experiences in class. David Gardner and Lindsay Miler (2003) Establishing Self-Access from theory to practice (Second Edition) Cambridge University Press. o Refletion 94, 174, 177 and 217 Jerry G. Gebhard and Robert Oprandy (1999) Language Teaching Awareness a Guide to Exploring Beliefs and Practices (First Edition) Cambridge University Press. o Chapter 5 Reflection through a teaching Journal page 78. The chapter talks about experiences about how teach English. Patsy M. Lightbown and Nina Spada (1999) How Language are Learned (Second Edition) Oxford University Press. o Chapter 5. Observation second language teaching. Page 91. In this chapter we see different ways of observing teaching classes in inside the classroom. Teaching Materials by Cuauhtémoc Cunningsworth, A. (1984)"Evaluation and Selecting EFL Teaching Materials" 5, 43 – 49 / 6, 50 – 58 Ur, Penny. (1994) “Teaching Listening Comprehension” 3, 22 – 30. Reading by Giorgia & Rosy31
    • 428.64 Dixon, R.J. (1986) Easy Reading Selection in English. Mexico City:Ediciones RP. o It is a text book that includes 12 short stories and some exercises related to them. The exercises go from comprehension questions to vocabulary exercises like guessing the meaning of a word, for example. There are also some grammar exercises like transforming the tenses of some sentences following a given model.428.64 Ellis, R., Tomlinson, B. (1987) Reading, upper-intermediate. Oxford:Oxford University Press. o It is a text book that helps students to improve their reading skills through different types of readings and exercises. The readings go from instructions to academic texts and the exercises are related to the different themes of the chapters.428.64 Glendinning, E.H., Holmström, B. (1992) Study Reading. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. o It is a text book that helps students to improve their reading skills through different exercises that make students think about the readings proposed in the book, while they are doing individual, pairs and groups activities.428.64 Tiersky, E. & Hughes, R., (1996) Morning Edition: Mastering Reading andLanguage Skills with the Newspaper, Lincolnwood, Chicago: National Textbook. o Morning edition is a reading skills text built around articles form the International Herald Tribune. Readers who are familiar within the news will be pleased to see this all-new volume featuring 31 recently published articles. Special attention is given to improving newspaper reading skills in the text’s eight “focus on the newspaper” sections. The first focus section provides an overview on the newspaper or particular types of writing: “hard” news stories, features, opinions pieces, profiles, sports stories, reviews, business news, and soon, The focus section describe the kinds of information you can expect to 32
    • find in the newspaper and provide hands*on practice in recognizing and analyzing various types of articles. 428.64 Wegmann, B., Knezevic, M.P. (1985) Mosaic I, a reading skill book. (1st edition), New York: Random House. o It is a text book where learners can exercise different reading skills. At the beginning of every chapter there is an introduction of the chapter and pre- reading exercise; then there is the main reading; and after that, there are different exercises related to the main reading that vary from comprehension questions to vocabulary definitions. The themes of the readings change from one chapter to another. TR Wallace, C. (1992) Reading. Oxford: Oxford University Press. o It is a book that focuses on reading and learning to read. It is divided into 3 sections: the first one talks about the meaning of reading and the different types of reading; the second one examines the nature of learning to read and learner readers and presents some materials that can be used in the classrooms; the third one is designed to help teachers to practice reading through a range of different tasks. 428.42 Criscoe, B.L., Thomas, C. G, Ed., (1984), Content Reading: A Diagnostic Prescriptive Approach, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. o This book was written to assist teachers in grades 4 through 12 in guiding students reading in content subjects. The chief concerns of the authors in preparing this text where to provide content teachers with a basic understanding of how students learn to read, to develop strategies and materials of diagnosing students content reading needs and to offer instructional suggestion for teaching the skills and habits essential to understanding content material. Carlisle, A. (2000) “Reading logs: an application for reader-response theory in ELT”, ELT Journal, 54, 1, 12-19.33
    • o It is an article, which talks about the importance of using reading logs for L2 readers, since they stimulate readers “to go beyond the first barrier of semantic understanding and to move towards critical appreciation.”(Carlisle, 2002,12)Evans, S. (2008) “Reading reactions journals in EAP”, ELT Journal, 62, 3, 240-247. o It is an article that “looks at two specific problems faced by second-language university students attending courses in English for Academic Purposes (EAP): expository texts and reading-to-write tasks.”(Evans, 2008, 240)And it specify the benefits of RRJ in this area.Gibson, S. (2008) “Reading aloud: a useful learning tool?”, ELT Journal, 61, 1, 29-36. o It is an article about the “role of reading aloud in language learning.”(Gibson, 2008, 29)Liu, J. (2000) “The power of Readers Theatre: from reading to writing”, ETL Journal,54, 4, 354-361. o It is an article about readers’ theatre, as a new and creative idea of promoting reading in the classroom.Macalister, J. (2008) “Implementing extensive reading in an EAP programme”, ELTJournal, 62, 3, 248-255. o It is an article about “the implementation of extensive reading component in a pre-university study EAP programme.”(Macalister, 2008, 248)Mera Rivas, R.M. (1999) “Reading in recent ETL coursebooks”, ETL Journal, 53, 1,12-21. o It is an article that “presents an analysis of the reading components in a representative sample of ELT coursebooks for intermediate level and above[…]” (Mera Rivas, 1999, 12) 34
    • Pani, S. (2004) “Reading strategy instruction through mental modeling”, ETL Journal, 58, 4, 355-362. o It is an article about mental modeling, “a technique through which the teacher demonstrates the mental process of a “superior” reader while he/she makes sense of the text. Since this makes the process of reading “visible”, it is easy for learners to initiate the steps.” (Pani, 2004, 355) Writing Brown,K. and Hood,S.(1992) Writing matters (3rd ed.). Hong Kong:Cambridge University Press. o It is a book to help us to develop our writing ability in English. It gives the opportunity to practice an it helps on how to organize ideas, linking them, choosing the right word, spelling, punctuation, etc. Byrne,D.(1991) Teaching writing skills (5th ed.). London & New York:Longman. o This book is useful to see how writing is used for the purpose of communication. It provides several activities about how to teach writing. Cavusgil,S.(1998) Looking ahead: Introduction to academic writing. Washington,State: Heinle&Heinle. o Hedge,T.(1991). Writing.(4th ed.).Hong Kong: Oxford University. Longan,J.(1989) English skills (4th ed.). New Jersey: McGraw Hill. o This book explains in a clear and direct way the basic principles and skills we must learn to write effectively. And it provides a number of practice materials, so that we can work on the skills enough to make them habits. Seltzer,S.,Martin,C.,Krantz,H.,Kimmelman,J.,Sackmary,R., Lantz- Goldhaber,S.(1981) Discovering American English Writing. New York:Macmillan. o This book is intended for use by students of English as a second language, and it is designed to help them achieve their goals on writing. The book contains essays of increasing length and complexity.35
    • Shumaker,J.B., Sheldon,J.B.(1999) Proficiency in the sentence writing strategy.Lawrence,Kansas:The University of Kansas.White,R.V.(1980) Teaching written English. London:George Allen & Unwin. o In this book you can find useful strategies on how to teach writing. It also contains exercises to practice simple sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences.White, R.V.(1995) New ways in teaching writing. Bloomington,Illinois:JackC.Richards,Series Editor. o The book focuses on different types and formats of writing, and stimulates these activities through diverse techniques and methods. The book is organized in four parts: Writing processes (generate ideas, using critical thinking, evaluating and revising). Academic writing, Expressive writing (including poetry and prose), Personal and business correspondence (writing in the real world). 36
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