Licenciatura en Enseñanza del Ingles Metodologia de La Enseñanza del Inglés como Lengua Extranjera Teacher: Ireri Armenta Eduardo Hernández Rangel AFFECTIVE = EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING METHOD"A CQUISITION REQUIRES MEANINGFUL INTERACTION IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE -NATURAL COMMUNICATION - IN WHICH SPEAKERS ARE CONCERNED NOT WITH THE FORMOF THEIR UTTERANCES BUT WITH THE MESSAGES THEY ARE CONVEYING ANDUNDERSTANDING ." S TEPHEN K RASHEN .
INTRODUCTIONThe present method gives an idea about how to teach in the Language EnglishClassroom in an effective way encourage the students with affective attitudes. Themethod considers the human being as an organism capable to reach any objective thatseems impossible to reach and it considers aspects about multiple intelligences,suggestopedia and physical responses.All this based on what the students want tolearn. THEORY OF LANGUAGEAccording to Krashens theory of second language acquisition it consists of fivehypotheses. Acquisition-Learning hypothesis, Monitor hypothesis, Natural Order hypothesis, Input hypothesis, Affective Filter hypothesis.Krashen states that all humans being have two ways to perform a second language,the acquired system and the learned system. The acquired system or acquisition is aprocess very similar on how a child learns the first language. In this system interactionhas a very important value in which for speakers the form is not important; the mostimportant goal is the utterances in the communicative act.The learned system or learning is formal instruction needed to acquire consciousknowledge about the language for example knowledge of grammar rules.AELTM encourage the student use the language in any situation, providing thenecessary skills for them.Although Lozanov in 1978 states that suggestopedia and other method based onAffective filter hypothesis do not have a visible language theory it helps acquiring habitsof speech by doing emphasis on memorization of vocabulary.For this reason the method I propose emphasized thebehaviorist and humanismtheoryof language since my method reflects the learning perspective based on the propositionthat all things that an human being do, including acting, thinking and feeling areconsidered as behaviors.
THEORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNINGIn suggestopedia method, Lozanov does not propone a language learning theory butsince my own view there are some consideration on it (Affective effective languageteaching method). Language learning principles are generally sorted into threegroups: cognitive, affective and Linguistic principles. Principles are seen as theoryderived from research, to which teachers need to use in classroom and these methodemphases the affective principles as the main factor in which the students can reach aneffective language learning.Affective principles involve developing new language and new mode of thinking - a newlanguage "ego", involves risk-taking and experimentingbeyond avoiding embarrassingsituations that can reach better retention.Learning a language also involves learningabout cultural values and thinking.Krashen and Terrell, in 1983, said that one of the most important considerations forlearning a new language is to have interest in it and to be stimulated and to promoteconditions of very low anxiety in class. When students enjoy the class doing new anddifferent activities, their Affective Filter is low and they learn better.There area a lot of changes that have been affected the pedagogical methods inteaching English area, but one of the most important changes is that now the instructionof English as second language acquisition is centered in the student. This change hasobligated to propone new rules, conditions andattitudes, especially for the teacher. Pedagogical changes have understood that forreach an effective English acquisition the instruction must be affective, it must exist aclose relation between teachers and students. Both parts should negotiate theimportance that hasto teach and to learn inside the classroom. For reaching a betterlearningactivity the teacher should become more dynamic and the students should showa positive attitude towards the teacher and their partners.According to the theory of language learning, my method (AELTM) offers and affectiveand effective learning due to the students who are motivated, and relaxed about learningthe target language have much more success learning and acquiring a second languagethan those who are not.
DESIGN O BJECTI VE SAffective effective language teaching methodhelps to produce conversational patternsquickly due to the fact that the students feel comfortable in the classroom.According to the affective filter hypothesis by Krashen, certain emotions, such asanxiety, self-doubt, and mere boredom interfere with the process of acquiring thelanguage. Low anxiety between the speaker and the listener helps to have a betterconversation between them and both are capable to understand. Reducing this negativeemotions maximize the efficiency of the process.For this reason, helping the student toreduce anxiety encourage them to produce language very quickly. As such, individualswho are able to handle frustration, control emotion and get along well with other peopleare invariably more successful.Awareness in this direction will enable individuals to recognize the importance ofspending time in self-reflection (introspection), according to Garner, H. (1983), learningimpulse control, developing perspective taking skills, valuing intrinsic over extrinsicmotivation, handling relationship better and recognizing and responding better tolearning process. S YLLABUSThere is no syllabus in Affective, Effective Language Teaching Method, but any othersyllabus can be used, the most important consideration is between any activity is toencourage the student to know more about their self as an individual and whole personin order to get the best habits to assimilate the language. T YP ES OF LE AR NING AND TE ACHING AC TI VI TIESThe essential consideration in this method is that the students must be relaxed at all andteachers should be creating a good class’ environment in order to reach an unconsciousaffective and effective learning process.Some types of activities can help to be aware and improve the students learning. Thesetypes of activities were selected for this method because they focus on the behaviorismattitude.1. AdaptingAdapting the lessons by changing the language, speed, and execution, in this way, thestudent can understand well regardless of their English level.
2. Building background Every student has a prior knowledge about some topics so build background for each lesson. Using visuals elements in order to build background knowledge. 3. Comprehensible language Simplify the language when instructions or directions are given.Speak in normal volume. 4. Filter (Affective) Highly recommended due to affective effect that cause on the student’s participation and motivation to speak. The students’ motives, needs, attitudes, and emotional state cause the filter. The teacher can affect this filter in the way they create and manage the classroom climate to accept differences between them. 5. Take responsibility for your own learning! Choosing content of interest, that the students want to listen and read. Try the students discover their own language, like a child. A teacher cannot teach you to become fluent, but the student can learn to become fluent if they want to. 6. Relax and enjoy yourself! Do not worry about the student that cannot remember easily, or cannot yet understand well.The language will gradually become clearer in their brain, this will happen on a schedule that the teacher cannot control. L E AR NER ROLES Teachers and students need to know what kinds of activities are more effective for them. They should be conscious about the personality development in order to be success in language learning process. T E ACHER R OLES According to Lozanovteachersshould show some behaviors that contribute to the suggestopedia and are taken for Affective, Effective Language Teaching Method. The role of the teachers and what they do in the classroom is the main reason of the method due to they are the major motivator in the learning process, if the teacher do not take the role consciously, the method is not successfully. Some guidelines for the teacher are described here and they are based on suggestopedia and behaviorism. 1.Belief in the method and show confidence. 2. Avoid fastidious conduct.AELTM 1
3. Create a good environment and spread confidence in the students.4. Respect the students and do they respect between them.5. Show a great enthusiasm.6. Consider the strengths and weakness of the intelligence in all the students(theoretical, pedagogical and practical).7. Encourage commitment in the language learning.8. Tell stories about success English students.9. Tell about what they can reach learning English.10. Link your life’s experience to their concepts.11. This method is based on reduce the stress in the students, this permit betterlearning. Using humor to lower stress and anxiety produce good Communications andlittle by little they produce the language. R OLES OF M ATER IALS Textbooks and other realia can be used. The textbook should have emotional force, literary quality, and interesting characters. Flash cards, games, educational software and so on. Activities and material can be adapted according to the intelligence. The use of technology in English language teaching should be maximized since the technology and MI provides a winning combination. This means that English teaching with technology is believed to influence students’ learning more than any other medium. PROCEDUREAccording to this method, teachers should identify activities they usually do in theirclassroom and select those that permit maximize the learning according to theintegration of multiple intelligences, suggestopedia, physical responses, and natural wayof learning. For this reason this method proposes the following simple guidelines. 1. Use non-verbal language. Facial expressions, hand gestures, and other non- Questions 2008 verbal communication are a great way to overcome the language problems. Use movements to associate vocabulary or tenses. 2
2. Teacher should offer a great support for the student who has trouble functioning in groups. Look for something of personal significance in whatever you are teaching.Try to answer questions about why it matters to you and how you can use the information. 3. Use visual aids. Picture is worth a thousand words. Visual elements keep lessons interesting for the students. Cooperativelearning in theclassroom. Students have, in some cases, zero opportunity to interact with the teacher. Group work gives students an opportunity to practice the language. Two to five people are highly recommended. They will feel free to interact and are expected to do so; perfect for extrovert students. Discusstopicwithsomeoneelse. Teachwhatyou are learningtosomeoneelse. Compare notes withsomeoneelsetakingthecourse. 4. Create a good atmosphere. Students are self-conscious about their lack of English ability and will thus be unsure to use it. The teacher should create a safe and supportive environment, in which the students will be relax and comfortable experimenting with the language. 5. Play appropriate background music as you think about the topic. Try to choose music that represents what you are learning. It causes to have a relaxed classroom. CONCLUSIONS In the English language acquisition, students are affected by many factors likesocie- economic, cultural background, age, ability to learn, and so on, but one of the most effective is motivation and affective attitude through them. Affective attitude lets to the student to have a desire to learn more since studies on motivation show that motivated students are more successful in second language learning. Affective teaching strategies help to promote positives attitude formation and provide effective attitude. It is a highly persuasive instruction that involves the students emotionally. Finally, affective conducts in the classroom provides students with an opportunity to express emotions and positive attitude through language learning, and responds with positive reinforcement. Including these qualities inside the classroom provides positive behavior in the student and as a result, the learning process is more effective.AELTM 3
REFERENCESRichards, J. and Schmidt, R. (2002) Longman Dictionary of Language Teachingand Applied Linguistics (3rd edn.) London: Longman.Lozanov, Georgi, Suggestology and Outlines of Suggestopedy, New York:Gordon & Breach 1978 (Translation of: NaukaiIskustvi, Sofia 1971).Garner, H. (1983). FramesofMind. New York. Basic Bok Inc.Maria del Rosario de Lima Botelho (2003). Multiple Intelligences theory in EnglishLanguage Teaching an Analysis of Current Textbooks, Materials and TeachersPerceptions. Thesis from College of Arts and Sciences of Ohio University.Richards, J.Rodgers, T. (1991). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching.USA. Cambridge University Press.Hassan-Pasha Sharifi (Ph.D). The Introductory suty of Gardner’s multipleintelligence theory, in the field of lesson subjects and the student’s compatibility.