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  • 1. Statistical package for Social Sciences
  • 2. Data Preparation components Data Selection Data Cleaning New Data Construction Data Formatting
  • 3. Introduction  SPSS for windows is a computer package that will perform a wide variety of statistical procedures.  Data management and analysis can be handled well with SPSS.  Using SPSS we can manipulate data, make graphs and perform statistical techniques varying from means to regression.
  • 4. SPSS windows process  Data window  Variable view window  Output window  Chart editor window
  • 5. This provides view about the data. This view provides a platform to define variables and their characteristics.
  • 6. This view is used to define a variable. 1. Its name. 2. Type 3. Width 4. Decimals 5. Labels 6. Values 7. Missing 8. Columns 9. Align 10. Measure
  • 7. Data Entry
  • 8. Data Entry
  • 9. Statistical Terms & Tests  Descriptive Statistics Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Descriptives
  • 10. Statistical Terms & Tests  Correlation  Analyze > Correlate > Bivariate
  • 11. Correlating the dichotomous variables To compute a correlation matrix for the dichotomous variables, select the Correlate command from the Analyze menu.
  • 12. Specifications for correlations Second, click on the OK button to complete the request. First, move the dichotomous variables to the variables list box.
  • 13. The correlation matrix Correlations .a .a .a .a .a . . . . . 256 256 256 256 256 .a 1 -.049 .a -.042 . . .437 . .501 256 256 256 256 256 .a -.049 1 .a -.010 . .437 . . .877 256 256 256 256 256 .a .a .a .a .a . . . . . 256 256 256 256 256 .a -.042 -.010 .a 1 . .501 .877 . . 256 256 256 256 256 Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N LABOR FRCE STATUS (Valid/Missing) NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED LAST WEEK (Valid/Missing) R SELF-EMP OR WORKS FOR SOMEBODY (Valid/Missing) GOVT OR PRIVATE EMPLOYEE (Valid/Missing) RS OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE SCORE (1980) (Valid/Missing) LABOR FRCE STATUS (Valid/Mis sing) NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED LAST WEEK (Valid/Missin g) R SELF-EMP OR WORKS FOR SOMEBODY (Valid/Missin g) GOVT OR PRIVATE EMPLOYEE (Valid/Missi ng) RS OCCUPA TIONAL PRESTIG E SCORE (1980) (Valid/Mis sing) Cannot be computed because at least one of the variables is constant.a. The correlation matrix is symmetric along the diagonal (shown by the blue line). The correlation for any pair of variables is included twice in the table. So we only count the correlations below the diagonal (the cells with the yellow background).
  • 14. Statistical Terms & Tests  T-test  Analyze > Compare Means > (Type of Test)
  • 15.  You can conduct a chi-square test of independence in cross tabulation of SPSS by selecting:  Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs…
  • 16. First, select and move the variables for the question to “Row(s):” and “Column(s):” list boxes. The variable mentioned first in the problem, sex, is used as the independent variable and is moved to the “Column(s):” list box. The variable mentioned second in the problem, [fund], is used as the dependent variable and is moved to the “Row(s)” list box. Second, click on “Statistics…” button to request the test statistic.
  • 17. First, click on “Chi-square” to request the chi-square test of independence. Second, click on “Continue” button to close the Statistics dialog box.
  • 18. Now click on “Cells…” button to specify the contents in the cells of the crosstabs table.
  • 19. First, make sure both “Observed” and “Expected” in the “Counts” section in “Crosstabs: Cell Display” dialog box are checked. In the “Residuals” section, select “Unstandardized” and “Standardized” residuals and click on “Continue” and “OK” buttons.
  • 20. Cases excluded from further analyses SPSS marks the cases that will not be included in further analyses by drawing a slash mark through the case number. We can verify that the selection is working correctly by noting that the case which is omitted had 4 missing variables.