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  1. 1. The Peculiarities of Advertising Language Moscow – 2010
  2. 2. 2 Summary The peculiarities of advertising language are the subject of this graduationpaper. At the beginning, in the first chapter is given a general definition ofadvertising language, its history. The second chapter is types of advertising(consumer advertising, media of consumer advertising). In the third chapter weconsider slogans, logos, types with tone and some thoughts of colour. In the fourthchapter we study advertising as a service. The fifth chapter includes new agenciessuch as newspapers, periodicals, radio, television. And also methods of advertisingin the chapter of sixth (television, newspapers, brochures, direct mail, radio,internet and so on). In the seventh chapter it is considered features of the usinglinguistic devices in advertising texts with functional expressive features, stylisticdevices, syntactic and stylistic features. The eighth chapter introduces the role ofparentheses insertion as additional information. Very important advertising text insociolinguistic coverage and phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices in theninth chapter (Galperin`s stylistic devices, the definitions of stylistic devices withexamples). In the chapter of tenth we consider classification of language styles(Belles-Letters Style, Pablicist Style, Newspaper Style, Scientific Prose Style).And finally in the chapter eleventh it is analysed psychology and advertising. 2
  3. 3. Размещено на 3 Introduction This graduation paper is devoted to the investigation of peculiarities ofadvertising language. However, the number of works devoted to the analysis of advertisinglanguage, is rather significant, though we witness advertising English is developingvery fast. The reason is that advertising is very popular nowadays and a lot ofpeople want to know about advertising language. An advertising practitioner mightsimply want to find clues to more successful advertising; a sociologist might beinterested in its effect on the behaviour and values of society; a psychologist mightbe interested in its effect on individual motivations. And there are many otherpossible approaches. It is very interesting to investigate linguo-stylisticpeculiarities of advertising language in order to understand why advertising has somuch influence on people. That’s why we have chosen advertising language as theobject of this study. Linguo-stylistic peculiarities of advertising language are the subject of thisinvestigation. Theoretical and specialized works of Russian and foreign linguistssuch as I.R. Galperin, E.V. Maksimenko, Angela Goddard, Alastair Crompton,Geoffrey Leech, Guy Cook, Gillian Dyer, Keiko Tanaka and others served as amethodological basis of the given work. Thus, the aim of this graduation paper is to single out the basic linguo-stylistic peculiarities of advertising language, its specific character and to analyzesuch phenomenon as “pun” in advertising English. This graduation paper consists of introduction, six chapters and conclusion. In INTRODUCTION we describe the structure of our graduation paper,ground the actuality of the chosen topic, set aims of this scientific research. In CHAPTER I we give the general overlook of definition of advertisinglanguage and its history. CHAPTER II is devoted to the types of advertising (consumer advertising, 3
  4. 4. 4media of consumer advertising). In CHAPTER III we investigate slogans, logos, types with tone and somethoughts of colour. CHAPTER IV we study advertising as a service (social benefits and massmedia). CHAPTER V includes new agencies such as newspapers, periodicals, radio,television. In CHAPTER VI we study the methods of advertising (television,newspapers, brochures, direct mail, radio, internet and so on). In CHAPTER VII it is considered features of the using linguistic devices inadvertising texts with functional expressive features, stylistic devices, syntacticand stylistic features. In CHAPTER VIII introduces the role of parentheses insertion as additionalinformation. In CHAPTER IX it is very important the advertising text in sociolinguisticcoverage and phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices (Galperin`s stylisticdevices, the definitions of stylistic devices with examples). In CHAPTER X we consider classification of language styles (Belles-LettersStyle, Pablicist Style, Newspaper Style, Scientific Prose Style). In CHAPTER XI it is analysed psychology and advertising. In CONCLUSION we analyze the results of the investigation which showthat advertising language is a special style of the English language with its lingou-stylistic peculiarities. 4
  5. 5. Размещено на 5 1. What is an advertising, its definition? We all recognize the type of advertisement text that occurs in news-papersand magazines, where a product is being presented as desirable for us to buy, wealso know the TV version of this, placed between the programs on certainchannels. It is undoubtedly true that advertisement are texts that do their best to get ourattention, to make us turn towards them. Ad-phenomenon is extremely multifaceted and multidimensional. Thereforenot surprising that there is a considerable variety of interpretations of the conceptsand definitions of the term. Advertising occupies a border position between the various professionalfields and attracts the attention of representatives of various professions.Allocation of certain activities in the advertising field shows a certain level of itsdevelopment. In Russia this process is at an early stage; however we can already say withcertainty about the ever-increasing pace of transformation of advertising in theprofessional realm (occupation). The analysis of advertising texts seems appropriate to rely on the definitionproposed by American Marketing Association, drawing attention to the fact thatthe method of presenting information depends on its nature and characteristics ofthe target audience: Advertising is distributed in some form of impersonal nature of theinformation on products, services or ideas and initiatives designed for groups ofindividuals (target audience) and pay a sponsor. In American book «Advertising: principles and practice»(3) by the followingfunction, which carries advertising, communicative, economic, social. The essenceof the definition of advertising is that advertising plays a significant role not onlyin business but in society. 5
  6. 6. 6 1.1 Advertising and the Modern World The modern world depends on advertising. Without it, producers anddistributors would be unable to sell, buyers would not know about products orservices, and the modern industrial world would collapse. If factory output is to bemaintained profitably, advertising must and continuous. Mass production requiresmass consumption which in turn requires advertising to the mass market throughthe mass media. Advertising is not easily defined, though many people have tried. Narrowly,it means a paid form of non-personal communication that is transmitted throughmass media such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, direct mail, publictransport vehicles, outdoor displays and also the Internet, which aims to persuade,inform, or sell. It flourishes mainly in free-market, profit-oriented countries. It isone of the most important factors in accelerating the distribution of products andhelping to raise the standard of living. Advertising cannot turn a poor product orservice into a good one. But what it can do – and does – is to create an awarenessabout old and new products and services. So three main objectives of advertisingare: (1) to product knowledge about the product or service; (2) to create preferencefor it; and (3) to stimulate thought and action about it. But the word is also used to cover a much broader range of activities – fromdesign to public relations. Advertising belongs to the modern industrial world. In the past when ashopkeeper had only to show and tell about his goods to passers-by, advertising aswe know it today hardly existed. Early forms of advertising were signs such as theinn sign or the apothecary`s jar of colored liquid, some of which have surviveduntil today. Evidence of advertising can be found in cultures that existed thousand ofyears ago, but advertising only became a major industry in the 20-th century.Today the industry employs hundreds of thousand of people and influence the 6
  7. 7. Размещено на 7behavior and buying habits of billions of people. Advertising spending worldwidenow exceeds $350 billion per year. In the United States alone about 6000advertising agencies help create and place advertisements in a variety of media,including newspapers, television, direct mail, radio, magazines, the Internet, andoutdoor signs. Advertising is so commonplace in the United States that an averageperson may encounter from 500 to 1000 advertisements in a single day, accordingto some estimates. Advertising permeates everyone`s daily life. Most advertising is designed to promote the sale of a particular product orservice. Some advertisements, however, are intended to promote an idea orinfluence behavior, such as encouraging people not to use illegal drugs or smokecigarettes. Advertising has become increasingly international. More than ever before,corporations are looking beyond their own country`s borders for new customers.Faster modes of shipping, the growth of multinational corporations, rising personalincome levels worldwide, and falling trade barriers have all encouraged commercebetween countries. Because corporations are opening new markets and selling theirproducts in many regions of the globe, they are also advertising their products inthose regions. 1.2 Advertising all over the world In the world of advertising, selling products is the most important goal. Ascompanies are becoming more global, they are looking for new ways to sell theirproducts all over the world. It is true that because of global communication, theworld is becoming smaller today. But it is also true that the problems of global advertising – problems oflanguage and culture – have become larger than ever. For example, BraniffAirlines wanted to advertise its fine leather seats. But when its advertisement wastranslated from English to Spanish, it told people that they could fly naked! Another example of wrong translation is when Chevrolet tried to market the 7
  8. 8. 8Chevy Nova in Latin America. In English, the word nova refers to a star. But inSpanish, it means «doesn`t go». Would you buy a car with this name? To avoid these problems of translation, most advertising firms are nowbeginning to write completely new ads. In writing new ads, global advertisers mustconsider different styles of communication in different countries. In some cultures,the meaning of an advertisement is usually found in the exact words that are usedto describe the product and to explain why it is better than the competition. This istrue in such countries as the United States, and Germany. But in other cultures,such as Japan, the message depends more on situations and feelings than it does onwords. For this reason, the goal of many TV commercials in Japan will be to showhow good people feel in party or some other social situation. The commercial willnot say that a product is better than others. Instead, its goal will be to create apositive mood or feeling about the product. Global advertisers must also consider differences in laws and customs. Forinstance, certain countries will not allow TV commercials on Sunday, and otherswill not allow TV commercials for children`s products on any day of the week. Insome parts of the world, it is forbidden to show dogs on television or certain typesof clothing, such as jeans. The global advertiser who does not understand suchlaws and customs will soon have problems. Finally, there is the question of what to advertise. People around the worldhave different customs as well as different likes and dislikes. So the bestadvertisement in the world means nothing if the product is not right for the market.Even though some markets around the world are quite similar, companies such asMcDonald`s have found that it is very important to sell different products indifferent parts of the world. So when you go to a McDonald`s in Hawaii, you`llfind Chinese noodles on the menu. If you stop a hamburger in Germany, you canorder a beer with your meal. In Malaysia, you can try a milk shake that is flavoredwith a fruit that most people in other countries have never tasted. The products must be sold with the right kind of message. It has never beenan easy job for global advertisers to create this message. But no matter how 8
  9. 9. Размещено на 9difficult this job may be, it is very important for global advertisers to do it well. Intoday`s competitive world, most new products quickly fail. Knowing how toadvertise in the global market can help companies win the competition for success. In 2000 the United States was the leading advertising market in the worldwith total advertising spending of $147.1 billion. Japan ranked with $39.7 billion,followed by Germany with $20.7 billion, the United Kingdom with $16.5 billion,and France with $10.7 billion. This article deals primarily with advertisingpractices in Canada and United States. 1.3 History Archaeologists have found evidence of advertising dating back to the 3000sBC, among the Babylonians. One of the first known methods of advertising wasthe outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building.Archaeologists have uncovered many such signs, notably in the ruins of ancientRome and Pompeii. An advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent,and one found painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travels to a tavernsituated in another town. In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to a simplebut effective form of advertising, the use of socalled town crier. The criers werecitizens who read public notices aloud and were also employed by merchants toshout the praises of their wares. Later they become familiar figures on the streets ofcolonial American settlement. The town criers were forerunners of the modernannouncer who delivers radio and television commercials. Although graphic forms of advertising appeared early in history, printedmade little headway until the invention of the movable-type printing press byGerman printer Johannes Gutenberg about 1450. This invention made the massdistribution of posters and circulars possible. The first advertisement in Englishappeared in 1472 in the form of a handbill announcing a prayer book for sale. Twohundred years later, the first newspaper advertisement published offering a reward 9
  10. 10. 10for the return of 12 stolen horses. In the American colonies, the Boston News-Letter, the regularly published newspaper in America, began carryingadvertisements in 1704, and about 25 years Benjamin Franklin madeadvertisements more readable by using large headlines. In the United States, the advertising profession began in Philadelphia,Pennsylvania, in 1841 when Volney B. Palmer set up a shop as an advertisingagent, the forerunner of the advertising agency. Agents contracted with newspapersfor large amounts of advertising space at discount rates and resold the space toadvertisers at a higher rate. The advertisements themselves were created by theadvertisers. In 1869, Francis Ayer bought out Palmer and N. W. Ayer & Son, anagency that still exists today. Ayer transformed the standard agent practice bybilling advertisers exactly what he paid to publishers plus an agreed uponcommission. Soon Ayer was not only selling space but was also conducting marketand writing the advertising copy. Advertising agencies initially focused on print. But the introduction of radiocreated a new opportunity and by the end of the 1920s, advertising had establisheditself in radio to such an extent that advertisers were producing many of their ownprograms. The early 1930s ushered in dozens of radio dramatic series that wereknown as soap operas because they were sponsored by soap companies. Television had been introduced in 1940, but because of the high cost of TVsets the lack of programming, it was not immediately embraced. As the Americaneconomy soared in the 1950s, so did the sale of TV sets the advertising that paidfor the popular new shows. Soon TV far surpassed radio as an advertising medium. It is important to trace the inception of the Internet before we discuss itsimplications on the future of advertising. This new media was essentially createdfor purposes. The idea of the Internet was proposed by Dr. J. C. R. Licklider ofMIT, in 1962, who headed a Project called Defense Advanced Research ProjectAgency (DARPA). Due to defense reasons, he saw great merit in «the globalnetwork» of computers. He, however, could not completely developed his idea,and thus it was continued by his successor Law Roberts. Dr Roberts in the late 10
  11. 11. Размещено на 11sixties finally managed to develop his plan for ARPANET by connecting acomputer in Massachusetts with a computer in California through a dial uptelephone line. This development demonstrated the feasibility of wide areanetworking. Due to development, in 1969, four Universities UCLA, StanfordResearch Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah connected their maincomputers and shared data from one location and thus began the Internet. Up until the 70s the Internet was popular merely in the government and theacademic circle, but in the mid 70s with the introduction of the new TCP/IPprotocol the Internet became a viable platform to communicate for the averageperson. As the Internet gained popularity with the average person, marketers beganto explore if this medium was lucrative to advertise on. They realized that thismedium gave them more than what the previous mediums could offer. The Internetprovide their consumers with interactivity – consumers could now interact withtheir product and build their own experience with it. They believed that this formof brand conditioning would enhance the consumer`s brand experience. Howeversince this medium was new, there was a lot of skepticism and marketers were verywary at first to invest their marketing budgets. Their skepticism was soon put torest. There has been enough research conducted to show the merit of advertising onthe Internet. 11
  12. 12. 12 2. Types of advertising Advertising can be divided into two broad categories – consumer advertisingand trade advertising. Consumer advertising is directed at the public. Tradeadvertising is directed at wholesalers or distributors who resell to the public. Thisarticle focuses on consumer advertising, the form of advertising that is familiar tomost people. 2.1 Consumer advertising Different Kinds There are two kinds of goods bought by the general public, consumer goodsand consumer durables, which together with consumer services are advertisedmedia addressed to appropriate social grades. Consumer Goods There are the numerous goods to be found in the shops, those which enjoysales like foods, drinks, confectionery and toiletries being called Fast MovingConsumer Goods, (FMCGs) Consumer Durables Usually more expensive and less frequently bought, consumer durables areof a more permanent nature than consumer goods and include clothes, furniture,domestic appliances, entertainment goods like radio, television and video, andmechanical equipment from lawn-mowers to motor-cars. Consumer Services They include services for security and well-being like banking, insurance,investment, repairs and maintenance, and those more to do with pleasure such ashotels, restaurants, travel and holidays. 12
  13. 13. Размещено на 13 2.2 Media of Consumer Advertising The media of consumer advertising are those with wide appeal. Even whenmore specialist journals such as women`s magazines are used they still have largecirculations. In fact, the term «consumer press» is applied to the publicationswhich are displayed for sale in newsagents shops and news-stands. Most of the trade, technical and professional journals have other forms ofdistribution such as special orders placed with newsagents, postal subscription orfree postal controlled circulation. Controlled circulation are mailed (free of charge)to selected readers plus those who have requested copies. The primary media of consumer advertising are the press, radio, television.Outdoor and to a limited extent cinema, supported by sales literature, exhibitionsand sales promotion. We should not forget sponsorship, especially the sponsorshipof many popular sports which in turn can be supported by arena advertising at thesports venue. Consumer advertising can be further divided into national advertising andlocal advertising. National advertising is aimed at consumer throughout the entire country.National advertising usually attempts to create awareness among the public of aproduct or service, or it tries to build loyalty to a product or service. Localadvertising is aimed at informing people in a particular area where they canpurchase a product or service. Advertising to the public may also take the form ofinstitutional advertising, image advertising, informational advertising, orcooperative advertising. Institutional advertising seeks to create a favorable impression of a businessor institution without trying to sell a specific product. This type of advertising isdesigned solely to build prestige and public respect. For nonprofit institutions, suchadvertising helps support the institution`s activities – for example, by encouragingblood donations or cash contributions for the work of an organization like the Red 13
  14. 14. 14Cross. A for-profit business has other reasons for improving its reputation ratherthan trying to sell a particular product. In some cases a large company may sell adiversity of products. As a result, there is greater efficiency in building a brandimage for the company itself. If consumers learn to have a high regard for thecompany, then they are more likely to have a favorable opinion of all of thecompany`s diverse products. Many advertisers prefer a strategy known as image advertising. Theseadvertisers seek to give a product a personality that is unique, appealing, andappropriate so that the consumer will want to choose it over similar products thatmight fulfill the same need. The personality is created partly by the product`sdesign and packaging but, the words and pictures the advertisements associate withthe product. This personality is known as a brand image. Advertisers believe brandimage often leads consumers to select one brand over another or instead of a lessgenetic product. Brand image is especially important for commodities such asdetergents, jeans, hamburgers, and soft drinks, because within these productcategories there are few, if any, major differences. Informational advertising seeks to promote an idea or influence behavior.Sometimes known as service advertising, it may try to discourage young peoplefrom using illicit drugs or it may encourage people to adopt safer, healthierlifestyles. Cooperative advertising is an arrangement between manufacturers andretailers in which manufacturers offer credits to their retail customers foradvertising. The credits, or advertising allowances, are based on the amount ofproduct the retailer purchases. For example, if the retailer purchases $100,000worth of a product a manufacturer, the manufacturer`s cooperative advertisingprogram may allot a 1 percent credit, or $1,000, toward the cost of purchasing anad that will feature the product. In addition, some manufacturers will match theamount that the retailer spends, sharing the cost of the ad. In the United Statesantitrust laws enforced by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) ensure that thesead allowances are offered on equal and terms so that large retailers are not unduly 14
  15. 15. Размещено на 15favored over small retailers. Cooperative advertising is a form of local advertisingbecause it direct consumers to local retail outlets. 15
  16. 16. 16 3. Slogans, Logos, Types A unique and memorable slogan that summarizes and highlights your firm`sspecial capabilities can strengthen the impact of your message, increase yourfirm`s name recognition and enhance your firm`s image. An effective slogan canalso act as a powerful closer or summary statement for your advertisement. Likewise, a distinctive and attractive logo can help to increase your firm`sname recognition and communicate something about the personality of your firmand the nature of your corporate environment. Some firms like to portray atraditional, highly formal image; others like to convey the idea that their firm`sculture is rather informal and more casual. Like your slogan and logo, the type and that is selected for youradvertisement should reflect your firm`s personality and image you want to projectto existing clients, potential clients, your employees, and the general public. Inmost instances, you will want to utilize a simple layout that is direct and to thepoint. A busy and layout can make people feel that your firm is poorly organizedand inefficient. Remember: good copy should be clear. Good copy should be crisp. Goodcopy should be concise. Clear, crisp, and concise. The three Cs of copywritingsuggest that the words in your advertising message do a good job ofcommunicating. Do not use big words when small words can make your meaningclear. Use colorful, descriptive terms. Use the number of words necessary to makeyour meaning clear and no more – but also no less! Recent research conducted atYale University found the following 12 words are the most personal andpersuasive words in our language. You Discovery Safety Money Proven ResultsLove Guarantee Save New Easy Health. Notice the overused word free is not onthe list. As excited as you may be about your product or service the largest ad withthe boldest type doesn`t necessarily receive the attention you might expect. In fact, 16
  17. 17. Размещено на 17sometimes the big and the bold just end up looking like the big, the bad and theugly. For instance, in newspapers where advertisement are surrounded by smalltype set in a column format, the most affective ads are those with an appropriateuse of white space and type. Prove it to yourself. Glance at your morning paper.Where is your eye drawn? More than likely, you are drawn to those ads that strikea balance between type, white space and graphics. (By the way, placement on thepaper will also affect the attention you receive. Your eyes are drawn first to theupper 1/3 of the page and then downward). REMEMBER THAT WHEN YOUR MESSAGE IS PRINTED IN ALLCAPITAL LETTERS, IT IS FAR MORE DIFFICULT FOR READERS TOFOLLOW AND REMAIN INTERESTED. EVEN IN HEADLINES ALLCAPITAL LETTERS SHOULD BE AVOIDED. So does this mean you never use big, bold type or graphics in your ads? Ofcourse not. Just keep in mind that a little goes a long way. Whatever you arepreparing – ads, press releases, data sheets and the like – remember that your mainpurpose is to inform. Just don`t go overboard. 3.1 What`s your tone? The tone of your advertisement should reflect the nature of your targetaudience as well as your firm`s personality and orientation. For example, if you are trying to attract physicians, your message should bewritten the way doctors think and speak. If you are trying to attract clients in aparticular industry, use phrases, images, and language that are germane to thebusinesses comprising that field. Try to let your advertisements speak from yourclients` perspective. After all, they are the people to whom you arte trying topromote your services. In brief, you want potential clients to know that you speakand understand their language. 17
  18. 18. 18 3.2 Some thoughts on colour It`s quite well known that the color red inspires impulsive buying. Our eyesare drawn to the color like ducks to water. Just walk into any supermarket and lookat the color most often used on products. It`s red. The next one is yellow. Bothcolors tend to raise your blood pressure. They cause excitement, which goes toprove one thing: color affects us. The Science of Color. For a long time, color has been used by bothadvertiser and merchandiser to encourage us (the consumer) to take (purchase theproduct or service.) In fact, the use of color in advertising and merchandising hasbecome somewhat of a science to itself. Sometimes color is selected for the sole purpose of drawing attention to theproduct or advertisement. This is when red or yellow may be used. But you canalso attention by using a combination of colors. For instance, Stagg Chili uses ablack background with gold letters. Total creates eye-catching appeal with a bluepackage and a red logo. Color can also be used to relate to a particular product or service. Considerthe Green Giant product. Their packages are set in a white background with thefamous green logo. Healthy Choice is another example of using green. Bothproducts are trying to emulate or healthfulness. Green does the job. Root beer issold, using packages created in brown shades. A&W is a perfect example, whichuses brown and orange. Designers & Color. Designers often select colors to bring life to anotherwise dull advertisement. Sometimes those colors selected by a designer aren`talways based on any real scientific choice. But when asked, the designer canusually give you a reason why he or she selected one color over another. What Colors Say. Of course, as with everything else these days, there havebeen plenty of studies done on color. Here`s short review of some of the basicsused today in advertisements or product development and what they mean: 18
  19. 19. Размещено на 19 Blue Here is the all-time color favorite for most folks, especially men. It`s a coolcolor that is extremely versatile inspiring us in so many different directions. Yellow Along with red, this color raises our blood pressure a bit and catches oureyes specifically when used against black. Yellow embodies life, joy and offers ahigh-visual impact. It adds brightness to our lives. Red This color is an attention grabber. It is considered the hottest color with thehighest impact for attention and action. It has a strong masculine appeal. Green This is the symbol of health. Green is often used with health food products,vegetables and even mentholated tobacco products (to emphasize freshness). Brown Although considered a masculine color, it does have a strong appeal towomen as well. It symbolizes earth, wood, hearth, home, warmth, comfort. Black Black is the embodiment of sophistication, usually used for expensiveproducts. It is also a wonderful background color to accentuate other color, such asyellow, red and orange. Orange This is the color of autumn – the edible color, and it evokes strong emotionsregarding holidays, home, good thing to eat. So what should you do with color in your product or advertisementdevelopment? While most of us in the small business industry cannot afford tohave color studies done for our products, services and/or customers, we can usecolor to provide an accent to our visual presentations. But whatever the you choose, keep it simple (not more than three colors peritem) and be consistent. Remember to always stay with the same color palette. It helps your identity 19
  20. 20. 20and is certainly more pleasing to the eye. Effective advertisement design takes full advantage of buyers` 4 ad readinghabits Attract the - SIZE buyers when they - BRDER scan - COLOR Interest the - ILLUSTRATION buyers when they - LOGOS review - SLOGANS - HEADLINES Convince the - RELIABITY buyers when they - AUTHORIZED SALES & SERVICE read - SPECIALIZATION - COMPLETENESS OF SERVICE Prompt the - INFORMATION buyers when they - MAP buy - INVITATION PHRASE 20
  21. 21. Размещено на 21 4. Advertisement as a service 4.1 Social benefits The impact of the whole advertising industry on a person is immense andplays a very important role in our lives. Advertising absorbs vast sums of moneybut it is useful to the community. What are the function of advertisement? The firstone to mention is to inform. A lot of the information people have about householddevices, cars, building materials, electronic equipment, cosmetics, detergents andfood is largely derived from the advertisements they read. Advertisementsintroduce them to new products or remind them of the existing ones. The second function is to sell. The products are shown from the best point ofview, and the potential buyer, on having entered the store, unconsciously choosesthe advertised products. One buys this washing powder or this chewing gum,because the colorful TV commercial convince him of the best qualities of theproduct. Even cigarettes or sweets or alcohol are associated with the good valuesof human life such as joy, freedom, love and happiness, and just those associationsmake a person choose the advertised products. The aim of a good advertisement is to create a consumer demand to buy theadvertised product or service. Children are good example as they usually want theparticular kind of chocolate or toy or chewing-gum. Being naïve they cannotevaluate objectively what is truthful and what is exaggerated and select the reallygood products unless they buy the goods and check for themselves. Thirdly, since the majority of advertisements are printed in our press we payless for newspapers and magazines, also TV in most countries is cheap. The public advertising seen on street billboard, railway stations andbuildings makes people`s life more joyful. Moreover, all those small ads in thepress concerning «employment», «education» and «For sale and wanted» columns,help ordinary people to find a better job or a better employee, to sell or to buy their 21
  22. 22. 22second-hand things and find services, or learn about educational facilities, socialevents such as, concerts, theatre plays, football matches, and to announce births,marriages and deaths. Thus despite our dissatisfaction when being bombarded byall the advertisers` information, we must admit that they do perform a usefulservice to society, and advertisements are an essential part of our everyday life. 4.2 Mass Media To reach the consumer, advertisers employ a wide variety of media. Mass media is a comprehensive term embracing television, radio, motionpictures, and large-circulation newspapers and magazines. Journalism is one of theinstruments of popular communications. There are five major fields of journalism: newspapers, news services,periodicals, radio, and television perform information only briefly, but quickly.Newspapers include full reports on different topics. News agencies provide themwith the latest information. 22
  23. 23. Размещено на 23 5. News Agencies News agencies are local, international, or technical organizations that gatherand distribute news, selling their services to newspapers, periodicals, andbroadcasters; reports are also available as part of some on-line computer services.The majors news organizations in the U.S. are: the Associated Press (AP), theUnited Press Association, called the United Press (UP), and the International NewsService (INS), United Press International (UPI). Two major European newsagencies are the Reuter Telegram Company of London; and Agence France-Presse.Some countries have government-owned and controlled agencies. News agenciestransmit copy through the use of the telegraph, telephone, wires, underwatercables, and communications satellites. Many offer their clients photographs, newsanalyses, and special features. Methods of advertising Newspapers Newspapers is a publication issued periodically, usually daily or weekly, topresent information about current events. The first daily paper in England was theDaily Courant (1702). England newspapers began to reach the masses in the 19-thcent. Important English newspapers of today are The Times of London (founded in1785) and the Manchester Guardian. One of the oldest continental newspapers,Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, appeared in Germany in 1609; and the first Frenchnewspaper, the Gazette, was founded in 1631. Important newspapers of the worldtoday include Francfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Germany), Figaro (France), and theTimes of India 9Delhi). Since the invention of the telegraph, which facilitated therapid gathering of news, the great news agencies have sold their services to manynewspapers. Improvements in typesetting and printing (especially the web press)have made possible the publication of huge editions at great speed. During the1970-th such technological developments as photocomposition and the use ofcommunications satellites to deliver news and photographs revolutionized the 23
  24. 24. 24newspaper industry. The advent of computer technology has many newspapers tooffer information through commercial on-line computer services, but they areunable to give more attention and space to each problem. The newspaper articlesgive much more information about events. That is the main advantage ofnewspapers. Newspapers cover stories in great detail. However, newspapers presentinformation later than radio or TV. The great advantage of newspapers over radioand TV is that they can report stories in depth. Periodicals Periodicals are publications issued regularly, distinguished from thenewspaper in format, in that their pages are smaller and usually bound, and in thatthey are smaller and in that they are published weekly, monthly, or quarterly,rather that daily. Periodicals range from technical and scholarly journals toillustrated magazines for mass circulation. Specialized magazines include the newsmagazines Time (1923- ) and Newsweek (1933- ). Computer advances have madepossible the delivery of magazine article through on-line services and have begunto spawn entirely electronic periodicals, such as The Online Journal of CurrentCritical Trials (1922- ), a professional medical journal. Radio The first regularly scheduled radio broadcast in the U.S. began in 1920. Thesale of advertising began in 1922, establishing commercial broadcasting as anindustry. A coast-to-coast hookup began early in 1924, and expansion of bothaudience and transmission facilities continued rapidly. Radio is generally the firstof news media to report a local story or a news service bulletin. A radio announcercan interrupt a program with a news flash as soon as the report comes in. Moststations present regular news bulletins every half-hour or hour. The national radiobroadcast major news events. However, most radio news bulletins do not report thenews in detail. In a five minute broadcast the stories average less than 30 secondseach. Radio also provides weather forecast and traffic information. Television 24
  25. 25. Размещено на 25 Experiments in broadcasting television began in the 1920s but wereinterrupted by World War II. Television signals are also now transmitted fromsatellites direct to household satellite dishes. Television is the main source of newsfor many household around the world. TV does what none of the other media can:it brings the sight and sounds of some important news events by means of filmed,taped or live reports. Like regular radio news programs provide only brief accountsof relatively new stories. But the visual aspect of TV news story can often helpviewers understand the story. In addition to daily news reports, television coversspecial news events. Coverage of such an event may replace many hours of regularTV shows. Television also broadcasts in-depth programs that help explain story ofsubjects. Such programs, which run from half an hour to three hours, includedocumentaries and interview programs. Most documentaries are filmed or taped.They may perform such subjects as crime, foreign policy, or race relations.Interview programs, which are usually broadcast live, may consist of a panel ofjournalists who ask questions of a major figure in the news, The importance of mass media and journalism has greatly increased inrecent years. In democratic countries, people depend on the news media for the fairand truthful reporting of current events. Freedom of the press encourages theexchange of ideas among citizens. Media forms public opinions. In the United States, the most popular media, as measured by the amount ofadvertising spending, are television, newspapers, direct mail, radio, Yellow Pages,magazines, the Internet, outdoor advertising, and a variety of other media includingtransit advertisements, novelties, and point-of-purchase displays. These ranking aremeasured each year by Advertising Age, an advertising trade magazine, andseldom vary. In 1999, television attracted about 23,4 percent, or $50,4 billion, ofthe advertising dollars spent in the United States. Television is available toadvertisers in two forms: broadcast and cable. To run commercials on television, advertisers buy units of time known assports. The standard units of time are 15, 30, or 60 seconds in length. These sportsare purchased either locally or from a national network. Because of the high cost of 25
  26. 26. 26national network sports, ranging from hundreds of thousands of dollars to millionof dollars, only large national advertisers can afford to run network televisionsports. Advertisers wishing to reach a local audience can buy time from anindividual station. But even these sports cost so much to produce and run thatsmall and even many mid-sized companies cannot afford them. Because televisioncommercials combine sight, sound, and motion, they are more dramatic than anyother form of advertising and lend excitement and appeal to ordinary products.Advertisers consider television an excellent medium to build a product`s brandimage or to create excitement around a particular event such as a year-end autosale. But TV sports are too brief to provide much product information. As a result,television works best for products such as automobiles, fashion, food, beverages,and credit cards that viewers are familiar with and easily understand. In the United States, newspapers are the second most popular advertisingmedium after television and in 1999 received 21,7 percent, or $46,6 billion, of alladvertising dollars. Newspapers enable advertisers to reach readers of all agegroups, ethnic backgrounds, and income levels. Two types of advertising appear innewspapers: classified advertising, such as the want advertisements, and displayadvertisements. Display advertisements range in size from as large as a full page toas small as one column in width and less than one centimeter (less than one inch)in length. Display advertisements often contain illustrations or photographs andusually provide information about where the product or service being advertisedcan be purchased. Typically, advertising makes up about 65 percent of anewspaper`s content and generates about 65 percent of a newspaper`s revenue. Brochures. For many small business, a printed brochure may be helpful toestablish credibility and tell your story in more detail. Computer typesetting andlaser printing have reduced the cost of producing a brochure. Free layout help isavailable at many copy centers. Brochure having standard 8,5 x 11 inch of triple-fold design that will fit into a standard business envelope is very cheap. OtherLocal Print Media such as booklets available for free pickup in high-traffic areaslike convenience stores, banks and motels should not be overlooked. These may 26
  27. 27. Размещено на 27include guides to local television programs, listings currently available from realestate firms, entertainment or sporting events. Direct mail is the third largest advertising medium, attracting about 19,2percent, or $41 billion, of all U.S. advertising dollars in 1999. Direct mailadvertising, as the name implies, is advertising that is sent directly to people bymail, usually through the postal system. Increasingly, however, electronic mail (e-mail) is being used as a direct mail device. Direct mail can be as simple as a singleletter or as involved as a catalogue or an elaborate e-mail known as HTML (HyperText Markup Language) mail that offers graphics and links to more information. Because advertisers are speaking directly to those who are most likely to buytheir product or service, many advertisers consider direct mail the most effective ofall advertising media for generating immediate results. Direct mail through theU.S. postal system, however, is the most expensive form of advertising, costingabout 14 times as much per exposure as most magazine and newspaperadvertisements. But because of the results it produces, many advertisers believe theexpense is justified. Radio. In America 280 million people own more than 300 million radios!Contrary to the predictions of doom during the advent of television, radio is aliveand well today. In its pretelevision days, radio was the national advertisers` mosteconomical way to communicate with millions at a time. The programs of music,drama and news were a common part of the American life-style. With the adventof television, radio moved to the automobile and the beach. Along came thetransistor and radio moved to the pocket. Today radio is everyhere. It attracted about 8 percent, or $17,2 billion, of all U.S. advertising dollars,making it the fourth largest advertising medium in 1999. Although nationaladvertisers can buy national network radio time, 90 percent of all radio advertisingis local. Unlike television which reaches a broad audience, the specializedprogramming of radio stations enable advertisers to reach a narrow, highly specificaudience such as people who like sports or urban teenagers who listen to the lateststyles of popular music. Because people listen to the radio while doing something 27
  28. 28. 28else such as driving or working, radio commercials can be easily misunderstood.As a result, radio advertisements work best when the messages are relativelysimple ones for familiar, easily understood, products. Yellow Pages, the thick directories of telephone listings and displayadvertisements, represented the fifth most popular advertising medium in 1999,attracting $12,6 billion, or 5,9 percent, of total advertising spending. Almost alladvertising in the Yellow Pages is total advertising spending. Almost alladvertising in the Yellow Pages is local advertising. Magazines ranked sixth in 1999 in total U.S. advertising spending,representing 5,3 percent, or $11,4 billion. They reach all different kinds of readers,who have similar interests. The magazine`s ability to reproduce beautiful color photographs canenhance a product`s appearance. As a result, magazine advertising is an effectiveway to build a product`s brand image. Because such advertising is expensive andbecause most magazines are distributed regionally or nationally, they generallyfeature national advertising rather than local advertising. Magazines generate 63 percent of their revenue from advertising. In 1999,the Internet accounted for $1,9 billion in advertising revenue in the U.S., or 0.9percent of total advertising spending. Advertisements on the often take the form ofbuttons, pop-ups, and sponsorships. But the most important aspect of Internetmarketing is that the World Wide Web allows advertisers to personalize theirmessages for individual customers. For example, each time a customer visits acommercial Web site he is often welcomed by name and is offered informationabout new products based on the type of products the person has purchased in thepast. Moreover, the customer can then order the product immediately withoutventuring out to a store. Outdoor advertising amounted to 0,8 percent, or $1,7 billion, of total adspending in the U.S. in 1999. Outdoor advertising is an effective way to reach ahighly mobile audience that spends a lot of time on the road – for example, incommuting to from work or as part of their job. It offers the lowest cost per 28
  29. 29. Размещено на 29exposure of any major advertising medium, and it produces a major impact,because it is big, colorful, and hard to ignore. The messages on outdoor boardshave to be very brief. So outdoor advertising primarily serves as a remindermedium and one that can trigger an impulse buy. One of the forms of outdooradvertising is hoarding. Hoarding advertisements are usually put up in eye-catching positions at theside of the road. The cost of the advertisement will depend on where the hoardingis and how large it is. If it is a very good place and near the center of the city whereit will be seen by many potential customers, then it will probably be quiteexpensive. The sites are usually rented out to clients on a monthly basis by anadvertising agency. Transit advertising is mainly an urban advertising form that uses buses andtaxi tops as well as posters placed in bus shelters, airports, and subway stations.Like outdoor boards, transit is a form of reminder advertising that helps advertisersplace their name before a local audience. Finally, point-of-purchase advertising places attention-getting displays,streamers, banners, and price cards in the store near where the product is sold toexplain product benefits and promote impulse buys. A wide variety of otheradvertising media are pencils and pens with the firms`s name imprinted,skywriting, business cards and even sandwich boards – all can perform an effectiveadvertising role for some advertisers. It is very difficult for advertisers to tell whether a particular advertisement ormethod of advertising has been effective, but there is no doubt that withoutadvertising the customer would never hear of some products. Perhaps the mosteffective advertising of all is the recommendation of the product by a satisfiedcustomer to a potential customer – advertising by word of mouth. General characteristics of the language of advertising Authors of the study «the language of advertising» share in commercial andnoncommercial. Commercial advertising is divided into branding, industrial and 29
  30. 30. 30consumer. Another significant in terms of language design copywriter, I incur theseparation of commercial advertising on the turn and rubric advertisement.(5) In this study discusses the various structural elements of such promotionaltext – header, body text, and the motto. In addition to these items, you mustmention the subtitle insertion and frame, print, logos, and signatures. The title is sometimes considered the most important part of advertising text(the title attracts the attention of the consumer and the degree of its expressivenessTitles are divided into several types: headlines reporting the useful properties ofprovocative, informative, interrogative and containing the command. The main text of advertising message can be narrative, figurative, tricks (theoriginal), it can be written in the form of dialogue or monologue. 30
  31. 31. Размещено на 31 6. Features the use of linguistic devices in advertising texts 6.1 Functional-expressive features of advertising texts Advertisement text must meet the basic objectives of advertising in general.But one should also take into account its functional role in a particular speechsituation. Text advertisements performs very specific functions. The ultimate goalof advertising text is the conviction of readers of the benefits of the advertisedgoods, services, companies. The effect of advertising is based on the proper use ofa number of linguistic and psychological phenomena and regularities. The main purpose of advertising text to attract attention, arouse interest andstimulate sales. Advertisement text must distinguish intelligibility, brightness,conciseness, extravagance, highly professional. The laws of competition demandfrom the creators of advertising as accurate as possible in the transmission ofinformation, expression, professionalism. 6.2 Stylistic devices in advertisements Promotional texts, one can observe the different stylistic devices. Of course,a play on words and images, the distortion(искажение) of the spelling and idioms,«incorrect syntax and unusual punctuation are very specific to advertising andoften contribute to creating the most significant and successful advertisingmessages. Expression of the following text to a large extent is to use a pun, based onthe many phrasal verb to pick up: the verb in different combinations to acquiredifferent meanings – «to correct and improve things», «pick up the phone.» Thisvalues of the verb are played in the last sentence that promotes a company AT&T(if you want your business to pick up, pick up the phone), which calls on how touse telephone services company with a view to enhancing the success of business 31
  32. 32. 32and business contacts. HE`S NOT IN TEXAS BUT HE`S OILING THE WHEELS IN HOUSTON. «Doug, it`s Brian. I just got the results of the drilling programme». «Impressed?» «Amazed!» «So were we.» When are you back?» «Tomorrow. First flight out. Hey, is the old man happy?» «Ecstatic. Even after six dry holes». «I knew it was there. But I want to here it from you. It`s pumping how manybarrels a day?» The rest of this conversation is strictly confidential. With AT&T and your local telecommunications organization the lines ofcommunication to the States are open for everyone. If you want your business to pick up pick up the phone. AT&T In the text advertising the hotel chain Holiday Inn, deliberately distortedspelling of the word weekend: Don`t have a weakend Have a WEEKENDER Holiday Inn Weekender Plus Such linguistic innovation serves a definite purpose – to attract the attentionof the audience and give it effect. Very active in the advertising used slang and colloquialisms(разговорноевыражение). As noted in the «Language of Advertising Text,» «colloquialconstructions are used to create emotionally expressive color, imagery, clarity andvalidity of the advertising text, which is intended for the general reader, andtherefore should be close to him on the structure. Indeed, often advertising texts are 32
  33. 33. Размещено на 33written in such a way that their sound was like the sound of spoken conversationalspeech. For example: Fresh rousted turkey with all the trimmings – just like mom`s!!! Pork tenderloin in horseradish sauce with rice, veggies and homemadebread. advertising linguistic device In the above as an example of advertising text has repeatedly encounteredslang and colloquialisms: with all the trimmings – just like mom`s, veggies. Inaddition, attention is drawn to the use of the triple exclamation mark, that is notvery typical for the English writing, such an emotive much more typical of oralspeech. Number of possible deviations from the linguistic norm is unlimited, sinceany linguistic rule can be broken one way or another. J. Leach in his book «Englishin advertising» refers to spelling, grammatical, lexical, semantic and contextualdeviation from linguistic norms. 6.3 Syntactic and stylistic features of expressiveness copywriter Any advertising copy submitted in writing or orally, is a text preparedbeforehand, so the analysis of advertising texts we are dealing with two forms ofimplementation of the speech: writing or orally implementation of pre-written text.In studying the expressiveness of advertising texts can not ignore the issue of basicstylistic devices which are used by the authors of texts on the level of syntax andpunctuation to create a special stylistic effects. First of all, attention is drawn to the special parcelling copywriter.Parcellation, of course relates to the field of expressive syntax. The challenge nowparcellation of the text and its role in the expressive effects was one of the mostrelevant in the study of syntactic organization of speech. It should be noted that,unfortunately, among linguists there is no unity of use on the definition of the term«parcelling». The term «parcelling» (from Fr. «Parceller» - to divide, split into pieces») 33
  34. 34. 34means the way the division of the text. In the linguistic literature parceling isdefined as: discharge one utterance in a number of intonation and isolatedsegments, separated on the letter points as separate proposals. Common to all researches recognized parecellation as a way to highlight themost significant semantic parts of speech in a separate proposal in accordance withthe intentions of the speaker (writer). It should be noted that the proposals selectedby a special parcellation of the text found in advertisements often enough.Parcelling copywriter has a particular context: it can be both verbal and nonverbal.Non-verbal context can be created with the help of colorful pictures or diagrams(in a case of the print ad or a poster) or video-clip (television advertising). In thisaspect, special attention should be paid television advertising (in this aspect theadvertising deserves special attention), as the video sequence often contains notonly the image, but written text and image. For example, in advertising of dairyproducts video sequence contains a label («motto»): Milk makes kids strong, -audio series contains only a musical accompaniment. Such phrases are made inaccordance with the rules of graphic design titles, suggesting the use of expressing,expressive punctuation and so on. The nominative sentences are widespread in advertising texts. In it`scommunicative function of the nominative sentence refers to the sentence object orphenomenon. As already mentioned, the main task of the advertising text is to drawattention of the audience to each product, goods, object or event through arelatively short message. This task corresponds to the conciseness andexpressiveness of the nomination sentence, which causes their frequent use inadvertising texts. For example, in advertising jewelry sentences emphasize theirexclusivity for those to whom they are intended for themselves ornaments(Exceptional women. Exceptional diamond), marked not only syntactically butalso graphically. «The first time I gave her a diamond ring she could barely speak for aweek». 34
  35. 35. Размещено на 35 I`ll always remember that face. The smile bordering on a tear. Eyes as lively as the diamond I nervously slipped on her finger. And now that we have come so far together, perhaps it`s time to celebrate that love, again, with a diamond as exceptional as our love. Exceptional women. Exceptional diamond. An exceptional diamond of two carats, or more, is so rare that fewer thanone percent of women will ever own one. If you are considering an importantdiamond gift for your wife, like this ring featuring a brilliantly cut 2.06-caratcenter stone, simply call for your guide to a diamond`s quality and value, as wellas the namo of your local expert diamond jeweler. 1-800-557-1778. A diamond is forever. Especially characteristic advertising texts issued in the form of nominativesentence, which calls the product, company or brand, turning out goods. Forexample: 1. Cronograph The Pasha. The Art of Being Unique 2. American Tank Watch The Art of Being Unique. This advertisements are composed of two sentences for the nomination, thefirst of which represents the name of the advertised brand of hours. Thesepromotional text, despite its brevity, are very concise and memorable though theissuance of title of goods in a separate sentence and quite unconventional graphicdesign. (These advertising messages are presented in the form of title: every fullwords beginning with capital letters). 35
  36. 36. 36 Popular among the creators of advertising texts is a stylistic device ofparallelism. As a parallel construction can serve not only the nominative sentences,but other sentences incomplete construction, such as: Across oceans. Across industries . Across hallways. Notes are working Stylistic effectiveness of reception is to establish a definite rhythmicstructure of the text, helping him to a clearer perception. Enough common stylistic device is the repetition. The repetition of thespeech element, attracting the attention of the reader (listener), emphasizes itssignificance, reinforces the emotional impact of the text. The most typical for thead text is a kind of replay frame. Repeating the same words or sentences not only the attracts the attention ofthe reader (or listener) to repeat an element, but also adds new shades to the itscontent. Stylistic value of the repeat is to strengthen the semantic significance ofthe repeated text. The following advertising of the insurance company insistent repetition ofwords and design «promiss» and construction to keep (our, their) promisesemphasizes the reliability of the company fulfills its promises. A promise that puppy kisses are the very best kind. For now, anyway. A promise to teach you that the more love you give, the more love you get. A promise that in some way I`ll always be behind you. Nothing bines us one to the other like a promise kept. For more than 140years, we`ve been helping people to keep their promise by ensuring we have thefinancing strength to keep ours. That`s why families and business rely on us toensure their lives, their health and their financial future. Mass mutual. We help you keep your promises. The role of parentheses insertion in advertising texts. In advertising texts often used parentheses. This explanation can be found if 36
  37. 37. Размещено на 37we recall the basic definition of parentheses as a part of the text, which introducesparallel and additional information to help apprehend the content of the main bodyof the text, in this case information about a particular product, subject, company,etc… Researches who have worked in this field, the term «parentheses»understand insertion in the sentence not connected with grammatical words,phrases, or other sentences. As you know, parenthetic insertion are modal in nature i.e. invisible to thereader to have an impact. Virtually all parentheses made in the text of a well-defined a modality and through skilful use of parentheses possible to vary themodal coloring text and even change its meaning. Advertising texts intended topersuade. Parentheses are an important element of the text of the register, givingthem a certain modality. Parenthetic insertion provide additional information. Parentheses give theadvantage of the text, making it easier and more understandable to the reader. In advertising texts, sings serving to highlight parenthetic insertion (doublecommas, dashes, and parentheses) differ in frequency and efficiency of use. Short parenthetic insertion processed by double commas. This kind ofintroduction is rare in advertising texts. Double dashes and brackets are drawnmore extensive parentheses insertion. Commas allocated variety parentheticinsertion when it comes to the simplest cases, in particular about cliché insertions. Such insertions are usually in the beginning of the sentence in advertisingtexts. The next case of double commas is quite atypical, and therefore deservesspecial attention. Small wonder brings you big, lifelike sound. Introducing the Bose Wave radio. For sound big enough to fill any room inyour home. When was last the last time you enjoyed the distinct sound of orchestralstrings in your kitchen? Or in the study? The new Bose Wave radio makes itpossible anytime. 37
  38. 38. 38 It`s attractive and loaded with features. But the true beauty of this smallwonder is the sound – it`s bigger, richer, and more lifelike than you ever thought aradio could be. Measuring just 4.5 H x 14 W x 8 D, the Wave radio is smallenough to fit in any room in your home. And our patented acoustic waveguidespeaker technology enables the Wave radio to fill the room with big stereo sound. The critics approved. Popular science claimed, «The sound that issues from this little stereo radiois startling», and Business Week hailed it as one of the «Best New Products of1994». We think you`ll be equally impressed. The Bose Wave radio is designed forboth great sound and convenience. There is a credit card-sized remote control, pre-set buttons for your favorite AM/FM stations, dual alarms, and many otherfeatures. You can even connected to a CD or cassette player to enjoy any musicyou like. Try out the Bose Wave radio in your home. The Wave radio is available directly from Bose, the most respected name issound, for just $349. For a free information kit, simply call the toll-free number orsend/fux the coupon below. Or to try out the Wave radio in your home for 14 days,satisfaction guaranteed, call: 1-800-845-BOSE, ext. RP338A. The information enclosed in double dash, has a sufficiently large value,drawing the attention of readers to the basic dignity of the advertised system OvidFull Text: for the user, of course, is an important fact that this system allows you tofind the word ( the title line, etc. ) in the whole text. The dash performs anexpressive function, drawing attention to the most significant features of theadvertised goods. Let us turn to the analysis of the next message that promotes a similarsystem to find information in the whole text. You`ve received vital materials that the sales force needs this second. 38
  39. 39. Размещено на 39 But the information im`t all electronic. And the team is spread over a continent. (So skywriting isn`t an option.) Then you combine Lotus Notes with IBM Image plus. Now putting it into the system is as good as putting it all into their hands. The faster you can get information out into your organization, the fasteryour people can put it to work. That`s the reason why Lotus Notes has become such a fundamental pan ofbusiness everywhere. It not only makes the most current information available toeveryone across the organization, it helps people work faster, work smarter and –most important – work together. But what about information you receive or produce that doesn`t start out inelectronic form? Such as videos, order forms, faxes or correspondence. Ormaterials specific to your business, like X-rays or photographs. Well, now Lotus Notes works hand-in-hand with IBM`s scalable Image-Plus.This is the same imaging solution that handles millions of documents every day insome of the world`s busiest financial and insurance companies. In the text the brackets are used according to the rules: to highlight the lessimportant information. Double dash allocate more meaning full expressive speech. We can not ignore the fact that through the brackets is also made parenthesesrepresenting individual sentences. The information supplied in this way, as a rule,is not a miner but very important. Registration of certain statements as individual sentences and their allocationthrough the brackets enhances the expressiveness of the text. In such cases, the useof parentheses is not due to secondary character introduced in these statement, and 39
  40. 40. 40punctuation rules. Let us analyze the following example: Financial Restructuring Enabling A Timber Company To Go Public. (We Planted The Seed For Their Growth.) A growing timber company needed to restructure in order to go public. Theyturned to us for financial advice, interim financing and a commitment for the longterm finding they needed to grow. We specialized in helping our clients reach newheights. Bank of America. The first sentence of advertising messages delivered in the title. Phrasecontaining the first mention of the advertised Company ( We planted … ), framedas an introductory offer, highlighted by brackets. Thus, the reader`s attention isfocused on obtaining more complete information about the advertised organization.Goal promotes the use of personal pronouns in the highlighted sentence, whichforces the reader to concentrate on finding the text name of the company.Admission is very efficient, since it facilitates the provision of a very expensivenames in the text. It`s clear that in this case can not talk about supporting the roleof the information contained in the submittal. On the contrary through its design asparentheses and isolation through brackets authors draw attention to the importantadvantage of the advertised bank. Use a double dash and brackets for registration of parentheses of differentdegrees of importance allows authors to reach a certain hierarchy in theirperception. In advertising texts, signs, serving to highlight parentheses insertions(double commas, dashes, and parentheses) differ in frequency and efficiency ofuse. Commas are allocated different parenthetic insertions when it comes to thesimplest cases, in particular cliché insertions. In advertising texts such insertionsare infrequently and placed at the beginning of the sentence. Double dash andbrackets are drawn more extensive parentheses insertions. Advertising text in sociolinguistic coverage. Often the creators of advertisings apply to the use of idioms, quotations,images of famous personalities, such as: 40
  41. 41. Размещено на 41 « For I ne`er saw true beauty Till this night». William Sharespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Act I, Scene 5. Laura Ashley Shopping online will be available from the 1-st November: www. Appeal to the literary, cultural and historical traditions is a very «powerfulweapon(instrument)» of creators` advertising. At the same time, similarphenomenas are certain difficulties in interpretation and perception of the text. Theuse of quotations, allusions, distorted idioms, as well as the introduction of foreignlanguage in advertising requires a common baseline of knowledge from the creatorof the text and its recipient. The advertising goods have particular significance ofthese phenomena. Especially such ad. Goods which represented in the internationalmarket, since in this case requires adaptation of advertising message, taking intoaccount peculiarities of the language picture of the world audience that the textaddressed to. For example, for the adequate perception of the text that promotes acompany AT&T, necessary to understand the meaning of the phrase «No woman isan island, unless she wants to be», which is an allusion to a line from a poem byJohn Donne «Meditation XVII» «No man is an island, entire of itself ». Thisphrase means that no one can be in complete isolation from others, and its allusiveuse in the advertising text helps convince potential customers that the companyAT&T will help people to become closer to each other. No woman is an island, unless she wants to be Want to connect with our new high-speed Internet service powered byAT&T? Stay in touch. (47 e-mails since breakfast.) Stay on top of things. (100 shares at 22.) Stay in love. (Miss you, too.) With so much on your mind, it helps to have Marriott, Renaissance and AT&T do a little thinking for you. 41
  42. 42. 42 Like making all those connections easier and 50 times faster. All from the comfort of your room. So, youll have time to think about the one thing you never consider: you.For more information and reservations visit marriott. com or call your travelagent. Thinking of you. Renaissance. Marriott. AT&T. The image of a famous personality is used in advertising, must be known tothe audience which this text is intended and the text must be perceived as anexample to follow. The last point is especially important, because it requires notonly the study of cultural values and world view of the target audience, but alsoreflects the fact that the image of the personality and behavior may change -sometimes very quickly. Therefore, many advertisers advised to use the images ofcollective, as Lenya Golubkov, or cartoons like The Pink Panther. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices Geoffrey Leech called the advertising language loaded language because, ashe said, it aims to change the will, opinions, or attitude of its audience (whether inthe interests of the audience or not is a separate matter). Advertising differs fromother types of loaded language (such as political journalism and religious oratory)in having a very precise material goal. Changing the mental disposition of theaudience is only important in so far as it leads to the desired kind of behavior –buying a particular kind of product. So, the goal of any advertising text is to makethe target audience buy a product or a service. This goal is reached in four stages: 1). Attracting the listeners` attention; 2). Keeping their interest; 3). Arousing their desire to buy a product or a service; 4). Making the target audience art. The pragmatic function of advertising texts determines the choice of soundpatterns, words, syntactic structures, intonation patterns. Many authors of books onadvertising the hyperbolic character of advertising. This characteristic feature of 42
  43. 43. Размещено на 43advertising is reflected not only in the choice of words but also in prosody. The phoneticians believe that the prosody of a great number of advertisingtexts is very affective, its emotionality is greatly exaggerated speakers incommercials don`t express their real emotions, they imitate positive emotions tograb the listeners attention and create positive attitude to advertised goods, servicesor companies. Speaking voice is a unity of semiologically relevant features common to allspeakers of a given language. The components of speaking voice which areconsidered to be linguistically relevant are: 1). Speech melody (pitch movement); 2). Diapason (pitch range); 3). Loudness; 4). Tempo; 5). Pauses; 6). Rhythm; 7). Timbre. It should be mentioned that timbre and rhythm are temporal components,which are not directly connected to voice production. In this article we are going todescribe two most important speech melody and timbre. Speech Melody: we speak of tone, intonation. There are three importantpeculiarities of speech melody in TV commercials: 1). A great number of emphatic contours; 2). A sharp contrast of different melodic combinations; 3). The combination of speech melody and music. In melody contours the most important falling tones. A peculiar features of advertising prosody is a sharp contrast of emphaticand unemphatic contours. For example: Wards is advertised, I looks at the pricetag and though, is pronounced with prosody of parenthetic insertions. The speakerdraws the listeners` attention to the most important information. – The goods areon sale and customers can buy them at low prices. 43
  44. 44. 44 One more peculiarity of speech melody in advertising text is musical rhythmand tune. In this case the speaker pronounce the text is recitative, adjusting speechmelody rhythm to the music, e.g.: «The ninety-nine Honda Clearance is here.Don`t you just love it when you win?» Introduction with rising succession of leveltones, High-Fall Rise, followed by High Rise. Timbre (or voice quality) is a specific superasegmental coloring of voice,e.g. breathiness, hushiness, harshness, nasality or spread lips. It creates a certainmood around a product or a service. The mood can be romantic, lyrical, happy, etc.A voice quality can also signal some implied meaning and reflect a social class oran ethnic group belongs to. Some specialists believe that nasality is a typicalfeature of aristocrats; harshness is typical of working class representatives. Positive attitude to advertised goods and services is created with the help ofsuch voice qualities as smile (spread lips) and breathiness with lyrical timbre. Suchtimbre relaxes the audience, creates calm, pleasant mood. This used whencosmetics for women is advertised (shampoos or showed gels). For example: newfresh deodorant, caress before you dress and feel fresh long after gentledeodorant. Fresh shower, fresh feeling. That lasts long. Very low male voice is popular in advertising. It`s used in advertising carsgoods for men because a low male voice symbolized something big, strong, solidand manly. For example: the Toyota Avelon. All you need. Glottalisation of the voice quality is lowed when speakers glottalise theirvowels. Such voice quality is typical of «serious» corporate advertising (it givesthe impression of reliability and power). Closer contact between the advertiser andthe audience with breathiness: no matter how pure your soup claims to be, it willdry out your smoother more like you. The advertisers want to prove they take care of their potential customersprotect skin. It can be said in conclusion, that such components of speaking voice asspeech melody and timbre (voice quality) play a great role in attracting theattention of the audience and expressing numerous connotations. 44
  45. 45. Размещено на 45 Galperin`s Stylistic devices A stylistic device is a literary model in which semantic and features areblended so that it represents a generalized pattern. Prof. I. R. Galperin calls astylistic device a generative model when through frequent use a language fact istransformed into a stylistic device. Thus we may say that some expressive meanshave evolved into stylistic devices which represent a more abstract form or set offorms. A stylistic device combines some general semantic meaning with a certainlinguistic form resulting in stylistic effect. It is like an algorithm employed for anexpressive purpose. For example, the interplay, interaction, or clash of thedictionary and contextual meaning of words will bring about such stylistic devicesas metaphor, metonymy or irony. The nature of the interaction may be affinity (likeness by nature), proximity(nearness in place, time, order, occurrence, relation) or contrast (opposition). Respectively there is metaphor based on the principle of affinity, metonymybased on proximity and irony based on opposition. The evolution of a stylistic device such as metaphor could be seen from fourexamples that demonstrate this linguistic mechanism (interplay of dictionary andcontextual meaning based on the principle of affinity): 1. My new dress is as pink as flower: comparison (ground for comparison –the colour of the flower). 2. Her cheeks were as red as a tulip: simile (ground for simile –colour/beauty/health/freshness) 3. She is a real flower: metaphor (ground for metaphor –frail/fragrant/tender/beautiful/helpless…). My love is a red, red rose: metaphor (ground for metaphor –passionateIbeautifulIstrong…). 4. Ruby lips, hair of gold, snow-white skin: trite metaphors so frequentlyemployed that they hardly have any stylistic power left because metaphor dies ofoveruse. Such metaphors are also called hackneyed or even dead. 45
  46. 46. 46 A famous literary example of an author`s defiance against immoderate useof trite metaphors is W. Shakespear`s Sonnet 130 My mistress` eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips` red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damasked, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well L know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. The more unexpected, the less predictable is the ground for comparison themore expressive is the metaphor which in this case got a special name of genuineor authentic metaphor. Associations suggested by the genuine metaphor are varied,not limited to any definite number and stimulated by the individual experience orimagination. Metaphor is a relation between the dictionary and contextual logicalmeaning based on the imposition of some inherent property of an object on anotherobject which by nature is deprived of these property. In a metaphor we find acomplete replacement (identification) of one object by another: e.g. The news youbring me is a dagger to my heart. Metaphor are created on the basis of different types of similarity: of shape,of colour, of sound ect. Metaphor can be embodied in all meaningful parts ofspeech: in nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs. e.g. These thoughts melted away. 46
  47. 47. Размещено на 47 Leaves fell sorrowfully. The grey-eyed warm smiles of the frowning night. Metaphor have a tendency to fade away if used frequently. As some scientistwittily observed: «The language is a dictionary of faded metaphors». According tothe degree of unexpectedness we distinguish genuine metaphors – when weperceive the two meaning simultaneously; trite metaphors – time-worn and well-rubbed in the language – the two fold perception is fell (half-alive) but theoriginality is lost (e.g. a wall between two people), and dead metaphors (e.g. toplant the seeds). The definition of stylistic devices with examples. Prolonged (sustained, developed) metaphor (развернутая) Sometimes a metaphor is not confined to one image but involves a numberof images: e.g. A woman is a foreign land. Although he there settles young The man will never understand Its customs, politics and tongue. A variety of prolonged metaphor is suggested metaphor. The central imageis not given, we have only contributory image: e.g. «I have no spur to prick thesides of my intent» - The image of the steed is not named. Such metaphor may begiven in riddles. e.g. Leaves got up in a coil and hissed, Blindly struck at my knee and missed. (R. Frost) The metaphor is one of the most powerful means of creating images. This isits main function. The command of metaphor is the mark of genius. Only freshliving metaphors call forth images. Imagery is the relation between reality and theway the author sees it. Metaphor is not a displacement of words but the naturaloutcome of thought achieved by comparison. It is always a result of some creativeprocess at the background of the text as a whole. You have the fusion of things that 47
  48. 48. 48a brought together. The degree of fusion may be different and it depends verymuch on the syntactical function of metaphor. Genuine metaphor are mostly foundin poetry and emotive prose. Trite metaphors are mostly used as expressive meansin newspaper articles, in oratory. Sources of metaphors are: man and his pursuits,nature, history, mythology. The metaphor is often defined as a compressed simile. But this definitionlacks precision as metaphor aims at identifying the objects while simile aims atfinding some point of resemblance by keeping the two objects apart. Personification «олицетворение» is akin to metaphor – a thing or an idea ispresented as a human being. There may be complete or partial personification. e.g. «I bring fresh showers to the thirsting flowers» («The Cloud» by P.B.Shelly)». Weather permitting, we shall start. Apostrophe is the weakest form of personification. It is an address an idea orthing, mostly, to phenomena of nature: e.g. «Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean» (G. Byron) Personification gives life to the inanimate. In prose it is less common onthan in poetry. It may be different in degree (full and partial): e.g. «Thick cunning played on her face, had no fun there and wentsomewhere else» (R. Chandler) – a very intricate way of describing a lady. Epithet It is stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning inan attributive word, phrase or sentence. It discloses the individual emotionallycoloured attitude of the writer to the object he describes. It is a form of subjectiveevaluation. Epithet is a pointed description brief and compact, singling out thething described. Let us ascertain the difference between epithet and attribute: e.g. a rare and radiant maiden, a pretty young girl. Attributes are logical, objective, non-evaluating definitions. In trite epithetsthere is loss of the subjective element through frequent repetition: 48
  49. 49. Размещено на 49 e.g. cut throat competition, squalid misery, abject poverty Constant or fixed epithets are found: 1) in folk poetry (e.g. bonny lass, merry green wood); 2) in a particular work (e.g. «Botticellian, eyes, lips, face» said of Danny in «Maid in Waiting» by Galsworthy). Epithet may be classified from different standpoints. We have alreadyclassified them according them according to the degree of unexpectedness. Semantically epithets may be devided into: associated with the noun following, pointing to a feature which is mostessential: e.g. dark forest, dreary midnight; unassociated which attribute to the object a feature not inherent in it(metaphoric): e.g. meteor eyes, voiceless sands; structurally: according to their compositional structure we distinguish: simple epithets – (adjectives), compound – e.g. thou lily-livered boy, the pumpkin-like moon; phrase epithets – always placed before the noun they refer to: e.g. He was look-before-you-leap sort of man; Jackline Kennedy has a sort of let-the-chips-fall-where-they-may attitude; reversed – a vault of a schoolroom, a devil of a job, a shadow of a smile. Pun Pun is a simultaneous use either of two homonyms or two meanings of thesame word, including intentionally or unintentionally ambiguous speech. It`splayed two different categories of words-homonyns. Thus the title of one of O.Wilde`s plays «The Importance of Being Earnest» has a pun in it, as the name ofthe hero and the adjective meaning «seriously-minded» are both present in our 49
  50. 50. 50mind. Puns are often used in riddles jokes: e.g. What is the difference between a schoolmaster and an engine-driver? –One trains the mind the other minds the train. Language`s play play of figures, letters grammatical play (visual) using of proper names, polysemes Calambour is one of the kind of the language play. Allusion It is an indirect reference to historical, biblical, mythological and everydayfacts made in one`s utterance. The facts always are assumed to be known to thereader. Therefore no indication of the source referred to is given. Nor has allusionany formal marks. «The Painted Veil» - The title of the novel by S. Maugham is an allusion toKeats. «Lift not the painted veil of life.» Allusions may be used in novels, newspapers, everyday talk. Semantic peculiarities of allusion merit special note: the meaning of theword is a form for the new meaning (interaction of meanings). Allusion calls forththe knowledge stored in the reader`s mind: e.g. «Victoria was always proud to adopt the Macabre-like attitude thatsomething would turn up» (A. Cristie) (an allusion to Ch. Dickens). Vladimir Nabokov`s «Ada or Ardor» is highly allusive to say nothing of hisprose in general. Here are some instances from «Ada» (which is an allusion toDante`s «Inferno»): Ardis-Ada`s; Ladore-L`adore; «Mertvago Forever»-«DoctorZhivago» (by Boris Pasternak); «Love under the Linders»-«Unter den Linden» (byChrista Wolf); Burning Swine-Swirburne, ect. The main characteristic of the allusion is to compare two referencesituations. Two directed associations – the reader should compare allusion with thecontext, to establish a reference between the two situations ofconsistency(accordance) or inconsistency(nonaccordance), that is to change the 50