Integrated circuits and digital functions

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all about integrated circuits,logic gates and logic families

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Integrated circuits and digital functions

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION  Miniature circuits on the surface of a small piece of semi conductor material is called chip or an IC.  Integrated circuit has components such as transistor, diode, resistor.
  2. 2. IC ‘S
  3. 3. MANUFACTURING  Two basic techniques for manufacturing Ics are Bipolar technique Metal oxide semiconductor technique(MOS)
  4. 4. Bipolar technique  It fabricates bipolar transistor on chip.  Short for Metal Oxide Semiconductor, MOS is a method of creating transistors. MOS consists of three layers, a metal conductor, insulating silicon layer, and a semiconductor silicon layer.
  5. 5. Digital integrated circuits Integrated circuit is a small silicon semiconductor crystal called chip containing the electronic components for digital gates.
  6. 6. Scale integration  Different categories of IC according to technology advancement are  Small scale integration (SSI)  Medium scale integration (MSI)  Large scale integration (LSI)  Very large scale integration (VLSI)
  7. 7. SSI, MSI,LSI,VLSI, SSI MSI LSI VLSI SSI: Independent gates in single package ,has less than 10 gates and it is limited Input and output gates are connected directly to the pins in package. MSI:have 10 to 200 gates in single package Performs digital functions like decoders,adders, registers LSI :it contains between 200 and few thousand gates in single package. Include digital systems such as processors, memory chips, and programmable modules. VLSI: contain thousands of gate in a single package Include large memory arrays and complex microcomputer chips. Low cost and small in size.
  8. 8. Logic families  Ic technology changes from time to time. The technology depends on following factors  Speed  Power dissipation  Noise immunity  Input/output interface compatibility  Cost
  9. 9. Logic families  Single output should be obtained from many inputs.  Compatibility : connecting the output of one device to input of other.  Interfacing: design of interconnection between circuits that shift the voltage levels and current levels to make them compatible.

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