O.B. is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals , groups and structures have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness.
O.B. can be defined as the systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals, groups and sub-systems.
O.B. is the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, patterns of structure in order to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness.
O.B. is one of the most complex and perhaps least understood academic elements of modern general management, but since it concerns the behaviour of people within organizations it is also one of the most central- its concern with individual and group patterns of behaviour makes it an essential element in dealing with the complex behavioural issues thrown up in the modern business world.
O.B. is an inter-disciplinary behaviour science studying phenomena and dynamics(processes) of organizations and their various units.
Note that organizations are “ open systems , ” such that their long term effectiveness is determined by their ability to anticipate, manage, and respond to changes in their environment, with such changes resulting from external forces and/or stakeholders
External forces include the labor force, the natural environment, the economy, and different cultures, while stakeholders include shareholders, customers, competitors, suppliers, creditors, governmental agencies and their regulations
Note the impact of these environmental influences on individual, interpersonal, team, and organizational processes; organizations that do not effectively adapt to environmental change will fail
Organization : An organization has four essential elements
(a) Group of people
(b) Interacting with each other
(c )In a structured manner
(d) Towards a common objective
Management: Implies getting things done through and with people
Manager: He is the dynamic, life-giving element in every organization. And it is the quality and performance of its managers which is the only effective advantage an enterprise in a competitive economy can have and particularly in a business enterprise.
To provide an understanding of what goes on at the workplace. Four aspects need to be explained viz.
Definition, goals, forces and O. B. ’s major characteristics
O.B. is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as members of groups –act within organizations. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively.
O.B. provides managers with the tools to:
(a) to understand the behavior of individuals
(b) to understand the complexities of inter-personal relations
(c )to examine the dynamics of relationships within small groups –both formal teams and informal groups
(d) organizations can be viewed as whole systems that have inter-organizational relationships
Psychology : The science or study of individual human behaviour
Sociology : The study of group human behaviour
Social Psychology : Studies influences of people on one another
Anthropology : Study of the human race, and culture
Political Science :Behavior of individuals in political environment.
Bases of Organizational Behaviour
Contributing Disciplines Psychology seeks to measure, explain, and change behavior Sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings Social psychology focuses on the influence of people on one another Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities Political science is the study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment
There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of:
Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.
Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation.
Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support . The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives.
Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork . The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.
Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one.
There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models.
The first model, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution.
The managers of this type of organization operate out of McGregor's Theory X.
The next three models begin to build on McGregor's Theory Y.
They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one "best" model.
The collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.
Douglas McGregor -Theory X and Theory Y Theory Y Theory X Work is Natural Self- Direction Seek Responsibility Good Decisions Widely Dispersed Avoid Work Must be Controlled Avoid Responsibility Seek Security
Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behaviour
In every field of social science, or even physical science, has a philosophical foundation of basic concepts that guide its development. There are some certain philosophical concepts in organizational behaviour also. The concepts are-
Individual differences: Every individual in the world is different from others. This idea is supported by science (DNA). The idea of individual difference comes originally from psychology. From the day of birth, each person is unique, and individual experiences after birth tend to make people even more different. Motivated behaviour: An employee has so many needs inside him. So, they want to fulfil those needs. That's why; they had to perform well in the organization. A path toward increased need fulfilment is the better way of enriches the quality of work.
Perception: Peoples perceptions are also differ when they see an object. Two people can differently present a same object. A person always organizes and interprets what he sees according to his lifetime of experience and accumulated value. Employees also see work differently for differ in their personalities, needs, demographics factors, past experiences and social surrounding.
A whole person: An employee's personal life is not detached from his working life. As an example, A women who attend the office at 8:30 AM is always anxious for her children's school time (if her children able to attend the school or not). As a result, its impact falls on her concentration that means her working life. For this reason, we cannot separate it. So manager should treat an employee as a whole person.
Every employee is actively seeking opportunities at work to involve in decision-making problems, share what they know and to learn from the experience. So, organization should provide them a chance to express their opinions, ideas and suggestion for decision-making problem.
Value of the person: An employee wants to be treated separately from other factor of production (land, capital, labour). So, they have to be treated with carrying respect, dignity and etc.. from their employers and society.
Ethics: In order to attract and retain valuable employees in an era in which good workers are constantly required away, ethical treatment is necessary. Every Company is required to establish codes of ethics, publicized statements of ethical values, provided ethics training, rewarded employees for notable ethical behaviour, publicized positive role models, and set up internal procedures to handle misconduct.
Acting in ways that are always honest, credible, and consistent in putting one’s values into practice.
Positive organizational behaviour.
Quality of work life.
The overall quality of human experience in the workplace. Commitment to quality of work life is an important value within organizational behaviour. Theory Y provides the theoretical underpinnings for contemporary quality of work life concepts.
Organizations are social systems and governed by social and psychological laws. They have social roles and status. Their behaviour influenced by their group's individual drives. Organization environment in a social system is dynamic. All parts of the system are interdependent. The shared values and beliefs among people in organization that affects the way they interacts, behaves and accomplishes certain task that distinguish one organization with other organization .
Organisational Culture is a sub culture of the organisation, i.e., it comprises of the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organisation. It has been defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and outside the organization.
culture encompasses the shared values, attitudes, standards, and beliefs and other characteristics that define an organization's operating philosophy. Organizational behaviour, meanwhile, can be under-stood in some ways as the academic study of corporate culture and its various elements, as well as other important components of behaviour such as organization structure and organization processes