KERNAL ARCHITECTURE

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LINUX KERNAL ARCHITECTURE

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KERNAL ARCHITECTURE

  1. 1. Linux Kernel Architecture
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>What is Kernel ? </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel Architecture Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel Space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kernel Functional Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Kernel ? <ul><li>The Core of OS </li></ul><ul><li>a kernel is really nothing more than a resource manager </li></ul><ul><li>the kernel manages and arbitrates access to the resource between multiple competing users </li></ul>
  4. 4. Kernel Architecture Overview <ul><li>User Space </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel Space </li></ul>User Space System Call Hardware Kernel Space
  5. 5. The fundamental architecture of the GNU/Linux
  6. 6. <ul><li>The User Space is the space in memory where user applications are executed. </li></ul><ul><li>The kernel Space is the space in memory where kernel processes run. The user has access to it only through the system call. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Linux kernal is a monolithic kernal </li></ul><ul><li>It includes all the necessary functions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Kernel Functional Overview <ul><li>File System </li></ul><ul><li>Process Management </li></ul><ul><li>Device Driver </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Management </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kernel Functional Overview
  10. 10. Functional Layer & Architectural Layer User Space System Call Hardware MM PM Net DM FS
  11. 11. File System <ul><li>It is responsible for storing information on disk and retrieving and updating this information. accessed through system calls eg. FAT16, FAT32, NTFS,ext2, ext3… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Type of Files <ul><li>The Unix system has the following types of files: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary Files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directory Files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Files (devices)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FIFO Files for Pipes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Virtual File System <ul><li>It manages all the different file system. </li></ul><ul><li>The virtual file system is designed to present a consistent view of data as stored on hardware devices. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Process Management <ul><li>Kernel creates, manages and deletes the processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Kernal helps to increase the performance of OS, by executing the process in pre emptive manner. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Process Management (Cont.)‏ <ul><li>Each process has a unique identifier ( Process ID ). </li></ul><ul><li>System calls used for process management-”fork”,”exec”,”kill”,”exit”,”signal” </li></ul>
  16. 16. States <ul><li>Running </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Zombie </li></ul>
  17. 17. Device Driver <ul><li>Linux kernel contains the code to manage the HW controller . </li></ul><ul><li>Character devices, Block devices,Network devices are different types of devices </li></ul>
  18. 18. Memory Management <ul><li>Physical memory is limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual memory is developed to overcome this limitation. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Linux network layers The network subsystem allows Linux systems to connect to other systems over a network. The network subsystem abstracts implementation details of network devices and protocols

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