By
Basic Facts of Tuberculosis and
Malaria
By
OLASHORE EMMANUELABIODUN
Dr. Robert KochDr. Robert Koch (1843(1843 –– 19101910))
24th of March 1882
The discovery of M.tuberculosis
Definition
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease
caused by a microorganism called
Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
These B...
Facts About Tuberculosis
1. Someone in the world is newly infected with
TB bacilli every second.
2. Someone dies of TB eve...
Facts continues...
5. One in every 10 of those people
will become sick with active TB in his or her
lifetime.
6. Left untr...
World Tuberculosis Day
24th March of every year has been set aside as
the world tuberculosis day.
The theme of the 2011 wo...
Transmission of Tuberculosis
When a person with pulmonary or laryngeal
TB coughs, sneezes, speaks or sings, droplet
nuclei...
Transmission continues…
If another person inhales air containing these
droplet nuclei, transmission may occur.
Transmissio...
Transmission of Tuberculosis
Potential Transmitters of Tuberculosis
1. Persons with pulmonary or laryngeal
TB.
2. Persons who cough .
3. Persons with s...
Signs and Symptoms of TB
Continuous cough lasting for more than 2
weeks
Fever
Sweating at Night even when the weather is
c...
DOTSDOTS
TB EpidemicTB Epidemic
DOTSDOTS
HIV EpidemicHIV Epidemic
Treatment
Treatment of Tuberculosis is free
The treatment takes a period of 8 months
comprising of first 2 months of Inten...
Target of TB Control in NigeriaTarget of TB Control in NigeriaTarget of TB Control in NigeriaTarget of TB Control in Niger...
Progress towards the 70/85% targets
Zimbabwe
United Republic
of Tanzania
Thailand
Philippines
Pakistan
Nigeria
Myanmar
Moz...
MALARIA
DEFINITION
Alphonse Laveran, a French army surgeon stationed in Algeria, was the first to
notice parasites in the blood of...
FACTS ABOUT MALARIA
Over 400 million people, or 40% of the world’s population,
currently live in regions where there is ma...
TRANSMISSION
The germ causing malaria is transmitted by the bite of an
infected female “anopheles” mosquito
Not all mosqui...
MISCONCEPTIONS
Malaria is not caused by;
1. Working in the sun
2. Excessive work
3. Witchcraft
Eating too much oil4. Eatin...
WHO IS MOST AT RISK
Malaria is more serious in the following people
1. Children under five years old
2. Pregnant women
3. ...
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Fever
Generalized body weakness
Shivering and cold
Vomiting
Inability to eatInability to eat
Joint pain...
PREVENTION
Using insecticide treated nets
Screening of windows
Protecting ones self by wearing long sleeved clothes and
ap...
Basic facts of tuberculosis and malaria [compatibility mode]
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Basic facts of tuberculosis and malaria [compatibility mode]

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a microorganism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. While Malaria is a disease caused by little germs in the body called “Plasmodium”

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Basic facts of tuberculosis and malaria [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. By Basic Facts of Tuberculosis and Malaria By OLASHORE EMMANUELABIODUN
  2. 2. Dr. Robert KochDr. Robert Koch (1843(1843 –– 19101910)) 24th of March 1882 The discovery of M.tuberculosis
  3. 3. Definition Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a microorganism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These Bacteria can settle in any part of the body such as Lungs, Skin, Brain, Bones, Intestinesuch as Lungs, Skin, Brain, Bones, Intestine e.t.c. Tuberculosis of the Lungs (Pulmonary TB) is the infectious form of tuberculosis
  4. 4. Facts About Tuberculosis 1. Someone in the world is newly infected with TB bacilli every second. 2. Someone dies of TB every 20 seconds. 3. Overall, one-third of the world's population is currently infected with the TB bacillus.currently infected with the TB bacillus. 4. More than 2 billion people, equal to one third of the world’s total population, are infected with TB bacilli 5. Nigeria has the world’s fourth largest Tuberculosis burden
  5. 5. Facts continues... 5. One in every 10 of those people will become sick with active TB in his or her lifetime. 6. Left untreated, each person with active TB disease will infect on average between 10-15disease will infect on average between 10-15 people every year. 7. People living with HIV are at a much greater risk to get TB. 8. TB is a leading killer among people living with HIV, who have weakened immune systems
  6. 6. World Tuberculosis Day 24th March of every year has been set aside as the world tuberculosis day. The theme of the 2011 world tuberculosis day is “On the move against tuberculosis “On the move against tuberculosis Transforming the fight towards elimination”
  7. 7. Transmission of Tuberculosis When a person with pulmonary or laryngeal TB coughs, sneezes, speaks or sings, droplet nuclei containing M. tuberculosis are expelled into the air. A single cough may produce up to 3000 such droplets.A single cough may produce up to 3000 such droplets. Depending on the environment, these tiny particles (1- 5µ in diameter) can remain suspended in the air for several hours.
  8. 8. Transmission continues… If another person inhales air containing these droplet nuclei, transmission may occur. Transmission generally occurs in poorly- ventilated closed areas, in which the light droplet nuclei can remain suspended in the air for at least 30 minutesremain suspended in the air for at least 30 minutes after coughing
  9. 9. Transmission of Tuberculosis
  10. 10. Potential Transmitters of Tuberculosis 1. Persons with pulmonary or laryngeal TB. 2. Persons who cough . 3. Persons with smear positive bacilli.3. Persons with smear positive bacilli. 4. Persons not on treatment. 5. Persons just started on treatment. 6. Persons with a poor response to treatment
  11. 11. Signs and Symptoms of TB Continuous cough lasting for more than 2 weeks Fever Sweating at Night even when the weather is coldcold Loss of appetite and weight Tiredness Chest pains Blood stained sputum
  12. 12. DOTSDOTS TB EpidemicTB Epidemic DOTSDOTS HIV EpidemicHIV Epidemic
  13. 13. Treatment Treatment of Tuberculosis is free The treatment takes a period of 8 months comprising of first 2 months of Intensive phase and a remaining 6 months of Continuation phase. Even if patient feel he/she is cured before the endEven if patient feel he/she is cured before the end of the treatment period completion of treatment is always advised to avoid resistance of M. tuberculosis
  14. 14. Target of TB Control in NigeriaTarget of TB Control in NigeriaTarget of TB Control in NigeriaTarget of TB Control in Nigeria To detect 70% of the estimated infectious smear positive TB cases and cure at least 85% of the detected smear positive cases bydetected smear positive cases by 2010.
  15. 15. Progress towards the 70/85% targets Zimbabwe United Republic of Tanzania Thailand Philippines Pakistan Nigeria Myanmar Mozambiqu e Kenya Indonesia India Ethiopia Democratic Republic of Congo China Cambodia Bangladesh Afghanistan 70 80 90 100Treatmentsuccess(%) Viet Nam Here is the target Zimbabwe Uganda South AfricaRussian Federation Brazil 40 50 60 0 20 40 60 80 100 DOTS detection rate (%) Treatment
  16. 16. MALARIA
  17. 17. DEFINITION Alphonse Laveran, a French army surgeon stationed in Algeria, was the first to notice parasites in the blood of a patient suffering from malaria.This occurred on the 6th of November 1880. Malaria is a disease caused by little germs in the body called “Plasmodium” This germs are too small to be seen by the naked eye. They are transmitted by infected female mosquito bites
  18. 18. FACTS ABOUT MALARIA Over 400 million people, or 40% of the world’s population, currently live in regions where there is malaria risk Ten new cases of malaria occurs every seconds 6 out of 10 hospital visit is due to malaria. Each year, there are estimated 300-500 million clinical casesEach year, there are estimated 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria and an estimated 1.5- 2.7 million deaths Studies in Africa indicate that as much as 30% of infant and childhood mortality may be attributed to malaria
  19. 19. TRANSMISSION The germ causing malaria is transmitted by the bite of an infected female “anopheles” mosquito Not all mosquito bites lead to malaria When the germs enter the body they feed on blood cells, multiply inside them and eventually destroy them.
  20. 20. MISCONCEPTIONS Malaria is not caused by; 1. Working in the sun 2. Excessive work 3. Witchcraft Eating too much oil4. Eating too much oil 5. Bad water and bad air 6. Sleeping in the afternoon Malaria can lead to death or disability
  21. 21. WHO IS MOST AT RISK Malaria is more serious in the following people 1. Children under five years old 2. Pregnant women 3. Those with sickle cell anaemia Those with HIV/AIDS4. Those with HIV/AIDS
  22. 22. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Fever Generalized body weakness Shivering and cold Vomiting Inability to eatInability to eat Joint pains Loss of appetite headache
  23. 23. PREVENTION Using insecticide treated nets Screening of windows Protecting ones self by wearing long sleeved clothes and applying repellant creams Spraying insecticide aerosol in the houseSpraying insecticide aerosol in the house Destroying the breeding sites of mosquitoes
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