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  • 1. ‘The Source’ Magazine is an American based, monthly magazine covering hip-hop/rap music, politics, and culture. It was found in 1988 and it is the world’s second longest running rap magazine. ‘The Source’ has grown into one of the largest and most influential hip- hop/rap magazines in the United States, It is even know as the “Bible of Hip-Hop”. The demographic for this magazine are 14-26 year olds, predominantly male readers who are fans of hip-hop/rap music.Featured story – This is next Masthead/Title – The name of theimportant featured story in the magazine, which is ‘THE SOURCE’.magazine which comes up afterthe main cover story. Central Image – This is the image which relates to the cover story in the magazine of that issue, whichTagline – Typically used in usually is of a famous person ormarketing materials and group. And in this issue we can seeadvertising, this is done to help it is Young Jeezy, a recognized Hip-readers recognize the magazine. Hop/rap artist. The masthead is being slightly obscured by the artist, magazines do this because they assume their target audienceFeatured stories – These are are familiar with their house style,other featured stories in the so they should be able to find themagazines magazine even with the masthead being slightly obscured.Different fonts – So other storiescan separate from other stories. Featured stories – Between 6 - 20 featured stories in the magazine.Cover Story – Always relating to Colour Theme – The colour themethe central image. for this magazine is yellow, white black. Every magazine has its own colour theme usually 3 which is aWebsite, price and issue date– convention of magazines. This is soGeneral information about magazine becomes recognizablemagazine price, issue date and straight away from its themewebsite. colours.
  • 2. In this magazine, „The Source‟ follows the basic codes and conventions of general magazines but inparticular, its conventions are coded in a way that the mode of address created is aimed at the genre of hip-hop/rap music fans.The title/masthead is positioned right at the top of the page in a large font which is a sans-serif font which iseasier to read and looks more professional. It also looks basic, however unique. It is also in block bold capitalletters, this is important to immediately identify the title to the reader. It could be in capital to represent themale audience as its big and powerful being capitalized, and male generally like to be big and powerful. Thisis also back by the fact this magazine has a predominantly male audience. So you could sense some Mise EnScene here. The colour is white which is a neutral colour to both males and females which is good as this doesnot discriminate against the male or female sexes, so this would appeal and be attractive for both genders.White is associated with light, goodness, innocence, purity, and virginity. It is considered to be the colour ofperfection. White means safety, purity, and cleanliness. This very much contrasts with the genre of this music,as everyone is aware rap is directly linked to gangs/crime, and rap predominantly contains violent and somesexual content. The title/masthead of the magazine is partly obscured by the positioning of the image of theartist, this is a convention that many magazines follow with the belief being that the target audience arealready sufficiently familiar with the ‘House Style’ of the magazine despite the full title being obscured. This„House Style‟ for the magazine is important because is gives the magazine an identity that can be visuallyrecognized from numerous other similar titles in the market. However it is also a convention to sometimesoverlay the title/masthead with the main image as seen in some of other Source„s issues:The image used on the cover of the magazine is essential in defining the genre and look of the musicmagazine and in attracting the target audience. The artist featured on this front cover, which is Young Jeezyin this case, would be familiar to the target audience and would act as a draw to encourage hip-hop/rapfans to purchase this issue and find out more about the artist, lifestyle or gossip. Usually the cover image of acontemporary artist/group is the USP (unique selling point) of the magazine as it would attract the targetaudience readers to buy the magazine and this would help advertise, promote and market the magazine.The artist is positioned in a medium close-up (where his face and top part of his body shows), this is to expresshis facial features/expressions and clothing.
  • 3. Only ¾ of his face shows. The artist‟s clothing is black, black colour symbolize power, death, evil, which allrelate to the gang life. It is also representative of the hip-hop/rap culture, as it represents hip hop throughearrings and chains which shows wealth, the glasses are most likely to be of high value and also thereflection in the glasses probably connotes his vision of his “hood” which is linked to the strap line. The „NewEra‟ hat is of a style popular among the target audience and is easily recognized and can been seen as anadvertisement so the audience may go and buy the same style this shows magazines act as an aspiration totheir readers. There are no semiotics associated with him, this is maybe done to prevent stereotyping.However it does stereotype slightly as rap is associated with the gang culture due to its violent lyrics. Andalso black people are associated mainly with the gang culture. The artist is also blacked out, and wears a„era hat‟, this highly connotes the gangster life as many gangsters are blacked out. So this magazine mayhave been stereotyping in a way.The layout of the magazine is also conventional as the featured stories create a border around the image togive a professional and tidy finish. The layout would be quite similar in other issues to follow because of thehouse style, however this may vary on special editions. The design of the page is simple and not toocongested with featured stories. Even though it should as its released monthly and therefore should becrammed with stuff. This could be a drawback as the readers would expect lots of stuff for its value and thefact its released monthly. Colours in magazines are part of what makes a magazines house style unique, theuse of colours can define the mood and message the magazine is try to convey to its audience. In this issueThe Source uses a calm and simple layout. There are only three main colours used on the cover and this isconventional for magazine covers because it keeps the professional look, defines the house style, and stopsthe magazine from looking foreign towards its audience.One of the things that gives a magazine its brand identity is the colour theme. And the colour theme here iswhite, black and blue. The white and black used for the writing, with only a hint of yellow. And the blue forthe background which is of the sky. Blue is the colour of the sky and sea. It is often associated with depthand stability. It symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith, truth, and heaven. Blue is amasculine colour; according to studies, it is highly accepted among males. White is associated with light,goodness, innocence, purity, and virginity. It is considered to be the colour of perfection. White meanssafety, purity, and cleanliness. As opposed to black, white usually has a positive connotation. White canrepresent a successful beginning. In heraldry, white depicts faith and purity. Black is associated with power,elegance, sophisticated, formality, death, evil, and mystery.Black is a mysterious colour associated with fear and the unknown. It usually is a negative colour. This colourcould help connote and glamorize the gang life culture.
  • 4. Another thing that gives a magazine its brand identity is the typography. This magazine has used differenttypes of fonts for its writing. I could spot at least 3 different fonts. E.g. Strap line has its own font, featuredstories on the right have their own fonts, other writings have their own fonts. They are also in their own sizes.The strap line taking up the biggest size. This is done to show the importance of the main cover story in themagazine and also to show it relates to the image. Followed by the featured story on top of the magazine, ithas the second biggest font size.And then there are random font sizes, however, the featured stories on the right are the smallest. So we could see how the font size directly relates to the level of importance of the text. As the mostimportant text is the biggest and as you go down in less importance the text gets smaller. Also differentcolour fonts have been used.However the artists name has its own colour, this is to show the importance of the story and make it standout. The colour used here was yellow. Yellow is the colour of sunshine. It‟s associated with joy & happiness,and you could see how that directly relates but contrasts with the cover line, as part of this cover line says“From Hero to Hood”. The use of a bright colour goes well with the black background its on which wouldconsequently be eye catching and be standing out form everything else in the magazine which wouldattract people. The cover line is anchored to the image, it is positioned underneath the mid section of theartist which anchors this strap line to him. This link is further anchored by additional text directly underneathwhich reads “HERO TO HOOD”. The language is appropriate to the target readership, but also gives furtherinformation to the reader about the content of this feature but not too much information so the reader isenticed to buy the magazine to find out more.The language however that has been used on the cover does not contain gang vocabulary, but rather usesnormal language, this is good as it would appeal and attract all audiences and would avoid stereotypingand concentrating on one demographic only.Above the title/Masthead is the most important story after the cover story which is a featured story which inthis case is “BARACK OBAMA: LIVE FROM THE DNC”. This draws the target reader to the one of the mainfeatures in the magazine but it also shows that the magazine is hybrid and it covers the subject on politics.In the bottom right hand corner is a graphic “The upgrade” and also under the tagline it states “Under newOwnership” The Sources „NEW ERA‟ theme is bound to make the audience feel as if it has undergone amagazine renovation and it promises the audience more Hip Hop music, politics, and culture at a next level.
  • 5. This front cover contains basic things such as a barcode, price, magazine website (which is found next to thebarcode) and issue date (which is found under the title to the right).In general, this magazine, lacks many conventions. These are things such as buzz words, banners, smallerimages of featured stories and most importantly an ear piece. This would immensely affect the magazine asit could be less attractive and eye-catching. However, it does follow basic codes and conventions, but hasnot changed or challenged any.
  • 6. ‘MOJO’ Magazine is a British based, monthly magazine covering classic rock music. It was founded in 1993. The Demographic for this magazine is for people who are interested in classic rock music, The age range would be around the ages of 14-25, equally male and female.Ear Piece – usually for free give Featured story – this is next importantaway’s to attract customers, and featured story in the magazine whichthis magazine is giving away a comes up after the main cover story.free CD which is the ‘Roots ofNirvana.’Masthead/Title – the name ofthe magazine, which is ‘MOJO’. Featured stories – these are otherCover Story – always relating to featured stories in the magazinesthe central image.Central Image – this is the imagewhich relates to the main storyin the magazine of that issue, Colour Theme – the colour theme forwhich usually is of a famous this magazine is yellow and whiteperson or group. And in this writing, and a black background. Everyissue we can see it is the magazine has its own colour theme, thisNirvana, which all the rock is so magazine becomes recognizablepeople know. The image is in straight away from its theme colours.black and white because itstalking about Nirvana back in1991 which is history so itsshown in black and white. Thisis an example of Mise en scene.The masthead is being slightlyobscured by the group, Different fonts – so other stories canmagazines do this because they separate from other stories.assume their target audience arefamiliar with their house style.The give free give away – the CD Website, price and issue date – general‘Roots of Nirvana’ information about magazine price, issue date and website.
  • 7. In this magazine „MOJO‟ follows the conventions of general magazines but in particular, the genre ofclassical Rock music.The title/masthead is positioned right at the top of the page in a large font which is in block bold dropcapital letters. This is important to immediately identify the title to the reader from far away. The colour iswhite which is a neutral colour and does not discriminate against the male or female sexes, so this wouldappeal and be attract vice for both genders. The font in the title/masthead looks unique which means it hadto be paid for to be used as a publication, and in addition the reading age is most likely to be lower thanthe target audience reading ability. White is considered to be the colour of perfection. As opposed toblack, white usually has a positive connotation. White can represent a successful beginning. This couldmean that MOJO is a successful, perfect magazine with positive stuff in it.The title/masthead of the magazine „MOJO‟ is partly obscured by the positioning of the image of the group,„Nirvana‟, this is a convention that many magazines follow with the belief that the target audience arealready sufficiently familiar with the „House Style‟ of the magazine despite the full title being obscured. This„House Style‟ for the magazine is important because is gives the magazine an identity that can be visuallyrecognized from numerous other similar titles in the market.The image used on the cover of the magazine is essential in defining the genre and look of the musicmagazine and in attracting the target audience. The group featured on this front cover which is in this case„Nirvana‟, would be familiar to the target audience and would act as a draw to encourage rock fans topurchase this issue and find out more about the group‟s lifestyle, gossip etc. Usually the cover image of acontemporary artist/group is the USP (unique selling point) of the magazine as it would attract the targetaudience readers to buy the magazine and this would help advertise, promote and market the magazine.The group is positioned in a medium shot (knees to top) to express and show their body language andclothing. The groups clothing, however, is not really representative of the rock culture, as they are dressedup in a very casual and normal way and do not symbolize in any way any rock culture clothing,characteristics or signs. The image of the group is in black and white, and the cover line says „NIRVANA1991‟, this is a Mise en scene between black & white which usually means in olden times and 1991 which isback in olden times.There are no semiotics what so ever in this image.
  • 8. The layout of the magazine is also conventional as the featured stories create a border around the imageto give a professional and tidy finish. The layout would be quite similar in other issues to follow because ofthe house style, however this may vary on special editions.The design of the page is simple and not too congested with featured stories. Even though it should as itsreleased monthly and therefore should be crammed with stuff. This could be a drawback as the readerswould expect lots of stuff for its value and the fact its released monthly. Colours in magazines are part ofwhat makes a magazines house style unique, the use of colours can define the mood and message themagazine is try to convey to its audience. In this issue The Source uses a calm and simple layout. There areonly three main colours used on the cover and this is conventional for magazine covers because it keepsthe professional look, defines the house style, and stops the magazine from looking foreign towards itsaudience. One of the things that gives a magazine its brand identity is the colour theme. And the colourtheme here is yellow and white writing, and a grey/blackish background; this helps create consistencyand defines a House Style. The main strap line “NIRVANA 1991” is in yellow and white, as the main coverstory is in a larger font than the others and is further distinguished by the use of a bright colour. The use ofthe bright colour for the cover line anchors it to the image. The choice of yellow for only “NIRVANA” showsthe importance of the group in this issue. The colours used are neutral colours and would appeal to bothmales and females which is a good thing. Yellow is the colour of sunshine. It‟s associated with joy,happiness, intellect, and energy. However here it contrasts with the cover story as in the cover story it says“Our world was turning upside” which clearly opposes to joy and happiness. White is considered to be thecolour of perfection. So in this magazine, the colour white used may connote that their magazine isperfect for their reader target audience.Another thing that gives a magazine its brand identity is the typography. The magazine uses one templatehandwriting for all its text except for the Title of the magazine and the „Plus‟ word. So here not really a widerange of different fonts used. All the fonts however are either in white or yellow. Again, Yellow is the colourof sunshine. It‟s associated with joy, happiness, intellect, and energy. White is considered to be the colourof perfection. So in this magazine, the colour white used may connote that their magazine is perfect fortheir reader target audience. Again like „Source‟, they are also in their own sizes. The strap line taking upthe biggest size. This is done to show the importance of the main cover story in the magazine and also toshow it relates to the image. Followed by the featured story on top of the magazine, it has the secondbiggest font size. And then there are random font sizes, however, the featured stories on the right are thesmallest. So we could see how the font size directly relates to the level of importance of the text. As themost important text is the biggest and as you go down in less importance the text gets smaller.
  • 9. The cover story in this magazine issue is in yellow. Yellow It‟s associated with joy and happiness, and youcould see how that easily contrasts with the cover line, as it says “Our world was turning upside” whichclearly opposes to joy and happiness. White is considered to be the colour of perfection. So in thismagazine, the colour white used may connote that their magazine is perfect for their reader targetaudience.The language that has been used on the cover does contain vocabulary their target audience are awareoff, words such as „Punk‟, „Grunge Hell‟. This is so the audience are aware of this language and would feelas though they belong to what is being said, or they relate to it in a way.So this shows its mode of address has been used in the right way to attract their target audience.Above the title/Masthead is a the most important story after the cover story which is a featured storywhich in this case is “CAPTAIN BEEFHEART R.I.P”. This draws the target reader to the one of the mainfeatures in the magazine. A convention it follows here is that it has a picture relating to the featured storywhich is a good thing as it would make it more attractive to look at.The magazine, however, does lack many conventions things such as buzz words and smaller images offeatured stories (except for the featured story image). However it does have a freebie where in this case itis a free music CD, this is known as an ear piece which is located at the top left of the magazine whichreads „‟FREE CD” This is a really important convention as this would boost the magazines marketing andpromotion and would attract many target audience readers. Never the less, it has challenged a magazineconvention which is 6 – 20 featured stories. As it lacks more than 6 featured stories.This magazine contains barcode, price, magazine website and issue date, which are all situated on thebottom right of the cover.On the whole, this magazine has used its conventions in the right way to code it for the right mode ofaddress aimed directly at their demographic. This was done by the use of colloquial term its audience areaware off, colours used, freebie given of the genres music.
  • 10. ‘VIBe’ Magazine is an American based, monthly magazine. The publication predominantly features R&B, hip-hopand rap music artists, actors and other entertainers. The Demographic for this magazine is for people that are fans of urban music, entertainment, culture and lifestyle and is aimed for the inspirational 18-34 year olds, mainly male. Featured story– this is next important featured story in the magazine which comes up after the main cover story.Masthead/Title – the name of themagazine, which is ‘VIBE’. Cover Story – always relating to the central image.Colour Theme – the colour theme Central Image – this is the imagefor this magazine is red and black which relates to the main story inwriting, and a white background. the magazine of that issue, whichEvery magazine has its won colour usually is of a famous person ortheme, this is so magazine becomes group. And in this issue we canrecognizable straight away from its see it is the top rappers Eminemtheme colours. and 50 Cent, which all the rock people know. You could see the image covers the title whichFeatured stories – these are other shows that the rappers must befeatured stories in the magazines really important that they could cover the magazine name.Website, price and issue date –general information about magazineprice, issue date and website. Banner – shows extra content
  • 11. In this magazine „Vibe‟ follows the conventions of general magazines but in particular, R&B, hip-hop andrap music genres.The title/masthead „VIBe‟ is in a bold block capital lettering with only the „e‟ being lower case. It is in ablack font. It could be in capital to represent the male audience as its big and powerful being capitalized,and male generally like to be big and powerful. This is also back by the fact this magazine has apredominantly male audience. So you could sense some Mise En Scene here.Black is a mysterious colour associated with fear and the unknown. It usually has a negative colour. Blacksymbolizes strength and authority. However, the colour is a unisex colour for both males and femaleswhich is a good thing as it would avoid sex discrimination to appeal to both genders. The title almost takesup a third of the cover. This huge title stands out to make it recognizable from a distance and make it eye-catching and instantly attracts customers. The title/masthead of the magazine is partly obscured by thepositioning of the image of „Eminem‟ & „50 Cent‟, this is a convention that many magazines follow withthe belief that the target audience are already sufficiently familiar with the ‘House Style’ of the magazinedespite the full title being obscured. This „House Style‟ for the magazine is important because is gives themagazine an identity that can be visually recognized from numerous other similar titles in the market.One of the things that Vibe consistently do throughout their issues is that they will always use the large,bold and thick title, but in different colours:Vibe will have one or more famous artists on the front of their cover, more often than not the artists theyuse are generally hip-hop, rap and R&B. This immediately shows to the reader what type of magazine it isjust from it‟s front cover, making it very clear from the front that the magazine is based on music,specifically in the hip-hop, rap and R&B area. Also using a famous artist on the front cover is a definite USP(unique selling point) as this would attract the fans of that specific artist(s) or group to buy that magazine.Every cover has the artist looking directly at the camera, maintaining eye contact; Vibe always uses thistechnique. This creates a relationship between the magazine and the reader. With the artist creating asincere look it intrigues and intimidates the audience, this creates a link between the reader and the artist.This is a convention of magazines.
  • 12. For this issue, Vibe chose „50 Cent‟ and „Eminem‟ for their front cover. They are both rappers. The image isa medium-shot, however, they are crouching down, so their full body language and clothes can show.They are both represented in an intimidating and aggressive way, with both artists leaning forwards andcrouching, wearing plenty of shiny, expensive jewelry (such as chains, rings, watches) with a hard stare intothe lens of the camera. This direct eye contact with the camera creates a immediate link between thereader and the artists. Eminem and 50 Cent are very close artists, if anybody is a true hip-hop or rap fan,they should know that Eminem kicked off 50 Cents career, this gives Vibe the right to say „A conversationsbetween brothers‟, because with their target audience being fans of this genre of music, they should beaware what the subliminal message within that text.You could see they are both airbrushed to come across perfect, faultless and natural look. This will attractand appeal the fans and target audience readers. The clothes that they are wearing are representativeof the rap culture, which by the way, directly relates to the gang culture, due to its violent and explicitlyrics. This has a direct result of the teenage readers who want to aspire to be like them. This relates to„Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs‟; Maslows theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be metbefore the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs.The 4th level of his pyramid is „Esteem‟ , where humans after achieving the previous 3 levels and reach the4th, would search for fame, dreams and desires. This is exactly what the readers are engaging in, a dreamworld they want to chase, a idol they want to be like.There are no semiotics associated with them, this is maybe done to prevent stereotyping. However it doesstereotype slightly as rap is associated with the gang culture due to its violent lyrics. And also black peopleare associated mainly with the gang culture. both artists are predominantly blacked out, and 50 Cent‟swearing a era hat, and they both are wearing black bandanas on their head, this highly denotes thegangster life as many gangsters are blacked out.The layout of the magazine is quite plain, in this issue The Source uses a calm and simple layout. The designof the page is simple and not too congested with featured stories, there are only several featured stories.From my own research I found that the layout would be fairly different in other issues, containing morefeatured stories and cover crammed with writing. Even though it should as its released monthly andtherefore should be crammed with stuff. This could be a negative aspect as the readers would expect lotsof stuff for its value and the fact its released monthly.Colours in magazines are part of what makes a magazines „house style’ unique, the use of colours candefine the mood and message the magazine is try to convey to its audience.
  • 13. There are only three main colours used on the cover and this is conventional for magazine covers becauseit keeps the professional look, defines the house style, and stops the magazine from looking foreigntowards its audience. One of the things that gives a magazine its brand identity is the colour theme. Andthe colour theme here is white, black and red, and a hint of yellow. The red and black used for the writing,with only a hint of yellow (part of cover line). Yellow is the colour of joy and happiness, and „Eminem” & „50Cent‟s‟ name is in yellow, I could infer from this that they are both happy, further backed by the fact it says“A conversation by brothers‟. White has been used for the background, with also a hint of white writingused (part of cover line). White is considered to be the colour of perfection. As opposed to black, whiteusually has a positive connotation. White can represent a successful beginning. This could relate to the “Aconversation between brothers” as it could be a positive thing, and could also hint for a successfulbegging. Black is associated with power, elegance, death, evil.It‟s a mysterious colour associated with fear and the unknown. It usually is a negative colour. This colourcould help connote and glamorize the gang life culture. Red is the colour of fire and blood, so it isassociated with energy, war, danger, strength, power, determination as well as passion, desire, and love.Red is also a strong colour that shows up a range of seemingly conflicting emotions from passionate loveto violence and warfare. This again could relate to the cover line, as the cover line has a red background,and “A conversation between brothers” reflects a passionate and brotherly love sort of thing. This engagesreader to want to find out more and be pulled into this emotional chat.Above the title/Masthead is the most important story after the cover story which is a featured story. Thisdraws the target reader to the one of the main features in the magazine.Another thing that gives a magazine its brand identity is the typography, the text used here was prettymuch plain. In this issue Vibe used the same font all over the cover. However only altering colour and textsize. The text varied between either red or black, however the cover story was yellow and white. So itbroke a convention here, as a convention of magazines is to have different fonts.The language that has been used on the cover does contain vocabulary their target audience are awareoff, words such as „Blood‟, „Streets‟. This is so the audience are aware of this language and would feel asthough they belong to what is being said, or they relate to it in a way.Above the title/Masthead is the most important story after the cover story which is a featured story. Thisdraws the target reader to the one of the main features in the magazine. This is a convention ofmagazines.
  • 14. The magazine, however, does lack many conventions things such as buzz words, smaller images offeatured stories, ear-piece/freebie, nonetheless, it has challenged a magazine convention which is 6 – 20featured stories. As it lacks more than 6 featured stories.Though, the magazine does contain a barcode, price, magazine website and issue date, which are allsituated on the bottom right of the cover.On the whole, this magazine has used its conventions in the right way to code it for the right mode ofaddress aimed directly at their demographic. This was done by the use of colloquial term its audience areaware off and the colours used.
  • 15. This contents page is from the magazine „Vibe‟. The heading of this contentspage is in a bold drop capital black sans-serif font. The word „contents‟ aresplit into three lines. This style of headline is carried through all the „Vibe‟magazine issues contents page and therefore fits in with the magazines housestyle. This is also making it expected of „Vibe‟ as it creates a whole new brandidentity and makes that a feature of vibe magazine. Vibe magazine areconstantly trying to keep their contents and front cover contemporary Alsothe way that it has been positioned makes it look more modern and unique.As you can see like other conventions of contents page for music magazines,the main & biggest image on the contents page is of the same person/groupon the front cover. Where in this case it‟s rapper „Kanye West‟. The mainimage is of the artist „Kanye West‟ who is taking up most of the space on thecontents page. The artist is also directly addressing the audience as he islooking straight at the camera, he is looking quite serious, maintaining directeye-contact with the camera, to engage directly with the reader andcreates a hidden link. Theres a hand reaching over holding a red heart overKanye‟s heart, this could be Mise En Scene, that a girl has taken over Kanye‟sheart, or is in the process of taking over his heart.This contents page also has its own cover story section. Where in his case asyou can see its right next to the picture, which is situated to the left of thepage.Another convention it follows is that it has a section called „Features‟ whichshows the stories featured on the front cover.However this contents page only has two sections which is too little. The twosection headings are in different fonts to the contents of the sections. Thecolour for the heading is in black and is in bigger font size. However for thecontents, it‟s a mix of grey and black, and a smaller font sizeAnother convention it follows is the use of a chronological order of pagenumbers for the sections on the contents page.One of the things that gives a magazine its brand identity is the colour theme.The colour theme used here are quite neutral colours which makes it lookclassy & professional appealing to its audience that it aims at. Its grey andblack colours, that‟s its brand identity. The only colour we see on the page isthe love heart which is held by a women towards Kanye West‟s heart. In thebackground of the contents page is see a large letter „V‟ bold blue/greysans-serif font, behind the artists head which reminds the reader that themagazine is a Vibe magazine.This contents page lacks other images which is a disadvantage. However onthe whole it follows basic music magazines codes and conventions.Another thing that gives a magazine its brand identity is the layout, and thelayout here is very simple and basic with very little writing, 2 subheadings tothe right, and one image used
  • 16. This is an analysis of a „NME‟ contents page.This one is quite different, instead of being called contents, itscalled „NME THIS WEEK‟. It has the issue date under the title. TheNME is in a red colour, while the „this week‟ is in white, both backedby a black backgroundThe right side is divided into six parts; News, Radar, Reviews, Live,Features and Plus. Page numbers are next to the articles as thishelps the reader find what they are looking for. The features on thecontents page would show whats on the front cover and where tofind it. This is a basic convention. Of contents page.The right hand side of the page is filled with a list of sub-headingswhich helps the reader navigate around the magazine and find theinformation theyre most interested in faster. Inside of the sub-headings, there are even more sub-headings inside making it easierto find specific information. This is a convention most magazinesuse.One of the things that gives a magazine its brand identity is thecolour theme. Here the colour theme is white, red and black. Theheading for each section is in a black background with white text.With the contents in plain black, and page number in red. Thepage numbers are in chronological order. This is a music magazinecontents page convention.Down the left hand side is an index of bands which feature in themagazine, this is in every magazine. This enables the readers to findwhere the specific information about a specific band is in themagazine.The „Band Index‟ is in black, while the contents are in red, andagain the page number is in black.Another things that gives magazines their brand identity is thetypography used. The text through out is the same, using he samefont throughout. With only using different colours and font sizes.A convention this contents page follows is that the biggest imagerelates to the one on the contents page, and the cover story hasits own section, which links to the image. The image is a long-shotof a band performing, and there are no semiotics.In all the issues of NME, on the contents page, an advertisement forsubscription is always published. The yellow writing stands out on theblack background to draw attention to it. This is because they wantmore readers to subscribe. There are two past issues on thesubscribe section, this is too further attract the audience.Another convention it follows is the use of a chronological order ofpage numbers for the sections on the contents page.
  • 17. This contents page is from the magazine „Vibe‟. This magazine contents page is almost thecomplete opposite to the one from NME! As it is from a R&B/rap/hip-hop magazine, it has acalmer feel to it. The heading of this contents page is in a bold drop capital white sans-serif font.The word „contents‟ are split into three lines. This style of headline is carried through all the „Vibe‟magazine issues contents page and therefore fits in with the magazines house style. This is alsomaking it expected of „Vibe‟ as it creates a whole new brand identity and makes that a featureof vibe magazine. Vibe magazine are constantly trying to keep their contents and front covercontemporary Also the way that it has been positioned makes it look more modern and unique.One of the things that gives a magazine its brand identity is the typography will now analyse thetypography of this contents page. The „contents‟ is on the top right hand side of the page in avery large font. The „Contents‟ is in a bold drop capital white sans-serif font. It could be in capitalto represent the male audience as its big and powerful being capitalized, and male generally liketo be big and powerful. This is also back by the fact this magazine has a predominantly maleaudience. So you could sense some Mise En Scene here. The word „contents‟ are split into threelines. This style of the headline is carried through all the „Vibe‟ magazine issues contents page andtherefore fits in with the magazines house style. It is in white so it is easy to read and stands out. Thiscolour appeals to both males and females.The different stories are again split into different categories. The category titles are also bigger andin a more interesting font. The page number and story title are on the same line but are slightlydifferent colours so that it is easy to see that they are separate things. The page numbers are inchronological order. This is a convention most music magazines follow. Again a small blurb is usedwith fun language e.g.. "Ms. Goodies gets provocative about life, love, and (gasp!) sex". A dottedline is used to split up the stories. "Fashion" is a category again which shows that teenagers likereading about their favourite artists style. There is some text describing what Ciara is wearing andwhere it came from which also supports this theory. Along the bottom there are details of where,when and who photographed Ciara. I must also remember to include the page number andname of the magazine which is written in a smaller size along the bottom. This magazine alsoincludes the date with this information.There is only one image here. Which is of the same artist that‟s featured on the cover of that issue.This is a convention. The woman is half dressed, and this would most likely mean the reader ismale, and if so it would highly appeal to the male gaze. However the image has no semiotics.Another thing that gives a magazine its brand identity is the colour theme. Contents page usuallyhave 3 colour themes, which is a convention of magazines. Here the colour theme is black, whiteand grey. It‟s the same colours as the front cover, however only missing the colour red. A gradientis used in the background which changes from black at the top to almost white at the bottom.White colour has been used for the „Contents‟ title, this is the only white colour used here. This isdone to make it stand out from the rest of the page. The writing is in black, and the background isa gradient of black to grey.The layout, again like the previous Vibe magazine contents page that I analyzed, its quite basic,as it one has one image, and this is a weakness for this contents page. Also it has got only twomain sub-headings "features" and "fashion" this suggests that the magazine is just under halffashion, this contrasts ‘NME’ which is all about the music. There is hardly any colour in the pageand quite dull, the light coming from the bottom right of the woman making her stand out, it alsomakes her seem more powerful and angelic. I have to mention however, that the layout of thetext is set our competently well and looks fine.
  • 18. This is a double page spread from an „NME‟ magazine. I will analyse the brand identity, codes and conventions used and finally how the mode of address is created in this double page spread. First I will analyse the typography andlayout and how the conventions within the text are coded to relate to the target audience. The language use and tone are very important in showing the target audience in this magazine as using language your audience are aware off creates a link between the magazine and the reader as they would feel they belong to what is being said; they have something in common. Firstly, the article uses a block bold capital and bigger font size for the first letter of the article.This is a convention many magazines follow. This helps to make the first word stand out on the page, and entice you into reading the article. However, the first paragraph of the article is not in bold, and this is maybe to stop people just reading one paragraph, and encourage them to read the whole article. We could also see how this double pagespread follows other basic conventions found in other double page spreads. For example, the writing is in columns, this is a principle conventions for nearly all magazine double pages. Another thing is that there is a design bridge for the heading where its written on both pages. This is done to show that both pages relate to each other. Usually design bridges of the headings on double page spreads are from the left of the page to the right. Another textual convention is text on the image. There is a fact file relating to the picture, where it anchors the picture.
  • 19. Another convention we may find within is that a important quote taken out from the article is taken out andplaced in a large font size within the text, and it is highlighted in a blue label, which makes it stand out fromthe rest of the article. This is to draw attention to the significant importance of the article which would attractthe audience to read and find out more.I will now go into more detail of the writing used and how its written to relate to the target audience.The article uses very sexual language “Young, dumb and full of… filthy tunes.” & “Of course we‟re a sexualband. We‟re the teenagers and that‟s all they think about”, this helps to connote the kind of audience thatthey are targeting at, which are teenagers, and also fits with the theme of the other article on the spread-aband with "filthy tunes". This kind of language is very ordinary and colloquial for teenagers, using this colloquiallanguage that the teenage audience are aware of would create a link between the reader and the text asteenagers can relate to it, they would feel as though they belong to what is being said. This shows the readerthat the article is not a particularly serious, in depth one. The article as a whole uses very relaxed, everydaylanguage relating to the average teen, to make the reader feel at home. Another part of the spread withsexual connotations is “The bands stroking our undercarriage and giving us a warm feeling this week". Thishelps to show that the magazine has an older audience, and is not only aimed at 16 year olds and younger.Also, there is a caption saying “NEED TO KNOW”, this kind of language is used in the article to entice you intoreading it, and showing that it is important to understand the article a bit more and that it‟s important “toknow” for a normal teenager.where there is a quote from the band in the middle of the page, casual teenage language is used in this “Ofcourse were a sexual band. Were The Teenagers and thats all they think about”. This is used to help show theteenage reader that the people in the band are just ordinary teenagers, and that the teenage audiencereaders can relate to them as they have something in common and this would consequently create a directlink between the reader, text and most importantly, the group.I will know analyze the brand identity. The colour scheme where in this case is white, black and blue. A whitebackground has been used for the article. We could see how all the colours here are unisex in general andthis is good as this would avoid stereotyping and gain both male and female audience readers. However,blue is a mostly masculine colour; according to studies, it is highly accepted among males. White isassociated with light, goodness, innocence, purity, and virginity. It is considered to be the colour ofperfection. As opposed to black, white usually has a positive connotation. You could see how that colourcompletely contrasts with the teenagers as they are talking about sex in a very normal way and that is theopposite of purity, innocence, virginity and goodness. However not to forget black was used, and black isassociated with power, elegance, sophisticated, formality, death, evil, and mystery. Black is a mysteriouscolour associated with fear and the unknown. It usually has a negative colour.
  • 20. Black symbolizes strength and authority; it is considered to be a very formal, elegant, and prestigious colour.The font used for the article is approximately a size 9 as most magazines follow this convention. The article textis in black, however the text on the right which relates to the mini-articles is in white.There is a section to the right which does not directly relate to the main article, its mini-articles which givesreviews of up and coming bands that are not well known yet.I will now analyse the images being used within this double page spread. Altogether it isnt very crammedwith images with only five images being used in a professional and well layed out way which hardly takes upany vast space. Images are usually used because they make the page more interesting and eye-catchingand help to show a bit more of what the article is about and help the reader visualize how the text relates tothe image.A convention this spread follows is that theres a page predominantly taken up by the main image relating tothe article, which in this case is the image to taken up the left side page fully.In the main image, a portrait long-shot has been taken. This is done so that the group body language andclothing can fully show, to show their clothes, pose, surroundings etc. The band is lying casually on a bed, andthey are all in very relaxed positions. The semiotics created here helps to suggest that the band are justeveryday teenagers, and are not upper class or superior to other teenagers.The clothes the band are wearing are all black, which helps to suggest the genre of their music, which is rock.Also, they are all wearing fairly fashionable clothes, and this will interest readers as it is showing them fashionsof the time, and the readers might want to follow it.The members of the band are wearing fake glasses, which make them look stereotypically “nerdy”. This helpsto suggest to readers that they are just ordinary people that you can relate to. The background in the photolooks quite upper class and for more mature people, however the photos on the wall contradict with this. Wecould see some Mise En Scene created within the main image. For example, they are sitting on a bed andthere is text within the article talking about sex “Of course were a sexual band”, this relates as people usuallyhave sex on the bed. Another thing we could infer from this image is that there are many posters on the wall,which are predominantly of female models half naked and posing in a sexual way. This again, relates to sex,and is very superior for the male gaze. This may also suggest the sexual nature of their music, as rock musicpredominantly contains sexual lyrics.Another image used is of the band which is situated within the article. It shows the one person from the bandperforming and has very little significance as it contains no Mise En Scene, but rather its there to createvisualization for the reader. It is a medium shot showing the body language of the artist from his knees to hishead.
  • 21. There are also three mini images of other bands on the right hand side of the spread. One is a medium close-up shot, one a medium shot and the last one is a long shot. These images relate to a side article on thespread called "Everyones talking about". These mini-articles gives reviews of up and coming bands that arenot yet well known. The images show the bands in dirty, raw settings like council estates, and this helps tosuggest the nature of their music and also the fact that maybe anyone can read „NME‟The photographs on the spread do not really have captions, as the images themselves are pretty selfexplanatory, and do not need a caption.We could see that under the article is „NME‟s‟ website. This is a good way to remind the audience to checkthe website after reading the article.Overall, the double page spread has used many conventions which are coded to form a mode of address tothe targeted audience. Some of the conventions they have used is a colour scheme containing 3 colours(white, black and blue). Another convention used is one page predominantly covered with an image. However one of the most important parts is how the text is coded to suit reader target audience, how itswritten in a way that the target audience are aware of the language used and understand it.
  • 22. This is a double page spread from an „Kerrang‟ magazine. I will analyse the brand identity, codes and conventions usedand finally how the mode of address is created in this double page spread. First I will analyse the typography and layout and how the conventions within the text are coded to relate to the target audience. The language use and tone arevery important in showing the target audience in this magazine as using language your audience are aware off createsa link between the magazine and the reader as they would feel they belong to what is being said; they have something in common. Firstly, the article uses a block bold capital and bigger font size for the first letter of the article. This is a convention many magazines follow. This helps to make the first word stand out on the page, and entice you into reading the article. However, the first paragraph of the article is not in bold, and this is maybe to stop people just reading one paragraph, and encourage them to read the whole article. We could also see how this double pagespread follows other basic conventions found in other double page spreads. For example, the writing is in columns, this is a principle conventions for nearly all magazine double pages. Another thing is that there is a design bridge for the heading where its written on both pages. This is done to show that both pages relate to each other. Usually design bridges of the headings on double page spreads are from the left of the page to the right.
  • 23. A convention it lacks here is that there is no quote taken out from the article and placed in a large font sizewithin the text. These quotes are done to draw attention to the of the importance of the article which wouldattract the audience to read and find out more. However I believe in this issue of Kerrang, it subverted thisconvention as it used a quote from their as their heading, which could be even more appealing and eyecatching then a quote within the text itself. Part of the heading says “MY CHEMICAL ROMANCE INVITESKERRANG TO THEIR RECORDING STUDIO”. This line would instantly attract the target audience as thereaders/fans would want to know whats happening in the bands studio and would therefore be willing toread the article.I will know analyze the brand identity. The colour scheme where in this case is white, black and red. A whitebackground has been used for the article. We could see how all the colours here are unisex in general andthis is good as this would avoid stereotyping and gain both male and female audience readers. White isconsidered to be the colour of perfection. As opposed to black, white usually has a positive connotation. Thewhite here was used in the heading “ THE BEST MCR”, and as the article colour, and on the right as abackground for the section of the bands songs. The colour red has been used for the capital letter at thebeginning of the article, and for part of the heading, and used a little bit here and there. Red is the colour offire and blood, so it is associated with energy, war, danger, strength, power, determination as well as passion,desire, and love.And finally, the colour black has been used as the background. Black is associated with power, elegance,sophisticated, formality, death, evil, and mystery. It is considered to be a very formal, elegant, and prestigiouscolour. The font used for the article is approximately a size 9 as most magazines follow this convention. Theheading is the biggest text, and this is due to the reason it being the heading. The heading is in capital whichcould show something big and powerful, this is most likely related to males, as they like to be big andpowerful, and the band are males.There is a section to the right where the bands music is analyzed, like for each song whats it about etc.I will now analyse the images being used within this double page spread. Altogether it isnt very crammedwith images with only five images being used in a professional and well layed out way which hardly takes upany vast space. Images are usually used because they make the page more interesting and eye-catchingand help to show a bit more of what the article is about and help the reader visualize how the text relates tothe image.A convention this spread follows is that theres a page predominantly taken up by the main image relating tothe article, which in this case is the image to taken up the left side page fully.
  • 24. In the main image, a portrait long-shot has been taken. This is done so that the singers‟ body language andclothing can fully show, to show also show his pose, surroundings etc. The image taken was of one of the bandsartists while he is performing/singing. There are no semiotics created here. The artists clothing is highly significantto the target readers as he is wearing full on rock clothes. The clothes he is wearing is all black, which helps tosuggest the genre of his music, which is rock.Black is associated with power, elegance, sophisticated, formality, death, evil, and mystery. So this could totallyrelate to the genre of the music due to its mysterious and evil lyrics. This could be Mise En Scene.However the singer is not looking at the camera, but looking down.There are also three other fairly big images of the band on the bottom of the right page side of the spread with1 of them stretching to the left page. Two of them are medium close-up shots, while the other is a medium shot.The photographs on the spread do not really have captions, as the images themselves are pretty selfexplanatory, and do not need a caption. Two of the images are artists from the band, and one of them is theband in the recording studio, this image is good to be there as it could help the target audience readersvisualize the headline which says “MY CHEMICAL ROMANCE INVITES KERRANG TO THEIR RECORDING STUDIO”.I have to comment on one important thing here which is that all the photos are in black and white. The Mise EnScene behind this could be relating to the genre of their music, which uses the colour black very much.Overall, the double page spread has used many conventions which are coded to form a mode of address totheir targeted reader audience. Some of the conventions they have used is a colour scheme containing 3colours (white, black and red). Another convention used is one page predominantly covered with an image. However one of the most important parts is how the text is coded to suit reader target audience, how itswritten in a way that the target audience are aware of the language used and understand it.
  • 25. This is a double page spread from an „VIBe‟ magazine. I will analyse the brand identity, codes and conventions used and finally how the mode of address is created in this double page spread. First I will analyse the typography and layout and how the conventions within the text are coded to relate to the target audience. The language use andtone are very important in showing the target audience in this magazine as using language your audience are aware off creates a link between the magazine and the reader as they would feel they belong to what is being said; they have something in common. Firstly, „VIBe‟ broke a basic convention and hasn‟t used a drop bold capital letter and has however, preferred to start off with a small statement about the artist in a bold, sharp, short, snappy statementwhich is a way of interesting the reader, and the statement has been written in bold to give this article a dramatic andmysterious effect. But the first line of the article has been written in bold and capital. We could also see how this double page spread follows other basic conventions found in other double page spreads. For example, the writing is incolumns, this is a principle conventions for nearly all magazine double pages. Another convention it lacks is a heading that bridges from the left page to the right. However it has used an alternative by using the pictures on top which go across both pages.
  • 26. So in a way this magazine is not fully braking but changing and twisting conventions. This is maybe done to suitetheir specific target audience. A design bridge is usually done to show that both pages relate to each other.And another convention broken here is the part where a quote is taken out from the article, highlighted, madebold, and written in a bigger text and then put within the article. However, here we may find within is that thequote taken out from the article is placed right beside the main image and is not within the article at all.I will now go into more detail of the writing used and how its written to relate to the target audience.The title of the article says “Forget her sister. The outspoken „Solange Knowles‟ created one of the years best R&Balbums”. Okay so here we instantly know it would be predominantly R&B music fans interested in this. This wouldmake R&B music fans interested to find out how she “created one of the year‟s best R&B albums”.I will know analyze the brand identity. The colour scheme where in this case is predominantly light greybackground and grey writing with a hint of blue and black writing used and some grey images on the top of bothpages. As we can see the artist name is in a bright colour of blue printed which puts emphasis on the artist as wellas telling the reader straight away that the article is going to be about „Solange Knowles‟. A white backgroundhas been used for the article. We could see how all the colours here are unisex and this is good as this wouldavoid stereotyping and gain both male and female audience readers as using these neutral colours whichappeals to both a male and female audience of all ages, which can help increase the magazines fan base.However it has to be said that the overall colour scheme is quite plain. Grey is a neutral, balanced colour. It is acool, conservative colour that seldom evokes strong emotion although it can be seen as a cloudy or moodycolour. This could create be Mise En Scene as „Solange Knowles‟ quote on the picture says “Its no fun to feel like Ihave to audition for everyone. Or be put on display for folks to say I strategically put on feather eyelashes just tobe different…” , we could evidently sense that angry/moody strong emotion within the textual content, let alonethat quote was written in capitals which could further more suggest anger or seriousness of speech, more likesomeone is shouting out these words. However, writing in capitals is also a kind of masculine big powerful type oftext as boys like to big be and powerful, so this may also mean she has a bit of a masculine side to her. Blue is thecolour often associated with depth and stability. It symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith,truth, and heaven. Yet again studies prove blue is a masculine colour as it is more popular with boys. This againcould prove the point of masculinity to „Solange Knowles‟ as the text in blue was her name. even though blackwas only used for the quote, black is a negative colour, so maybe that‟s why the magazine used this particularcolour for the quote, to help the reader see the negativity and anger in her quote.
  • 27. The font used for the article is approximately a size 9 as most magazines follow this convention. And it uses nearly95% grey text with a hint a black and blue. I will now analyse the images being used within this double pagespread. On the whole it isnt very crowded with images with only one person being used repeatedly with differentposes.I must say the different poses layed out on top look very professional and stylish appealing very much to the malegaze as the lady is wearing a very short and tight dress. Even though they take pretty much less than half of thetop half of both pages. There is about 7 images layed out form left to right. Images are usually used because theymake the page more interesting and eye-catching and help to show a bit more of what the article is about andhelp the reader visualize how the text relates to the image.The use of the black and white images at the top of the double page adds variety and explores a betterrepresentation of the artist. It shows the artist‟s personality with the use of different poses and again to inform whothe article is about. The way vibe has used black lines through the page to help divide the page into two helps tomake it easier for the reader to look at images more carefully, rather than having images and texts scattered onthe pages.The semiotics used here are just poses, however not any poses but poses directly aimed to attract the maleaudience, so this would link to directly both the male gaze, and the semiotics.A convention it broke here is that this double page spread does not contain one page mainly used for an image,but rather used half of a one side page, and the right side, even though usually on double page spreads theimage is placed on the left hand side. The main image is in colour even though pretty much everything on thedouble page is in black in white with a hint of blue text. Its of a long shot of a woman wearing a tight and shortred dress. Red is the colour associated passion, desire, and love. Long shot has been used here to show her fullbody language and clothing, but mainly to show her whole body which would be very pleasing to the male gaze,as she has been presented in a very attractive way. The pose shes doing isnt very much noticeable except forthe fact that she has her hands behind her, and the tips of both her feet are touching. There isnt a lot of Mise EnScene to the image except for the lure the pose which appeals to the male gaze and the fact shes wearing ared dress, and the colour red is associated with desire which comes back to relate to the male gaze, it‟s like acycle. Girls might look at Solange as a role model and might want to follow her fashion, or even dream of beinglike her, and have the desire to be famous like her. This relates to „Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs‟, in which he saysafter pleasing the first 3 levels of the pyramid of human needs, the 4 th level is were humans search for fame,desire, dreams.This double page spread, however, is very different to „Kerrang‟ & „VIBe‟ magazines double page spread. Forexample, „Kerrang‟ magazine had very little text with lots of large images, whereas „Vibe‟ magazine has lots oftext but with several images too.
  • 28. This could be due to the fact that it is aimed at different demographics and target audience readers so thereforewould have different modes of address and brand identity being used, and would also have to use language theiraudience are familiar with.On the whole, this double page spread , unlike the past two magazines I analyzed, have broke many codes andconventions. For example, it lacks a heading where it bridges from one page to another to show that both pagesare connected, However it alternatively have used the images layed on top to act as a bridge for both pages.Another thing is that the first letter of the article does not start with a bigger capital bold letter.Some of the conventions they have followed however is the use of columns for their article. However one of themost important parts is how the text is coded to suit reader target audience, how its written in a way that thetarget audience are aware of the coded language used and understand it.