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Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood - by lairadeeXD
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Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood - by lairadeeXD


HEY. :) May this ppt slide may somehow help in your acads. :D

HEY. :) May this ppt slide may somehow help in your acads. :D

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  • 1. PEERS
  • 2. FRIENDSHIP • Voluntary relationship between two people involving mutual link.
  • 3.  The key elements of friendship for younger children (4 or 5) are that children like each other and enjoy paying together.  For older elementary-school children (ages 8-11) mutual liking and shared activities are joined by features that are more psychological in nature: TRUST and LOYALTY  New to Adolescence are INTIMACY and LOYALTY
  • 4. FRIENDS  Alike in Age, Gender, and Race  Treat each other as equals.  Alike in attitudes towards school, recreation, drug use, and plans in the future.  Children with same and opposite-sex friendships tend to be very well adjusted.  Children with only opposite-sex friendships tend to be unpopular, to be less competent academically and socially, and to have lower self-esteem or socially unskilled.
  • 5. QUALITY & CONSEQUENCES OF FRIENDHIPS  Children with good friends have  Higher Self-Esteem  Less likely to be lonely and depressed  Cope better with life stresses  Less likely to be victimized by peers  Have greater self-work as young adults
  • 6.  Co-rumination – Conversations about one’s personal problems, common among adolescent girls.  When aggressive children are friends, they often encourage each other’s aggressive behavior.
  • 7. GROUPS  Clique – small group of friends who are similar in age, sex, and race  Crowd – large group including many cliques that have similar attitudes and values  Youths from high-status crowds tend to have greater self-esteem than those from low-status crowds.
  • 8.  Authoritative Parenting (warm but controlling) – Children who become involved with crowds that endorse adults standards of behavior. (ex. Normals, Jocks, Brains)  Neglectful/Permissive Parenting – children are less likely to identify with adult standards of behavior that dis** adult standards (e.g. Druggies)  Dominance Hierarchy – ordering of individuals within a group in which group members with lower status differ to those with greater status
  • 9.  Peer pressure – characterized as an irresistible, harmful force; has negative and positive sides  Peer influence is stronger when these conditions are present:  Youth are younger and more socially anxious  Peers have higher status  Peers are friends  Standards for appropriate behavior are not clear-cut
  • 10. POPULARITY & REJECTION  Popular Children – children who are liked by many classmates  Rejected Children – children who are disliked by many classmates  Controversial Children – both liked and disliked by classmates  Average Children – are liked and disliked by some classmates but without the intensity found for popular, rejected, or controversial children  Neglected Children – are ignored by classmates
  • 11.  Peer rejection can be traced to the influences of parents.  Bandura’s social cognitive theory  Parents who are friendly and cooperative demonstrate effective social skills for their children.  Parents who are belligerent and combative demonstrate tactics that are much less effective.
  • 12.  Parents also contribute to their children’s social skills and popularity through their disciplinary practices.  Inconsistent discipline – associated with antisocial, aggressive behavior  Consistent punishment (does not rely on power but it is tied to parental love and affection) – promote social skills and popularity
  • 13. AGGRESSIVE CHILDREN & THEIR VICTIMS  Instrumental Aggression – aggression used to achieve explicit goals  Hostile Aggression – unprovoked aggression that seems to have the sole goal of intimidating, harassing or humiliating another child  Relational Aggression – children try to hurt others by undermining their social relationships
  • 14.  When children are chronic victims of aggression      Lonely Anxious Depressed Dislike school Have low self-esteem
  • 16.  TV  Children become more aggressive after viewing violence on television.  Help children learn to be more generous and cooperative and have higher self-control  Help children learn important academic skills and social skills  COMPUTERS
  • 17. UNDERSTANDING OTHERS  As children develop more sophisticated cognitive processes cause self-description to become richer, more abstract, and more psychological.  Robert Selman – as children develop, they become able to take the perspective of other people; Stages of Perspective Taking
  • 18. SELMAN’S STAGE OF PERSPECTIVE TAKING Stage Approx. Ages Description Undifferentiated 3-6 years Children know that self and others can have different thoughts and feelings but often confuse the two . Socialinformational 4-9 years Children know that perspectives differ because people have access to different information. Self-reflective 7-12 years Children can step into another’s shoes and view themselves as others do: they know that others can do the same. Third-person 10-15 years Children can step outside of the immediate situation to see how they and another person are viewed by a third person. Societal 14 years to adult Adolescents realize that a third-person perspective is influenced by broader personal, social, and cultural contexts.
  • 19.  Recursive thinking – thoughts that focus on what another person is thinking  Prejudice – a view of other people, usually negative, that is based on their membership in a specific group