JOB ANALYSIS “Broadening the responsibilities of thecompany’s jobs and encouraging employeesnot to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions is the modern philosophy.” 1
INDIVIDUALS’ NEEDS INDIVIDUALS’ NEEDS 2 Aspirations Aspirations Self- Self- concept concept Self-esteem Self-esteem and and Job design-a more holistic approach efficacy efficacy Satisfaction and Satisfaction and Skill variety Skill variety TECHNICAL Achievement Achievement and utilization and utilization Autonomy ASPECTS Social contacts RELATIONSHIPS FORMAL INFORMAL Peer group Task varietyTHE WORK JOB management Quality of Structural Design Feedback PROCEDURAL ASPECTS Boss Department Organization goals Clarity and meaningfulness of EXPECTATIONS
JOB ANALYSISAIM. Procedure to determine duties of a job and characteristics of a person to ensure full satisfaction to both the parties.HOW TO FULFILL THIS OBLIGATION?1. Job description and Specification2. Satisfaction to the worker3. Fulfill the core dimensions of the job 3
Job Analysis Job Analysis is theanalysis of the job, not theperson who is manning it.Job Analysis data may becollected throughinterviews orquestionnaires.The product of the analysisis a description orspecification of the job, notthe description of theperson. 4
Job Description •A Job Description is a writtendescription of a job listing the types of duties performed, reporting relationships and the conditions under which it is performed. 5
Job Description Contain:•Job identification•Job summary•Responsibilities and duties•Authority of incumbent•Standards of Performance•Working Conditions•Job Specifications 6
Job Title: SupervisorDIVISION: PlasticsDEPARTMENT: ManufacturingSOURCE(S): John Doe, S. Lee WAGE CATEGORY: ExemptJOB ANALYST: John Smith VARIFIED BY: Bill JohnsonDATE ANALYZED: 12/26/97 DATE VARIFIED: 1/5/98Job SummaryThe SUPERVISOR works under the direction of the MANAGER: plans goals: supervises the work of employees; develops employees with feedback and coaching; maintains accurate records; coordinates with others to achieve optimal use of organizational resources.Job Duties and Responsibilities1. Plans goals and allocates resources to achieve them ; monitors progress toward objectives and adjusts plans as necessary to reach them; allocates and schedules resources to assure their availability according to priority.2. Supervises the work of employees; provides clear instructions and explanations to employees when giving assignments; schedules and assigns work among employees for maximum efficiency; monitors employees’ performance in order to 7 achieve assigned objectives. Contd.
3. Develops employees through direct performance feedback and job coaching; conducts performance appraisals with each employee on a regular basis; provides employees with praise and recognition when performance is excellent; corrects employees promptly when their performance fails to meet expected performance levels.4. Maintains accurate records and documents actions; processes paper work on a timely basis, and with close attention to details; documents important aspects of decisions and actions.5. Coordinates with others to achieve the optimal use of organizational resources; maintains good working relationships with colleagues in other organizational units; represents others in unit during division or corporate wide meetings.Job Requirements1. Ability to apply basic principles and techniques of supervision. a. Knowledge of principles and techniques of supervision. b. Ability to plan and organize the activities of others. c. Ability to get ideas accepted and to guide a group or individual to accomplish the task. d. Ability to modify leadership style and management approach to reach goal.2. Ability to express ideas clearly in both written and oral communications.Minimum QualificationsTwelve years of general education or equivalent; and one year supervisory experience. ORSubstitute 45 hours classroom supervisory training for supervisory experience 8
What aspects of job are analyzed?•Duties & Tasks: Contd.Performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to becollected about these items may include: frequency, duration,efforts, skills, complexity, equipment, standards..Human BehaviorInfo on human behavior, mental and physical job demands.•Environment:Physical requirement unpleasant conditions, offensive odors andtemperature extremes. risks to the incumbent i.e hostile andaggressive people etc. 9
•Tools & Equipment: Specific equipment and tools. Equipment mayinclude protective clothing. These items need to bespecified in a job analysis.•Relationship: -Supervision given & received. Relationships withinternal or external people.•Skill Requirements: The knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) required toperform the job. 10
JOB SPECIFICATIONS HUMAN TRAITS QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE TRAINED EMPLOYEE EASIER SKILLS FOR JOB NOT ONLY ACTIVITIES BUT ALSO HUMAN TRAITS 11
STEPS OF ANALYSIS1. HOW INFO WILL BE PUT TO USE.2. THE ORG STRUCTURE.3. SELECT POSITIONS TO BE ANALYSED.4. COLLECTION OF DATA.5. SHARE WITH JOB HOLDER.6. DEVELOP JOB DESCRIPTION AND JOB SPECIFICATION 12
Methods of Job Analysis•Interviews•Questionnaire•Observation•Dairies or log•Critical Incident•Focus & Consultative groups 13
Less expensive. Easily available. Responses often can be quantified. analyzed in a variety of meaningful ways.. Does not require trained person to interpret. 14
May be difficult to construct. May have low response rate. Responses may be incomplete. Responses may be difficult to interpret. 15
QUANTITATIVE METHODS OF JOB Contd. ANALYSIS Data- Employee Collectio Techniques Group Analysis Description n Focused ON Method Tasks are rated by job1 Task Any-large incumbent, supervisor, or Inventory Number of Question Rating of job analyst. Rating my be Analysis worker naire tasks on characteristics such as needed importance of tasks and time spent doing it. Behavioral incidents2. Critical Behaviora representing poor through Incident Intervie l Any excellent performance are Techniqu w descriptio generated for each es n dimension of the job. Elements are rated on six3. Position Rating of scales (for example, extentAnalysis Question Any 194 job of use, importance to job.Questionnaire naire elements Ratings are analyzed by(PAQ) 16 computer.
METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS Contd. Data- Employee Collectio Techniques Group Analysis Description n Focused ON Method Originally designed to improve counseling and Rating of placement of people Group how job4. Functional registered at local state Intervie incumbent Job employment offices. Task Any w/ relates to Analysis statements are generated Question people, (FJA) and then presented to job naire data and incumbents to rate on such things. dimensions as frequency and importance. Systemic means for5. Methods Time per determining the standard Analysis Manufacturi Observat unit of time for various work tasks. (Motion ng ion work Based on observation and Study) timing of work tasks. 17
METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS Employee Data- Techniques Group Collection Analysis Description Focused ON Method Job incumbents identify6. Guidelines Skills and duties as well as knowledge,Oriented Job Any Interview knowledge skills, physical abilities andAnalysis required other characteristics needed to perform the job .7. ManagementPosition Manager check items Questionnair Checklist ofDescription Managerial descriptive of their e 197 itemsQuestionnaire responsibilities.(MPDQ) Managers are interviewed regarding such issuers on Impact of their responsibilities. job on Responses are analyzed8. Hay Plan Managerial Interview organizatio according to four n dimensions: objectives, dimensions, nature and scope accountability.18
– Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). A structured, behavioral questionnaire 194 items in 6 categories – Information input – Mental processes – Work output – Relationships – Job context – Other characteristics 19
JOB ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES The Management Positions Descriptions Questionnaire [MPDQ ] is a 197-item, behaviourally oriented, structured questionnaire for describing, comparing, classifying and evaluating management positions. The latest version of the MPDQ is divided into ten sections. The Position Classification Inventory [PCI] is a job analysis inventory used to classify occupations and to assess person– job fit. 20
CLASS WORK PREPARETHE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE LIBRARIAN OF PAF-KIET 21
LIBRARIAN Responsible for safe custody, maintenance andimprovement of Library. Maintain issue/receipt of books and journals to facultymembers and students. Coordinate with faculty before the start of semester as to the availability of textbooks. Periodically recommend purchase of new books. Guide students in their research projects. Update the books and journals record in the computer. To take backup of data in the computer. 22
BREVARD GENERAL HISPITAL Job DescriptionJob Title: Job Analyst Job Code: 166.088Date: January 3,1989 Author: John DoakesJob Location:Personal Department Job Grade: __________Supervisor: Harold Grantinni Status: ExemptSkill Factors Education: College degree required. Experience: At least one year as job analyst trainee, recruit or other professional assignment inCommunication: personnel area oral and written skills should evidence ability to capsulize job data succinctly. Contd. 23
Effort Factors Physical demands: Limited to those normally associated with clerical jobs: sitting, standing, an walking. Mental demands: Extended visual attention is needed to observe job. Initiative and ingenuity are mandatory since job receives only general supervision. Judgment must exercised on job features to be emphasized, jobs be studied, and methods used to collect job data. Decision-making discretion is frequent. Analyzes and synthesizes large amounts of abstract information into job descriptions, job specifications, and job standards.Working ConditionsTravels to hospital clinics in county from one to three days per month.Travels around each work site collecting job information. 24Work mostly in an office setting.
Goal-setting and work characteristicsCore Job Critical Personal andDimensions Psychological Work Out comes StateSkill varietyTask identity Experienced meaningfulness ofTask the work High internalsignificance work motivation High-quality work performance Experienced Autonomy High satisfaction responsibility for with the work outcomes of the work Feedback Knowledge of the Low absenteeism actual results of and staff turnover the work activities 25
COMPETENCY PROFILINGA job analysis method that focuses on the skills and behaviours needed to successfully perform a job Attributes model: – Underlying characteristics – Causality – performanceHR managers have increasingly focused on person-oriented approaches such as criticalincident reporting and behaviour–event interviews to identify the skills and behavioursneeded to perform a job.These occupational requirements are referred to as competencies.Specifically a competency ‘is an underlying characteristic of a person that leads to or causessuperior or effective performance’. 27
COMPETENCYCHARACTERISTICS what drives, directs and selects behaviour towards certain actions or goals and away from others. physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations or information. a person’s attitudes, values or self-image. information a person has in specific content areas. the ability to perform a certain physical or mental task. 29
DEVELOPING COMPETENCY STANDARDS1. Conduct interviews to ascertain key business situations and key factors of success.2. Develop detailed descriptions and behaviours associated . Identify positive and negative behaviours.3. Review to examine clear understanding, importance, measurability.4. Discuss with managers5. Produce list of each competency in terms of behaviours, effective and ineffective behaviours . 30
PROBLEMS WITH JOB ANALYSIS Support from Top Management Single means and Sources No training and motivation. Activities may be distorted 31
JOB ANALYSIS AND EEO Job analysis is a systematic process for understanding jobs: There should be no violations of EEO requirements. Avoid listing lengthy experience requirements Job specifications and job descriptions should not be based on opinion Need to ensure the legality of the job analysis itself 32
NEWER CONCEPTS FOR WORK1. Path to “dejobbing”.2. Enlargement and enrichment.3. Revolve around natural work groups.4. Combine tasks.5. Interact with client/customer.6. Vertical loading.7. Open feedback channels.8. Organizational Development.• Flatter Organizations : AT & T, ABB, General Electronic,• Work teams : Volvo, Saturn• Boundary less Organizations. 33• Reengineering.