Bioenergy is energy contained in living or recently living biological organisms
Organic material containing bioenergy is known as biomass
Biofuels are renewable transport fuels including:
Biomass is the largest renewable energy source in use today
There are two main forms of biomass:
Raw biomass consists of forestry products, grasses, crops, animal manure, and aquatic products, such as kelp and seaweed.
Secondary biomass is material that comes from raw biomass, but has undergone significant changes. These would include items such as paper, cardboard, cotton, natural rubber products and used cooking oils.
Fuel ethanol is a form of alcohol, fermented and distilled from a wide range of plant life such as wheat, corn or woody material
produced by chemically upgrading oils obtained from the pressing of oil plants,
Electricity generation from biomass
Electricity from sugarcane bagasse in Brazil
Synthetic natural gas ( SNG )
How much biomass exists right now?
Worldwide, total "standing crop" biomass (99% on land, and 80% in trees) is a huge resource, equivalent to about 60 years of world energy use in the year 2000 (1250 billion metric tonnes of dry plant matter, containing 560 billion tonnes of carbon).
For the U.S. alone, standing vegetation has been variously estimated at between 65 and 90 billion tonnes of dry matter (30-40 billion tonnes of carbon), equivalent to 14-19 years of current U.S. primary energy use.
However, the Earth actually grows every year about 130 billion tonnes of biomass on land (60 billion tonnes of carbon) and a further 100 billion tonnes in the rivers, lakes and oceans (46 billion tonnes carbon).
The energy content of this annual biomass production is estimated to be more than 6 times world energy use or 2,640 exajoules (2500 Quads ) on land, with an additional 2024 exajoules (1920 Quads ) in the waters.
Facts about bioenergy
Worldwide, biomass is the fourth largest energy resource after coal, oil, and natural gas - estimated at about 14% of global primary energy (and much higher in many developing countries).
In the U.S., biomass today provides about 3-4% of primary energy
Biomass is used for heating (such as wood stoves in homes and for process heat in bioprocessing industries), cooking (especially in many parts of the developing world), transportation (fuels such as ethanol) and, increasingly, for electric power production .
Installed capacity of biomass power generation worldwide is about 35,000 MW , with about 7,000 MW in the United States derived from forest-product-industry and agricultural residues
Much of this 7,000 MW capacity is presently found in the pulp and paper industry, in combined heat and power (cogeneration) systems
Bioenergy in Malaysia
Malaysia has a goal for the share of renewable energy to reach 10% of the total by 2010 .
A National Biofuel Policy was announced by the Government in August 2005 to promote development of a biofuels industry in Malaysia.
The National Biofuel Policy entails a four-prong strategy:
the production of a biofuel blend of 5% processed palm oil and 95% diesel ,
encouraging the use of Biofuel among the public
establishing an industry standard for palm biodiesel quality
the setting up of biodiesel plants in Malaysia for exports. (source: MPOB )
Bioenergy in Malaysia
In 2005 , the total oil palm planted area increased by 4.5% or 174,000 hectares to 4.0 million hectares , the state of Sabah on Borneo accounted for 30% of the total area. (source: MPOB )
Production of crude palm oil has been increasing for 7 consecutive years and reached 15.0 million tonnes in 2005.
Production growth of 7.1% was mainly attributed to the increase in matured areas, enhanced plantation and mill management, recovery in fresh fruit bunches yield per hectare to 18.88 tonnes and continued improvement in the oil extraction rate (OER) to 20.15%.
Bioenergy – Key Benefits and Challenges Key Benefits Key Challenges
Sustainability: a clean and renewable energy source
• Availability: bioenergy development can increase access to energy in
• Flexibility: bioenergy can deliver power, heat and transport
• Energy Security: bioenergy can contribute to diversifying the energy
mix; there are a wide variety of feedstocks (raw material) for
bioenergy and all countries can rely on some domestic sources
• Mitigation of climate change – bioenergy can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to fossil fuels • Diversification of rural livelihoods – in the energy sector, and
utilising newly available energy services - facilitating rural
• Reduction in land degradation especially through planting of
perennial bioenergy feedstocks
Ensuring sustainability – environmental, social and economic • Safeguarding food security – ensuring that increased demand for biofuels does not adversely affect the hungry • Protecting biodiversity • Managing competition for land and water • Controlling pollution of air, water and soils • Removing barriers to biomass and bioenergy trade
What are the differences between Bioenergy and biomass?
What impact will biofuels have on food prices?
What are the environmental advantages to biofuels?
Can biodiesel help to reduce 'global warming?
HOW IS IT DONE?!!!!
Biogas is normally produced by using the excreta of animals as the source material. In most of the countries where biogas is produced, the excreta of the cattle and other farm animals are used. In India gobar or cow dung is used for the purpose of making biogas. 20% of the excreta of animals is made up of dust particles that are inorganic in nature. The percentage of the inorganic dust particles is brought down by combining water with the excreta in a 1:1 ratio. The rate of feeding of any biogas manufacturing plant that is based on dung is 3,500 kilograms per day. Under normal circumstances the microbial content of the biogas is maintained by the addition of 2% of the expended slurry of the slurry of the fresh dung. 1% calcium ammonium nitrate of the dung is combined with the slurry in such cases. At times waste of kitchens and excrement of human bodies is used in these processes. The human excreta are supposed to occupy, at the most, 3% of the slurry. The addition of human excreta is crucial in this context as it increases the amount of production of biogas. This is because human excreta have high nitrogen content. The ideal temperature for producing biogas is within 35 to 38 degrees Celsius.
If the temperature is lower than that then the production of biogas may go down as well. If the temperature is 15 degree Celsius then it would be impossible to produce any biogas.
Facts to Remember
The ration of the gases in the Product:
40-45 percent of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ),
55-66 percent of methane (CH 4 ),
Rest is hydrogen ( H 2 ) and hydrogen sulphide ( H 2 S ).
Ration of the elements to produce Bio Gas:
Cow Dung/Vegetable Waste: 90%
Human Waste: 2%
Bio Gas Plant
Bricks are mixture of Wood waste and Sugar cane waste.
Wood waste or left over from process and sugarcane are dried up with the help of sun.
Wood waste and Sugar cane waste are mixed up and give pressure to make a bun
Facts to Remember
Ration of the elements to produce Bricks:
Wood Waste: 60%
Sugar Cane waste: 40%
It is made from Cow dung.
Cow dung is collected and given shape of disc and it is dried of on the sun.
Used only for cooking
Easy alternative of Coal in villages in South Asia and some parts of South East Asia
Biodiesel is manufactured from vegetable oils, recycled cooking greases or oils or animal fats.
It can be used either as a blended fuel with petroleum diesel or as a pure fuel.
Blended biodiesel can often be used without any engine modification.
Biodiesel reduces the level of several diesel pollutants including sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.