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Master Thesis Proposal: Business Models for Mobile-broadband Media Services – Case Study Indonesia Telecom Market


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This thesis intends to systematically research the suitable business model options for mobile-broadband media services, which specifically focuses to Indonesia’s telecom market, as one of the world …

This thesis intends to systematically research the suitable business model options for mobile-broadband media services, which specifically focuses to Indonesia’s telecom market, as one of the world largest emerging economy.

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  • 1. Business Models for Mobile-broadband Media Services – Case Study Indonesia Telecom Market Master Thesis Proposal Report Student: Laili Aidi ( Supervisors:Jan Markendahl (, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) GregerBlennerud (, Ericsson Sweden Examiner:KonradTollmar (, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) KTH – Royal Institute Of Technology Stockholm, Sweden 2012
  • 2. ContentsContents .........................................................................................................................1  1.   Introduction .............................................................................................................2  2.   Result .......................................................................................................................6  3.   Methodology ............................................................................................................7  4.   Time and Activity Plan .............................................................................................9  Bibliography..................................................................................................................10   1  
  • 3. 1. IntroductionBackground The evolution of the Internet and development of the mobile device technologies haveresulted on paradigm shift in society and triggered higher expectation of the user. This poses aconsiderable challenge for the telecom operators, such as weakening the consumer relationshipsand diminishes revenue from existing voice and messaging services1. However, this is potentiallya perfect moment for mobile operator to launch profitable new businesses on top of mobilebroadband, encompass a wide range of services and sectors. The recent data shows that by 2011, the number of mobile-broadband subscriptions hasincreased to almost half of total 2.4 million Internet users, grew 45% annually over the last 4-years, means it reached twice as fixed-broadband subscriptions2. There are currently 5 emergingdeveloping markets (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Indonesia), called the BRICI countries,represent 45 % of the world’s population, that are predicted to add more 1.2 billion Internetusers by 20153. In these countries, mobile-broadband likely becomes preferred accessmechanism, as result of several factors, such as cheap but advanced-technology handset, as wellas limited availability of fixed-broadband. Thus, mobile-broadband has huge potential to besource of core revenue and key to growth for the telecom industry in these markets, in contrastto what is happening in developed markets where it is more as a substitution of fixed-broadbandbusiness4. Moreover, the combination of mobile-broadband and streaming media would also create thenext killer services, exploit new revenue streams for telecom operators, media companies /content providers, service providers, payment providers and advertisers. According to Allot, themobile data usage grew 77 %, where multimedia streaming was the largest service accessedworldwide that occupied 39 % of the bandwidth5. This is in contrast to what happened in fixed-broadband, where the file sharing service dominated. Furthermore, the revenue in digital musicbusiness also increased 8 % globally, followed by the growth in user streaming subscription,download purchasing and expansion of the digital music service business across the countries6. However, there are unique challenges for telecom operator to develop sustainable mediabusinesses in mobile-broadband, both in worldwide perspective, as well as Indonesia local marketperspective. First, as the delivery of media in mobile-broadband requires provider to serve thecustomer with higher demand, there is incompatibility between business models of the initialmobile data services with the current Internet services7. Second, it needs understanding fordifferentiation in order to suit different types of customer segment8. Third, there is new general                                                                                                                1 __. (2007, Feb. 5). The Future of Voice. ITU New Initiatives Programme, Geneva, Rep. FoV/00. [Online]. Available: __. (2011). ICT Facts and Figures. International Telecommunication Union. [Online]. Available: M. Aguiar et al. (2010, Sept.). The Internet’s New Billion. BCG., Boston, MA. [Online]. Available: M. Meeker et al.. (2010, Dec.). The Mobile Internet Report. Morgan Stanley. [Online]. Available: __. (2011, Feb.). Global Mobile-broadband Traffic Report. Allot Communications, Geneva, Rep. D261013 Rev 6. [Online].Available: __. (2012, Jan.). Digital Music Report 2012. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. [Online]. Available: G. Blennerud. (2010, July). Mobile-broadband – busting the myth of the scissor effect. Ericsson Business Review, No 2, 2010[Online]. Available: M. Ljungberg, and A. Bolle. (2011, Feb). Mobile-broadband second wave – differentiated offerings. Ericsson Review, No 1,2011 [Online]. Available:Available: 2  
  • 4. trend in the telecom industry, where there are new actors enter and introduce changes in themarket landscape1. Fourth, the digital piracy remains barrier to the growth of the business2.Problem Definition From the situations and problems rise above, there is a substantial need to investigate and/ormodified existing business models into suitable strategy options that are designed for the mediaservices in mobile-broadband as profitable telecom business sector. However, the businessmodel itself is a vast scope subject, as it covers broad range of aspects and seen in different pointof view. This field is still rarely studied scientifically and no such common basic conceptual oranalysis framework that is universally used in the academic world [1]. Meanwhile, as the telecom and ICT industry itself run in dynamic environment, there is alsono standard for its business model, as well as for the broadband solution, that applies to all casesand various factors, such as demographical, social, economical and political situation. It can beseen that despite the similarities among particular user segments across market, especially amongthe BRICI countries, there are some major differences in usage habit, as result of linguisticenvironment, income rate, telecom policy, as well as cost and availability of the services3. Forinstance, despite 3G penetration is higher in Indonesia compare to other BRICI countries andhas been offered for couple years, its uptake is still remain slow (both in term of network andhandset penetration perspective), as well as low affordability of PC ownership. Moreover, socialnetworking, bulletin board systems and online forums are popular in Indonesia, but user ingeneral is unwilling to pay for online services as well as the content. Indeed, the strategy used to monetizing these potentials and challenges has to be selectivelytargeted to specific service and market. Hence the universal solutions would not be suitable.Thus, the main intention of this thesis is to systematically research the suitable business modeloptions for mobile-broadband media services, which specifically focuses to Indonesia’s telecommarket, as one of the world largest emerging economy. In order to do that, the following 4questions have to be answered:1. What are the mobile user’s usage characteristics, especially in Indonesia, toward the media services trough mobile broadband?2. Who are the actors that currently involved in serving the media services, and what kind of relation and business models they are using?3. What kind of positions and roles that the telecom operators can take to provide media as profitable mobile-broadband businesses in Indonesia?4. What kind of bottlenecks, solutions and platforms needed to provide those businesses?Related Works There are lot of works have been done in Tele-economic field, that relate to the case study ofthis thesis, either discusses the feasibility assessment of mobile broadband and services in term oftechnical aspect or cognitive, or focuses on business model of mobile business itself, asmentioned below:1. Business Model, Actor and Network Several researchers discussed and assessed the business models for ICT and telecom sector using several types of approaches, such as the “bottom-line” analysis, including the roll out and financial assessment. The works by Elnegaardet all (2009) [2] and Bohlin (2007) [3]   for example, did the tele-economic calculation, which are the network rollout assessment for mobile-broadband access (in virtual or typical medium-large European country). The objective is actually to present comprehensive viewpoint of radio access network investment,                                                                                                                1 R. Bamforth and C. Longbottom. (2011, July). Optimizing the online customer experience in Telecommunication [Online].Available: __. (2012, Jan.). Digital Music Report 2012. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. [Online]. Available: M. Aguiar et al. (2010, Sept.). The Internet’s New Billion. BCG., Boston, MA. [Online]. Available: 3  
  • 5. by dimensioning the cost elements and making evaluation of providing specific amount of user with specific forecasted traffic demand characteristic. Using this, the profitability and viability of business model can be evaluated. The other approach, that is also common in business model assessment, uses schematic and reasoning approaches from the available theoretical building blocks. Moreover, as the partnership gradually becomes one of the core competences in the business, thus it is fundamental to also identify the actors and their roles, as well as to understand their relation and interaction each other. There are numbers of works specialized to the ICT and telecom business field that broad the business model analysis of traditional manufacture industry into variety of actors, network, and interaction as well as strategy discussion. One that can be taken into account is a work by Camponovo and Pigneur (2007) [4] that made the Mobile Market Scorecard framework, consist of 4 complementary perspectives (financial, industry, innovation, market), as well as discussed in deep the actors involved using its MBusiness Framework perspective. Ballon (2007) [5] has set of similar domains for the design and analysis of business model (value network, functional model, financial model, and value proposition), and all of these are seen based on the twin issues of Control and Value parameter. On the other hand, Bendahan et all [6] focused on assessing 2 principal models for multi-actors analysis, the MACTOR model (based on the system theory) and the Allas model (based on the game theory), including their respective strengths and weaknesses. They then proposed the new MASAM model that capitalizes as well as overcoming those previous. The wireless Internet service provider (WISP) industry in the Swiss market then was taken as example assessment using this. Meanwhile, Markendahl (2007) [7] presented comprehensive analysis of various cooperation models that can be used by mobile operator to interact with different types of partner, competitor and customer. This work identified the main drivers as well as how this cooperation can be organized, and took 3 different types of service and market as case study: the public mobile broadband access services, the services and solutions for indoor wireless access, as well as the mobile payment and ticketing services. These works constructed business models framework from the grounded theories and/or analyzed specific problems using critical aspects that suitable for the ICT or telecom sector, so the discussion is actually extended to the value configurations as well, such as the value network.2. Technology Acceptance Mobile media streaming service would bring shift in consumer habit of the early consumer. The diffusion of new technology is actually a result of series of decision and comparison factors of the user’s perception to the benefit and cost of adoption. Thus the ability to predict this diffusion, including user’s readiness and willingness to pay and continue using the service, plays important aspect in determining the suitable business model of media service in mobile-broadband, as the potential user might not adapt to it in spite of its availability in the market. Many researchers have performed various theories and designed the frameworks to analyze the factors that affect consumer intention, specifically for the new ICT or telecom field. However, there are substantial theoretical and empirical works that accumulate to some frameworks. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) [12]   was designed during the early stage of computer, to modeling how individual perceptions would affect the intention to use the new technology, as well as predict its further actual usage. However, it has limitations in explaining the adoption of new technologies and services, such as giving more attention to examine the factors that drive user’s adoption, rather than what drive user to continue to use the technology, which is also important in determining successful sustainable business [13]. The Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) [14] should also be taken into account, as it was designed as extension of 8 previous models, in order to overcome its 4  
  • 6. limitations especially on considering social context and personal expectancy1. There are number of works in the mobile internet field, such as the work done by Nysveen et all (2005) [15], Pagani (2004) [16] and Lu et all (2005) [17], that adopted, extended, or even combined several frameworks, including some of the mentioned above, to assess range of mobile value-added services, due to their flexibility to fit in various case studies. The methodology used in these works could be referenced and/or modified in order to make it specific to the case and market we are currently studying.                                                                                                                1 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory Reasoned Action (TRA), Motivational Model, Theory of Planed Behaviour(TPB), Combined TPB-TAM, Model of PC utilization, Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT), Social Cognitive Theory   5  
  • 7. 2. Result This thesis is intended to do analysis of business model that make the discussion wouldpertain to business, economical or technical. Thus, in order to design and evaluate the feasibilityof solutions, we will need to see it from multitude of different points of view. This Tele-economic discussion would be range from different aspects, and provide these outcomes:1. Strategies identification We expect to be able to do classification and assessment of different types of existing business model that are currently used to deliver the mobile-broadband media services in other markets. We also provide insight of the of the Indonesia’s telecom market structure and landscape, including the situation of the existing media and mobile-broadband businesses. In other word, this result mainly concerns to the supply-side aspect, both of the reference markets and target market. The reference markets would be focused in some of European countries where the mobile-broadband media services are currently taking of, while the target market is focused to Indonesia. Thus, this discussion would contain the analysis of eco-systems, which are the identification of actors, the business role and responsibility distribution among them, as well as the drivers and challenges of their current strategy. This industrial background will be structured as market maps with description of relation model between the telecom operator and actors in the media as well as Internet industry.2. Market understanding The other outcome of this thesis is the understanding of Indonesias telecom market, which is mainly focused on demand-side aspect. In this context, we expect to get insight of the customer in Indonesia toward the mobile Internet, especially the media services as well as mobile broadband. The large majority of users are not interested to the technical details, but more on usability, design, entertaining aspects, etc and the successful loyalty programs demand the ability of providers to capture the actual or further composition structure of these preferences. Thus, before we able to identify the suitable business model options for this market, we will first need to identify and predict the user’s patterns, which makes the discussion could range to the aspect of loyalty and satisfaction, willingness to pay and continue using the service, as well as expectation and perception toward it.3. Recommendation Finally, through those 2 comparative studies above, we will comprehensively analyze feasibility of these identified different strategy options using the market understanding data as the affirmation tool. In other word, we will asses and highlight the business model options that most suitable to develop mobile-broadband media services to Indonesia market, according to our understanding of that market. This form will mix the discussion of technical, market and business feasibility and related competences. We expect that, using our recommendation the telecom operators, especially in Indonesia, can take strong position in delivering and building profitable mobile- broadband media businesses in their market. The accomplishment of this 3 types of result would help us to tackle 4 problems mentionedin the background above: assessing the current business models, identifying the non-telecomactors that hold critical positions of the mobile media business in other markets, modeling andpredicting the user needs for similar services in Indonesias market, as well as forming thesuitable business model options that hopefully would excel the piracy that still become hugebarrier of the media business and transform as profitable business for telecom industry, especiallyfor Indonesia market. 6  
  • 8. 3. Methodology Since this thesis looks into the saturation rather than the statistical validity, it is clear that themain method that fit to be used in this research will be the Qualitative method [18]. However,there is also a need to complement it using the Quantitative method, to get understanding andsnapshot of the general trend in this market [18]. In order to deliver the objectives mentioned inthe previous section above, the following 4 main research methods will be applied: • Literature study, • Data collection, • Data analysis, • Recommendation formulation. The research will dive into range sources of theoretical perspectives, as we need to firstestablish clarity of the theoretical building blocks, including the mechanism of how it works, aswell as the antecedent and consequence of them. The review of business model covers concepts,frameworks, and strategies, where each one of these is elaborated and then argued how it relatesto this thesis. Moreover, to get deep insight and understanding of the business management, weneed to get understanding of the value chain and value network concepts, including how tomodeling the relevant actors and the relation among them. The industrial background as well astechnology acceptance factors will play important aspect that also bases the analysis, thus we willalso need to also include the discussion of current mobile-broadband technology, businessesassessment and the most suitable frameworks to predict the diffusion of new mobile services. Beside the literature study, there will also be data collection and analysis. This is done, as weneed to understand the business models of the media services delivered on top of broadbandconnection in the worldwide markets today as well as current Indonesia’s telecom marketlandscape. As this thesis does not actually intend to design such new solution, but to identifyand/or modify the existing ones into such suitable options, thus this is become requisite beforewe then can analyze what are the relevant options for Indonesia market. In order to do that, wewill use 2 frameworks:1. Value analysis framework Our first approach for the Value analysis framework will be conducted using Unobtrusive technique (content analysis) [19] from papers, specifications, etc, published by technology providers, organizations, or business sources as pre-study analysis. This is done in order to perceive the mobile-broadband and different kind of media service businesses worldwide. For example, there are currently around 500 legitimate digital music service providers, using different business models to deliver the service to the users in 78 countries1. We will classify and select some of those that really relate to our case study market and put our focus more into to the settled or potential mobile-broadband media service partnerships between telecom operator and digital music service provider then assess it case-by-case. The findings will be generalized; as well as comprehensive analysis is presented. The second approach will be done using Non-probability sampling, which is the Expert sampling [19]. We conducted the semi-structured interviews with several contacts in the industry (mobile operators, service providers, media/record label companies, artist agencies, and other potential actors) in the reference markets (mainly Sweden) as well as the target market (Indonesia), in order to understand the context of their decision, intention and opinion about the case we are studying.                                                                                                                1 __. (2012, Jan.). Digital Music Report 2012. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. [Online]. Available: 7  
  • 9. 2. Empirical data analysis framework This is mainly done in order to perceive the market patterns (behavior, expectation, satisfaction, perception, and acceptance) toward the mobile services, especially media. We will gather the data using the Simple random sampling survey [19], so we can get better understanding of this target market, as well as snapshoot of customer affirmation. However, as same as the Value analysis framework, the empirical data using Unobtrusive technique (Secondary source) [19] will also take important part, in order to complement the data we get from the survey (mainly market report or consumer data). Moreover, as the user-segmentation drive importance aspect in delivering the mobile services, we will need to get detail pattern of this differentiation. The large mobile user population will be divided into several different segments. There are number approaches of segmentation that could be used, for example the User-centric design, proposed by Dainesi and Zucchella (2002) [8], which dissociate the consumer into 3 groups: Teenage users, Parental users, and Professional users. Furthermore, we also need to assess the acceptance and readiness of Indonesia’s user to the media consumption through mobile-broadband as well as the business model options that have been preliminary analyzed before. Thus, we will use, modify or combine the most suitable technology acceptance frameworks, based on our review in the Literature study. Using this way, we can systematically analyze the user and assess those business model options. The analysis for assessment and recommendation forming will be adopted based on the mostsuitable business model/s on the review in the literature study. In this preliminary stage, there arecurrently several frameworks considered to be used in this research, one of that is the model thatwas proposed by Chesbrough and Rosenbloom (2002) [9], as it able to mediates between technologyand economic values, using function that contain 6 components: Value proposition, Marketsegment, Value chain structure, Revenue generation and margins, position in Value network andCompetitive strategy. The model proposed by Håkansson and Snehota (1989) [10], is also useful tomake cross analysis between ARA (Actors, Resource, and Activities) with the Value network andcompetitive strategy component in [9]. Using this, we can get understanding on the differenttypes of actor involved and the contexts of their relationship. It is also important to do this broadband business analysis in its complete ecosystem, inorder to get whole understanding and picture of what we are dealing with. The approach that canbe considered is, by viewing this as technological, business, and market development perspective[11]. This consists of the network aspect, the user aspect, service that the network carry, and theapplication delivered on top of it, as shown in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Broadband Ecosystem [11] The last, the recommendation formulation will be drawn to answer the questions defined inthe problem definition, which will be presented through visual graphs, either using table, figureor picture, following the descriptions of it. Beside that specific discussion, it is also possible toconclude the general pattern about this market in relation to the other market, especially themarkets in the emerging stage, either as the drivers or obstacles point of view. Furthermore, wewill also include discussion of the limitations of this research and suggest possible directions forfuture work. 8  
  • 10. 4. Time and Activity Plan This thesis will be performed for 20 weeks, including the report presentation, and 2 weeksafter that will be allocated for submission of the final revision, as well as paper version to theconference(s). The time allocation and detail activity plan are described in the table 1 below: Table 1. Time and Activity plan 9  
  • 11. BibliographyBusiness Model, Actor and Network[1] C. Zott, R. Amit, L. Massa. (2010, June). The Business Model: Theoretical Roots, Recent Developments, and Future Research. IESE Business School - Working Paper [Online]. WP-862. Available:[2] N.K. Elnegaard, K. Stordahl, J. Lydersen, T. Gunnar. (2008). Mobile-broadband Evolution and the Possibilities. Telenor [Online]. Telektronikk (104) no ¾. Available: ver1_tcm28-36180.pdf[3] E. Bohlin. (2007, August). Business models and financial impacts of future mobile broadband networks. Telematics and Informatics [Online]. 24(3), pp. 217-237. Available:[4] G. Camponovo and Y. Pigneur, “Business model analysis applied to mobile business,” in5th Int. Conf. on Enterprise Information Systems., Angers, France, April 23-26, 2003, CamponovoP:03.[5] P. Ballon. (2007). Business modeling revisited: the configuration of control and value. INFO: The Journal of Policy, Regulation and Strategy for Telecommunications, Information and Media [Online]. 9(5), pp. 6-19. Available:[6] S. Bendahan, G. Camponovo, Y. Pigneur. (2003, May). Multi-issue actor analysis: tools and models for assessing technology environments. Journal on Decision Systems [Online]. 13(2), pp. 223-253. Available:[7] J. Markendahl, “Mobile Network Operators and Cooperation - A Tele-economic study of infrastructure sharing and mobile payments services,” Ph.D. dissertation, CoS, KTH, Stockholm, 2007.[8] E. Dainesi and A. Zucchella. “Wireless Marketing: Remodeling the Wireless Future from Technological to Generational Approach,” presented at the Proc. 7th WWRF. Eindhovent, the Netherlands, Dec. 2002.[9] J.H. Chesbrough and R.S. Rosenbloom. (2002). The role of business model in capturing value from innovations: Evidence from Xerox Corporation’s technology spin-off companies. Industrial and Corporate Change [Online]. 11(3), pp. 529-555. Available:[10] H. Håkansson and I. Snehota. (1989). No business is an island, the network concept of business strategy. Scandinavian Journal of Management [Online]. 5(3), pp. 187-200. Available:[11] Y. Kim, T. Kelly, S. Raja. “Rethinking Broadband as an Ecosystem,” in Building broadband: Strategies and policies for the developing world, Washington, D.C: The World Bank, 2010, pp. 15– 25.Technology Acceptance[12] L.D. Davis, R.P. Bagozzi, P.R. Warshaw. (1989, August). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science [Online]. 35(8), pp. 982–1003. Available:[13] S. Hong, J.Y.L. Thong, K.Y. Tam. (2004, Nov. 19). Understanding continued information technology usage behavior: A comparison of three models in the context of mobile Internet. Decision Support Systems [Online]. 42(3), pp. 1819–1834. Available:[14] V. Venkatesh, M.G. Morris, G.B. Davis, F.D. Davis. (2003, Sept.). User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly [Online]. 27(3), pp. 425-478. Available: URL:[15] H. Nysveen, P.E. Pedersen, H. Thorbjørnsen. (2005, June). Intentions to Use Mobile Services: Antecedents and Cross-Service Comparisons. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science [Online]. 33(3), pp. 330-346. Available: 10  
  • 12. [16] M. Pagani. (2004). Determinants of Adoption of Third generation Mobile Multimedia services. Journal of Interactive Marketing [Online]. 18(2), pp. 46-59. Available:[17] J. Lu, J. E. Yao, C. S. Yu. (2005, Sept.). Personal innovativeness, social influences and adoption of wireless Internet services via mobile technology. Journal of Strategic Information Systems [Online]. 14(3), pp. 245-268. Available: Methodology[18] J.W. Creswell. Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. London: Sage Publications, Inc., 2003[19] W.M.K. Trochim and J.P. Donnelly. The Research Methods Knowledge Base. Ithaca, NY: Atomic Dog, 1999 11