Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                           Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cos...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                            Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Co...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                          Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                            Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Co...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                                             Homework 3 – Di...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                          Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                            Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Co...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                             Homework 3 – Dimensioning and C...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                                         Homework 3 – Dimens...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                       Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost St...
Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics                                  Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structu...
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Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network - Report

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This report contains discussion of the radio access network design and the cost structure analysis of different deployment options of Radio Access Technologies (RATs). The objective is to provide specific amount of user, with specific traffic demand and deployment scenario.
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Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network - Report

  1. 1. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service NetworkThis document is public version of the submitted report.Please contact the author for download / correspondent query.Author : Laili AidiIntroduction This report contains discussion of the radio access network design and the cost structureanalysis of different deployment options of Radio Access Technologies (RATs). The objective isto provide specific amount of user, with specific traffic demand and deployment scenario. Therequirements of the deployment are based on [1]: 1. The type of the area to be coverage is “Urban”, with population density of 2000 / km2 in total area of 10,000 km2. 2. The usage / user is defined as “MBB Substitute”, starting from 5 GB/Month in year 0, and predicted to increase 1 GB/Month each year. 3. The penetration is defined as “Substitute_1”, starting from 1 % of total population in year 0, and predicted to increase 1% each year. 4. The analysis is designed for “Greenfield” operator case that has to deploy the network from scratch. 5. The RATs that are discussed in this report are “UMTS   Macro,     “HSDPA   Macro”   and   “HSDPA   Micro”.   The approach that is used to fulfill those requirements is listed as several steps below:1. Calculate the coverage demand (km2) for each year2. Based on calculation Step 1, calculate the capacity demand (Mbps).3. Calculate the total site needed in order to fulfil that coverage and capacity demand4. Based on calculation Step 3, calculate the CAPEX and OPEX, and then get the Total Cost for each year, including 5 % price erosion in all of the price5. Based on the calculation Step 4, calculate the NPV of each of these 3 different solutions6. Based on the trend in Step 4 and calculation Step 5, make the analysis and recommendation The step 1 - 2 will be covered in section “Part A - Coverage & Capacity Demand”. The step3 – 4 will be covered in section “Part B - Cost Structure & dimensioning”, where the discussion isseparated based on each RAT deployment. The step 5 is presented in “Part C – DCF Analysis”and finally the last section “Part D - Summary & Recommendation” presents the discussion ofstep 6.Part A. Coverage & Capacity Demand This section discusses the implementation of calculation in step 1 and 2. For example Year 0calculation, the coverage area 20 % and User penetration 2 % from 10,000 km2 areas with density2,000 means: 20 % x 10,000 km2 = 2000 km2 total required coverage 2 % x (2,000 x 10,000) = 400,000 total predicted user 1
  2. 2. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network Using the same formula, we can get the total coverage and user for the all 5 years, as below: Table 1. Coverage & Total User Total Required Total  Predicted   Year Coverage Demand (%) 2 User Penetration (%) Coverage (km ) User     0 0% 0   1% 200,000 1 20 % 2,000 2% 400,000 2 40 % 4,000 3% 600,000 3 60 % 6,000 4% 800,000 4 80 % 8,000 5% 1,000,000 5 100 % 10,000 6% 1,200,000 As the usage per User in year 1 is 6 GB/month/user, thus the user demand on that year in MB would be: 6 GB/month/user x 1,024 = 6144 MB/month/user Using this number, we can calculate the user demand in second (Mbps), where that traffic is assumed to be concentrated in 4 hours / day: (6144 MB/month/user)/(30 days x 4 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds) x 8 = 0.113777778 Mbps/user Then we can calculate the total capacity needed for this system according to the total number of user in the specific coverage area requirement in the Table 1: 0.113777778 Mbps x 400000 users = 45511.1 Mbps Using the same formula, we can get the total capacity demand for the all 5 years, as below: Table 2. Capacity Demand Year Usage per User (GB/Month/User) Total Capacity Demand (Mbps) 0 5 18,962.9 1 6 45,511.1 2 7 79,644.4 3 8 121,362.9 4 9 170,666.7 5 10 227,555.6 Part B. Cost Dimensioning This section will cover the calculation in step 3 – 4, where the discussion will be separated based on 3 different cost structures of RATs. According to the data in [1], we can present the cost structure of those RATs in the Table 3 and Table 4 tables below: Table 3. UMTS/HSDPA Macro Cost StructureNo. Cost Type Note1. CAPEX Radio & UMTS/HSDPA Macro BTS, first cell at • UMTS Macro’s Max cell Transmission site range 0.6 km, capacity 1 Equipment Mbps   • HSDPA   Macro’s   Max   cell range 0.4 km, 2
  3. 3. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network capacity 3 Mbps   UMTS/HSDPA Macro BTS, additional Maximum 6 cells in total in cells (sectors or carriers) 1 BTS Site Installation UMTS /HSDPA Macro BTS site - and build out costs installation UMTS/HSDPA Macro BTS site build - out URBAN Data line installation per - UMTS/HSDPA site URBAN2. OPEX Site lease, Macro BTS, URBAN - Electricity UMTS/HSDPA site Macro – URBAN - Leased line, E1 or Ethernet type URBAN (2 Mbps) - Operation & Maintenance (OM) 10 % of current year’s CAPEX Table 4. HSDPA Micro Cost StructureNo. Cost Type Note1. CAPEX Radio & HSDPA Micro BTS, one cell only (i.e. Max cell range 0.1 km, Transmission no build out) capacity 3 Mbps Equipment Site UMTS/HSDPA Micro BTS site - Installation installation and build out UMTS/HSDPA Micro BTS site build - costs out URBAN Data line installation per - UMTS/HSDPA site URBAN2. OPEX Site lease, Micro BTS, URBAN - Electricity UMTS/HSDPA site Micro - Leased line, E1 or Ethernet type URBAN - Operation & Maintenance (OM) 10 % of current year’s CAPEX Apart from the data mentioned in [1], there are several assumptions and equations that are also used in the calculation, as mentioned below: 1. BTS  &  Additional  Cell  Demand  Calculation The calculation of BTS demand is done by taking into account the coverage area and user demand that have been presented in Table 1 and 2. The Coverage achieved by BTS deployment (Cv) would be: Cv = Maximum cell range * Amount of BTS Thus, total Coverage achieved on that year (CvTot) would be: CvTot = Cv + CvTot last years However, as the number of BTS is the function of coverage and capacity, thus the assumption 3
  4. 4. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network that is used regarding the coverage is: the inter-cell interference can reduce the coverage area of each BTS if they have to be deployed very close each other, in order to fulfill the capacity demand in that coverage area. Means that if the coverage demand has been fulfilled but the capacity demand has not been fulfilled yet even by adding more cell into maximum, thus the addition of new BTS will not increase the coverage, as it has to be deployed closer each other in that target coverage area. Moreover, the Capacity achieved by BTS deployment would be (Cp1): Cp1 = Maximum capacity * Amount of BTS Meanwhile, as the “UMTS/HSDPA Macro BTS, additional cells (sectors or carriers)” is only increase the capacity, not the coverage, and as the maximum cells per BTS are 6, thus the maximum amount of purchase for additional cells in UMTS/HSDPA Macro calculation (Cell) would be: Cell = Amount of BTS * (6-1) Then, the Capacity achieved by additional cell deployment (Cp2) would be: Cp2 = Maximum capacity * Cell Thus, total Capacity achieved on that year (CpTot) would be: CpTot = Cp1 + Cp2 + CpTot last years Using these data, assumptions and equations, we can get the BTS and or Additional Cell demand in each year (Qty) of every RAT option, both from coverage and capacity point of view, as presented in Table 5, 6 and 7 below: Table 5. UMTS Macro Radio & Transmission Equipment Demand UMTS Macro BTS, first cell at site UMTS Macro BTS, additional Total TotalY cells Coverage Capacitye Price per Price per achieved achieveda Qty. Coverage Capacity Qty. Capacity 2 Unit Unit (km ) (Mbps)r (km2) (Mbps) (Mbps) (k€) (k€)0 20 3161 1000* 3161 10 15805 15805 1000 189661 19 4425 1000* 4425 9.5 22125 22125 2000 455162 18.05 5689 2000* 5689 9.03 28445 28445 4000 796503 17.2 6953 4000* 6953 8.6 34765 34765 6000 1213684 16.3 10000 6000 10000 8.2 39500 39500 8000 1706885 15.5 13400 8040 13400 7.8 43300 43300 10040 227568 * The BTS purchase is focused to add more capacity, not coverage, thus it is deployed closer than its coverage distance, therefor the adding of coverage in not based on equation Table 6. HSDPA Macro BTS & Additional Cell Demand HSDPA Macro BTS, first cell at site HSDPA Macro BTS, Total TotalY additional cells Coverage Capacitye Price per Price achieved achieveda Qty. Coverage Capacity Qty. Capacity Unit 2 per Unit (km2) (Mbps)r (km ) (Mbps) (Mbps) (k€) (k€)0 25 1054 421.6 3162 15 5270 15810 421.6 189721 23.75 3950 1580 11850 14.25 4897 14691 2001.6 455132 22.56 5000 2000 15000 7345 6378 19134 4001.6 79647 4
  5. 5. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network3 21.43 5000 2000 15000 12.86 8906 26718 6001.6 1213654 20.36 5000 2000 15000 12.21 11434 34302 8001.6 1706675 19.34 5000 2000 15000 11.6 13963 41889 10001.6 227556 Table 7. HSDPA Micro BTS Demand HSDPA Micro BTS, one cell only (i.e. no build out) Total Total Price per Unit Coverage achieved Capacity achievedYear Qty. Coverage Capacity (k€) (km2) (Mbps) (km2) (Mbps) 0 15 6321 632,1 18963 632.1 18963 1 14.25 13700 1370 41100 2002.1 60063 2 13.54 20000 2000 60000 4002.1 120063 3 12.86 20000 2000 60000 6002.1 180063 4 12.22 20000 2000 60000 8002.1 240063 5 11.6 20000 2000 60000 10002.1 300063 2. Installation  &  Build  Out  and  Running  Cost  Demand  Calculation   The purchase amount of “Installation and Build out” elements would be calculated as below: • “Data line installation per UMTS/HSDPA site URBAN” (DL):     DL = (Cp1 + Cp2) / Data line capacity Where the Data Line capacity per UMTS/HSDPA site URBAN is 10 Mbps [1]. • The purchase amount of “EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA Macro BTS site installation”   (SI)   and “UMTS/HSDPA Macro BTS site build out URBAN”  (SB)  are calculated as: SI or SB = Amount of BTS purchased The Running Costs in each year is assumed to has to include the cost to run the equipments bought from previous years, as the equipment/lease/electricity/etc that are purchased in previous year are still be used in the next following year. Thus: • The purchase amount of “Site lease, Macro BTS, URBAN”  (SL)  and  “Electricity  UMTS  site   Macro  -­‐  URBAN”  (EL)  are  calculated  as: SL or EL = Amount of BTS purchased + Amount of BTS purchased last year • The  purchase  amount  of  “Leased  line,  E1  or  Ethernet  type  URBAN”  (LL)  is  calculated  as:     LL = CpTot / Leased line capacity Where the Leased line, E1 or Ethernet type URBAN is 2 Mbps [1]. Then finally, the Cost for each of that element would be calculated as below: Cost = DL or SL or El or LL + Annual cost per unit Thus, using these data, assumptions and equations, and after getting the total BTS & Additional cell demand in each year (Qty), now we can get the amount for Installation & Build out and Running demand elements, as presented in Table 8, 9 and 10 below: 5
  6. 6. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network Table 8. UMTS Macro Installation & Build out and Running Demand Data line Electricity UMTS Macro UMTS Macro Site lease, Leased line, E1Y installation per UMTS site BTS site BTS site build Macro BTS, or Ethernete UMTS site Macro - installation out URBAN URBAN type URBANa URBAN URBANr Price Price Price Price Price Price per Qty per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€)0 30 3161 40 3161 5 1897 8 3161 1 9483 2 31611 28.5 4425 38 4425 4.8 2655 7.6 7586 0.95 32241 1.9 75862 27.1 5689 36.1 5689 4.5 3413 7.2 13275 0.9 72066 1.8 132753 25.7 6953 34.3 6953 4.3 4172 6.9 20228 0.85 132750 1.7 202284 24.44 10000 32.58 10000 4.07 4950 6.52 30228 0.8 218184 1.63 302285 23.21 9480 30.95 9480 3.87 5688 6.19 37928 0.77 331878 1.55 37928 Table 9. HSDPA Macro Installation & Build out and Running Demand Data line Electricity HSDPA Macro HSDPA Macro Site lease, Leased line, E1Y installation per HSDPA site BTS site BTS site build Macro BTS, or Ethernete HSDPA site Macro - installation out URBAN URBAN type URBANa URBAN URBANr Price Price Price Price Price Price per Qty per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€)0 30 1054 40 1054 5 1898 8 1054 1 9486 2 10541 28.5 3950 38 3950 4.8 2654 7.6 5004 0.95 32243 1.9 50042 27.1 5000 36.1 5000 4.5 3413 7.2 10004 0.9 72066 1.8 100043 25.7 5000 34.3 5000 4.3 4930 6.9 15004 0.85 132749 1.7 150044 24.44 5000 32.58 5000 4.07 4929 6.52 20004 0.8 218082 1.63 200045 23.21 5000 30.95 5000 3.87 5689 6.19 25004 0.77 331860 1.55 25004 Table 10. HSDPA Micro Installation & Build out and Running Demand Data line Electricity HSDPA Micro Site lease, Leased line, E1Y HSDPA BTS installation per UMTS site BTS site build Micro BTS, or Ethernete site installation HSDPA site Macro - out URBAN URBAN type URBANa URBAN URBANr Price Price Price Price Price Price per Qty per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. per Qty. Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€) (k€)0 20 6321 20 6321 5 1896.3 4 6321 1 9482 0.2 63211 19 13700 19 13700 4.8 4110 3.8 20021 0.95 39513 0.19 20021 6
  7. 7. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network2 18.05 20000 18.05 20000 4.5 6000 3.61 40021 0.9 99545 0.18 400213 17.15 20000 17.15 20000 4.3 6000 3.43 60021 0.85 189576 0.17 600214 16.29 20000 16.29 20000 4.07 6000 3.26 80021 0.8 309608 0.16 800215 15.48 20000 15.48 20000 3.87 6000 3.09 100021 0.77 459639 0.15 100021 3. CAPEX  and  OPEX  Calculation   The Step 4 (CAPEX, OPEX, Total Cost) in Introduction section is calculated as below: CAPEX = (Radio & Transmission Equipment Cost) + Installation & Build out Cost OPEX = Running Cost + (10 % x CAPEX) Total Cost = CAPEX + OPEX Using these equations and result of previous calculations, now we can summarize the Cost modeling for all of these 3 RAT options, as presented in table 11, 12, and 13 below: Table 11. UMTS Macro Scenario – Cost ModelingY CAPEX OPEX Total Coste (k€) Radio & Transmission Installation and Running Cost (k€) Operation &a Equipment Cost (k€) build out Cost (k€) Maintenance (k€)r0 221270 230753 86295.3 45202.3 538318.31 294262.5 306873.8 102695.9 60113.6 763945.82 359402.6 374805.5 184846.4 73420.8 992475.43 417292.9 435176.9 287246.3 85246.9 1224963.34 484631.2 590313.4 423921.2 107494.5 1606360.35 542420.4 747743.2 594455.7 129016.4 2013635.7 Table 12. HSDPA Macro Scenario – Cost ModelingY CAPEX OPEX Total Cost (k€)e Radio & Transmission Installation and Running Cost (k€) Operation &a Equipment Cost (k€) build out Cost (k€) Maintenance (k€)r0 105400 83266 38892,6 18866,6 227558.61 163594.8 275281.9 78168.4 43887.7 560932.82 199154.7 331277.9 155325.6 53043.3 738801.63 221708.6 317965.2 242455.8 53967.4 8360974 241509.2 305155.6 340562.9 54666.5 941894.35 258787.2 292833.1 450263.1 55162 1057045.5 Table 13. HSDPA Macro Micro – Cost ModelingYear CAPEX OPEX Total Cost (k€) Radio & Transmission Installation and Running Cost Operation & Equipment Cost build out Cost (k€) Maintenance (k€) (k€) (k€) 7
  8. 8. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network0 94815 262321.5 71743.4 35713.65 428879.91 195225 540122.5 117421.1 73534.75 926303.42 270750 749075 241538.5 101982.5 13633463 257212.5 711621.3 378671.8 96883.37 1444388.94 244351.9 676040.2 525923.2 92039.21 1538354.55 232134.3 642238.2 680716.1 87437.25 1642525.8 Part C. DFC Analysis Discounted Cash Flow (DFC) also can be used to analyze these 3 RAT deployment options, as it is actually a method to valuing the project. As we have the Discount rate information from [1], we can use the Net Present Value (NPV) as the tool to do DFC analysis. This value can give more insight into the financial viability of the investment that can be calculated using this equation [2]: PV = CF / (1 + r)^n Where: PV = Present value, means the value now of a stream of future cash flows, can be negative or positive. CF = Cash Flow, represented by the Total Cost in each year that we calculated in Section B. In this case, this is always negative (investment), and there is no positive cash flow (profit, etc) that is taken into account. r = Discount Rate, which based on [1] is 10 %. n = The period we are examining, in this case, the year value (0-5). For example, the Present Value of Year 1 in UMTS Macro deployment would be: PV umts_macro_year1 = - 992475.4 / (1 + 0.1)^1 = - 820227.6 Then we calculate the NPV as below: NPV = PV0 + PV1 + .. + PV5 The result of the PV and NPV of each of the RAT deployment option in Table 14. From this, it can clearly be seen that HSDPA macro shows the best financial viability compare to the other 2 RAT deployment options, as it has the highest NPV value. Table 14. Net Present Value of UMTS Macro, HSDPA Macro, HSDPA Micro (1 + r)^n UMTS Macro HSDPA Macro HSDPA MicroYear Cash Flow Present Value Cash Flow Present Value Cash Flow Present Value 0 1 -538318.3 -694496.2 -227558.6 -227558.6 -428879.9 -428879.9 1 1,1 -763945.8 -820227.6 -560932.8 -509938.9 -926303.4 -842093.9 2 1,21 -992475.4 -921025 -738801.6 -610579.8 -1363346 -1126732.2 3 1,33 -1224963.3 -1100246.7 -836097 -628644.4 -1444388.9 -1086006.7 4 1,46 -1606360.3 -1250705.4 -941894.3 -645133.1 -1538354.5 -1053667.4 8
  9. 9. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network5 1,61 -2013635.7 -694496.2 -1057045.5 -656549.9 -1642525.8 -1020202.4 NPV -5325019.3 -3278404.7 -5557582.6 Part D. Summary & Recommendation UMTS  Macro,  HSDPA  Macro  &  HSDPA  Micro  Deployment   CAPEX  and  OPEX  Comparison   900000   800000   700000   600000   500000   Year  0   400000   300000   Year  1   200000   100000   Year  2   0   Year  3   UMTS   HSDPA  HSDPA   UMTS   HSDPA  HSDPA   UMTS   HSDPA  HSDPA   Macro   Macro   Micro   Macro   Macro   Micro   Macro   Macro   Micro   Year  4   Year  5   CAPEX  Radio  &   CAPEX  Installation   OPEX   Transmission   and  buildout   Equipment   Figure 1. Cost Structure Comparison As what can be seen in the graph in Figure 1 above, the network deployment using UMTS Macro RAT would cause operator highest CAPEX in Radio & Transmission Equipment, while the other 2 RATs (HSDPA Macro and Micro) does not show striking difference. Even the CAPEX using HSDPA Micro shows decreasing trend in the last couple years of deployment. However, the deployment using UMTS Macro and HSDPA Micro impacts on much higher cost for Installation & builds out (CAPEX), as well as they tend to have sharply increasing in OPEX. This is because, they need much more BTS and or additional cell to build the network with the same requirement (coverage and capacity), as shown in Figure 2, thus result on higher cost on OPEX as well. On the contrary, HSDPA Macro deployment result on smallest amount of BTS as well as additional cell needs, thus result in lower OPEX. 9
  10. 10. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Network Figure 2. Number of BTS and Additional Cell Demand Meanwhile, using that cost structure, we also can see how it gives impact to the capacityperformance of each RAT in each year of deployment. As we can see in Figure 2 and 3, thedeployment using HSDPA Micro would cause much higher need of BTS installation in order tocover the same amount of coverage area, but it also result on higher capacity. !"#$%"&()*%+$,-.%"&()%/%+$,-.%"0()%,123)45167%% 8&2&074%91:;0(1<%=>?%.@01=1<%% &#!!!!" &!!!!!" %#!!!!" ,-.)/"0)1)23.4"5(673*(8"9:;1<=" %!!!!!" >:,?":)2*-"@",-.)/"0)1)23.4" A2B3(C(8"9:;1<=" $#!!!!" D?EFA":)2*-"@",-.)/"0)1)23.4" A2B3(C(8"9:;1<=" $!!!!!" D?EFA":32*-"@",-.)/"0)1)23.4" A2B3(C(8"9:;1<=" #!!!!" !" ()*"!" ()*"$" ()*"%" ()*"&" ()*"+" ()*"#" Figure 3. Capacity Required vs Achieved Indeed, HSDPA Macro deployment clearly shows stable performance that fulfillspromotionally the coverage and capacity requirement in each year. It also give relative increasingtrend, that is not much extreme both in the CAPEX and OPEX, and the amount of investmentHSDPA Macro itself also lower compare to the other 2 RATs. Another aspect that makes HSDPAMacro as a better RAT deployment option is the NPV value, where it shows the highest value,which means, it has the best financial viability of investment. Thus, it can be concluded that, 10
  11. 11. Wireless Infrastructure Deployment & Economics Homework 3 – Dimensioning and Cost Structure Analysis of Wide Area Data Service Networkamong these 3 RATs, HSDPA Macro is the most visible and best solution to be implemented inthis scenario.Appendix - Reference(s)[1] Markendahl,   Jan. 2011. “Course IK2514, Wireless Infrastructure Deployment and Economics. Description of Home Work 3” https://www.kth.se/social/course/IK2514/ [Dec. 07, 2011][2] “Evaluation Cash Flow Result”. http://www.money-zine.com/Investing/Investing/Evaluating- Cash-Flow-Results/ [Dec. 08, 2011] 11

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