Analysis of WiMAX regulation in South Korea and Indonesia

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Abstract—The development and rollout of WiMAX introduces several regulatory and policy issues. This paper highlights the WiMAX Regulation in South Korea, as a country that is already more mature and had become the first to implement Wireless Broadband Access (WBA) of its kind (WiBro) in the world, and Indonesia, as a country that is still in the process of formulating the reconcilable regulation. The paper begins with a brief overview of the technologies behind WiMAX and compared the market situation relative to broadband and 3G mobile networks. Next, the paper examines the potentially significant specific policy and regulatory issues for regulator in each country and competition climate between stockholders. Finally, this data was used to obtain recommendations to overcome the said problems. We found out that WiMAX may prove to be a disruptive technology for existing telecommunication and Internet sector, but careful policy effectuation can ensure that the disruption could create the maximum benefit possible in the society and market.
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Analysis of WiMAX regulation in South Korea and Indonesia

  1. 1. 1 Analysis of WiMAX Regulation In South Korea and Indonesia Laili Aidi Jung Changsu School of Information and Communication Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden 16453 {aidi, changsu}@kth.se Abstract—The development and rollout of WiMAX introducesseveral regulatory and policy issues. This paper highlights theWiMAX Regulation in South Korea, as a country that is already moremature and had become the first to implement Wireless BroadbandAccess (WBA) of its kind (WiBro) in the world, and Indonesia, as acountry that is still in the process of formulating the reconcilableregulation. The paper begins with a brief overview of the technologiesbehind WiMAX and compared the market situation relative tobroadband and 3G mobile networks. Next, the paper examines thepotentially significant specific policy and regulatory issues forregulator in each country and competition climate betweenstockholders. Finally, this data was used to obtain recommendations to Figure 1. The comparison between WiBro and WiMAX [42]overcome the said problems. We found out that WiMAX may prove tobe a disruptive technology for existing telecommunication and Internetsector, but careful policy effectuation can ensure that the disruption II. MARKET ANALYSIScould create the maximum benefit possible in the society and market. A. South Korea Index Terms—Regulators, WiMAX, Policy, Internet After starting commercial services in 1994, the Internet subscribers have increased gradually every year. Now, the I. INTRODUCTION number of the broadband population is approximately Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access 39,440,000 and it comprises 81% of Korean people in June ofW (WiMAX) provides fixed and mobile Internet access up to 40Mbit/s [1]. Fixed WiMAX is based on the IEEE 2010 [4]. Therefore, the Internet market is already saturated so Service Providers introduces combined services to increase802.16-2004 and Mobile WiMAX is based on 802.16e their profit with IPTV, Internet phone and cable TV.amendment to support mobility [2]. Since the introduction of smart phones in 2009, the WiBro (Wireless Broadband) is a service name in South popularity of the phones was explosive among younger who areKorea and a standard of IEEE 802.16e (mobile WiMAX) and it heavy users of the Internet. According to a survey, the numberwas devised to support mobility to broadband Internet access of smart phone users was increased from 2.6% in 2009 to 5.7%[3]. There is no big difference in the core technology between among cellular phone users in 2010. With this growth, theWiMAX and WiBro but the origins were different from each usage of Wi-Fi networks was also risen by two times in 2010.other. WiMAX was progressed from wireless LAN but WiBro The majority of smart phone users are 20s and 30s and almostwas started from mobile communication network so it could 99% of the users accessed to the mobile Internet servicesupport mobility at first. However, WiMAX was also through 3G and Wi-Fi networks [5]. With this result, theprogressed to support mobility in mobile WiMAX later. capacity of Wi-Fi and 3G networks reached the limit last year. Hence, Service Providers are installing a lot of Wi-Fi equipments in big cities and the public places to satisfy smart phone users and also they have a plan to upgrade 3G networks to LTE sooner or later. B. Indonesia Manuscript received May. 11, 2011. This work was done while Authors were master student of Communication Kementrian Komunikasi dan Informatika (Ministry ofSystems, at KTH Royal Institute Of Technology. Both Authors shared and Communication and Information) as Indonesia‟s Telecomscontribute in each of all the part of this report. Laili Aidi focused on issues ofIndonesia, while Jung Changsu focused on issues of South Korea. Regulator has been made straight forward to implement The work was submitted to Anders Comstedt as assignment of IK2214 broadband technology and targeting 50 million broadbandTelecom Policies and Regulatory Principles course. The authors are solely users in 2015 to push Internet literacy in remote areas in orderresponsible for the contents of this work
  2. 2. 2to boost domestic economy, enhance the country‟s ICT cost of multimedia service through CDMA network. WiBrodevelopment index (IDI) and Internet Service Excellence [15]. was developed by Samsung and Electronics andIndonesia is ranked at number 107 from total 159 surveyed Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in 2004 for thecountries in terms of Internet Development Index (IDE) [10], first time in the world and introduced in June of 2006 [6].number 40 from a total of 170 countries worldwide in terms of According to the statistics in Figure 2, the number of WiBroInternet service excellence [11], and also classified among subscribers was approximately 455,000 in 2010 and there was aother 120 countries as the country with Low Internet slight increase from 2006 to 2011. With this slight growth ofPenetration (less than 23.8 %). It currently has around 242.968 subscribers, Korean government is trying to extend WiBromillion people (world‟s 4th most populous country) with GDP service areas across the country. So far, the service areas areUS$2.858 [9]. In March 2011, there were approximately only for big cities. Moreover, the government hopes this servicearound 34,850 million Internet users [12], represented only to be popular among people because Korean companies and aaround 14.3 % of the population. government organization developed this technology so Koreans However, Broadband Internet services are still in their do not need to pay a lot of royalties contrary to CDMAinfancy in Indonesia. There are problems in inferior technology. Due to these reasons, the government struggles totelecommunications infrastructure, which will likely to spread this service with some good suggestions to Servicecontinue to impede Internet growth. The countrys Broadband Providers.Internet access penetration, although certainly on the increase,was still in the very early stages of development and remainedlow (0.1% penetration). There was only 1 broadbandservice/1000 population, by the end-2006 [13]. In 2009, therewere approximately only 8.5 million personal computers, andamong that number, only 256.500 people got access tobroadband service or around 0.1 % of the population [9, 14].Among this number, Telkom, the GovernmentTelecommunications Company, occupy more than half of thismarket as it has 150,000 high-speed Internet customers [9]. In contrast, Indonesia is in the list of the biggest mobileInternet users in the world (6th largest mobile cellular user) Figure 2. The number of WiBro subscribers in Korea [43][16]. Currently, Its mobile market had passed 80 % penetrationrate, as 180 million people have a subscription for a mobile 1. The government policiesphone [32], up from just 65 million subscribers just 4 years ago In 2008, KCC (Korea Communications Commission) decided(2007) [16]. The mobile market is currently dominated by 3 to use the mobile subscription number, 010 and support voicemobile GSM-based operators: Telkomsel, Indosat and XL call with WiBro. It means that WiBro users can send andAxiata, that together occupy 85 % of this countrys mobile receive voice calls with their devices. Moreover, thisconnections [17]. With this number, around 100 million is commission made a policy for Service Providers not to pay foroccupied by Telkomsel, a subsidiary company of Telkom, that the WiBro frequency until 2012 [6].makes it as 7th largest operator in the world based onsubscribers [17, 18]. In March 31, 2011, there were 34,850million active Facebook users (14,3 % penetration rate), made 2. The deregulation of combined-service regulationit as the country with the fastest growing Facebook users and The weak point of WiBro is the short distance of servicethe 2nd largest in the world [12, 45]. coverage and unsupported voice service but these problems can The country‟s mobile penetration had quickly moved and be prevailed over by a combined service with CDMA mobilethis number still has a considerable potential remaining for network. Korean government realized the importance offurther growth [13]. It can be seen that after more than 6 combined services to widen the usage of WiBro. Hence, thestraight years of strong growth, the annual increase in the government allowed Service Providers to cut the price and givenumber of Indonesia‟s mobile subscriber was still running at additional service such as WiBro plus 3G to boost the numberover 30 % and is predicted will reach 197 million in Q3 [13, 17]. of subscribers. In addition, if customers use WiBro service for aThus, there are considerations of enormous potential of onlinemarket. certain period, they can receive free laptops embedded with WiBro devices [6]. III. WIMAX REGULATION 3. The expansion of service coverageA. South Korea Until 2007, WiBro was serviced in Seoul and a few satellite WiBro was designed for supporting mobile high-speed data cities and Service Providers constructed their infrastructures tocommunication and this service was installed under the expand service areas to downtown of 23 cities. Moreover,previous CDMA mobile network infrastructure. Thebackground purpose of this technology was to reduce the high
  3. 3. 3 government encouraged Service Providers to expand their WiMAX Indonesia service areas to other cities continuously [6]. 10 Maluku Province & Telkom, Rahjasa MediaB. Indonesia Northern Maluk Internet on behalf of WiMAX Indonesia WiMAX is believed as a technology that will be flexible toreach wide users rather than the current optical fiber 11 Southern Sulawesi Berca Hardayaperkasacable-based services [15]. This is an important aspect inIndonesia since many citizens live in rural areas that cannot be 12 Northern Sulawesi Telkom, Jasnitareached by optical cable due to its location in remote areas Telekomindoand/or in a difficult position. It is proposed so the Internetpenetration can reach a wide range of area, affordable and 13 Western Sulawesi Berca Hardayaperkasadevelops the domestic industry [19]. 14 Eastern Sulawesi Berca Hardayaperkasa 1. License AuctionIndonesia‟s Telecoms Regulator choose unpopular ways in its 15 Riau Archipelago / Berca Hardayaperkasa,WiMAX implementation as they only allowed the Batam & Bintan Rahjasa Media Internet onimplementation of Fixed WiMAX technology, based on Island behalf of WiMAX Indonesiaregulation that was launched in 2008 (Kep Dirjen Postel No. 94,95, 96) and 2009 (Kep Dirjen Postel No. 209, 210, 211) [11, 20, Later, 3 of these selected companies then should lose their21]. The Regulator opened the tender for this Fixed WiMAX in license due to the late payments [22]. Thus, only 5 companiesfrequency band 2,3 GHz, in 2007, which is based on standard still hold the license, which are: Telkom, Indosat Mega Media,used for Mobile WiMAX [22]. The 2.3 GHz consists of 2 First Media, Berca Hardayaperkasa, Jasnita Telekomindo.blocks radio frequency with 15 MHz each at 2360 – 2375 MHz(13th block) and at 2375 – 2390 MHz (14th block) to deploy in 2. Investment Policy15 zones nationwide. But only after the process that range from In order to deliver the WiMAX service within the country, the14 July 2004 to 16 July 2009, they successfully got 8 from a Regulator mentioned that the Service Providers should partnertotal of 21 applicants who won the license, which was the with local Vendor [25]. There are currently 11 local WiMAXauction based on zone [23, 24]. chipset and device vendor in Indonesia [22, 25]. Moreover, in order to get the certification, these Vendors must follow the rule Table 1. Auction Result [18][24] of Tingkat Kandungan Dalam Negeri / TKDN (Standard LocalZone Area Service Provider Content), which requires them to use 30% for CPE (customer premises Equipment) and 40 % for Base Station from domestic 1 Northern Sumatra First Media, Berca components [15, 30]. Hardayaperkasa This policy and decision to only operate WiMAX in limited operation (Fixed WiMAX) was confirmed due to the several 2 Central Sumatra Berca Hardayaperkasa factors: a. Telecommunications sector capital expenditure in 3 Southern Sumatra Berca Hardayaperkasa Indonesia has reached 44 billion IDR in 2006, but the domestic industry only contributes 3 % from that amount 4 Banten Province, First Media, Intermux [15]. Thus Indonesia‟s telecommunication industries just as Jabodetabek (Greater economy consumption rather than economy production as Jakarta) most of Operators spending (CAPEX) going to foreign Vendors. 5 Jawa Barat Province, Comtronic, Indosat Mega b. Services Provider‟s growth has not created any benefit to minus Bogor, Media local manufacture, thus the implementation of WiMAX is a Tangerang and Bekasi momentum to promote local manufacture industries so they will be able to play as the main actor in telecommunication 6 Central Java Telkom and Internet service in Indonesia, as government argue that local industry still dominantly produce 16d chip-set [15, 7 Eastern Java Comtronic, Telkom 25]. Thus, since couple years back, there have been concerns 8 Bali Province, Nusa Berca Hardayaperkasa regarding the Indonesia‟s investor-friendliness. In June 2007, Tenggara Indonesia‟s Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) release 9 Papua Telkom, Rahjasa Media report that mentions the new set of rules aimed to provide Internet on behalf of greater clarity regarding the permitted levels of foreign
  4. 4. 4participation in different sectors in the country. Countries US, Mexico, Most Most It basically sent a mixed signal to investors regarding thefuture direction of investment policy in Indonesia, as this Brazil, countries countriesreform contains revised list of foreign ownership limits. The SoutheastTelecom sector in one part on the list that is changed, as there Asia, Koreawere tighter restrictions introduced. Under these new (2.3GHz)regulations, foreign investors could only own up to 65% ofmobile and 49% of fixed-line Operator. Both of them go downfrom previous limit of 95%. This changes seems also was Target Operators Operators “Grosstriggered by growing nationalist concern, as there was an roots” ISPsincreasing interest of Singaporean in the local telecomsindustry at that time [41]. 3. The absence of distinct difference IV. REGULATORY & TECHNOLOGY ISSUES Korean government keeps trying to activate and spread WiBro There are a few obstacles to broaden the Wireless Broadband service but people do not feel the necessity of using this serviceAccess in South Korea (WiBro) and Indonesia (Mobile because there is no difference from the wired Internet service inWiMAX): their home. We can find Internet cafes everywhere and the costA. South Korea is very affordable. Moreover, the wired Internet access such as 1. The narrow service coverage. DSL and high-speed Internet is already popular among KoreanThe wide service coverage is the most important factor of a families and the price is even cheaper than WiBro. With thissuccessful service. It means Service Providers should invest a reason, it is natural that people are not willing to use this servicegreat amount of money to set up WiBro infrastructures. and the future of WiBro is not bright [8].However, Service Providers hesitate to expand their serviceareas and take a very negative policy in marketing because they B. Indonesiado not have firm confidence in the success of this service. This 1. Spectrum Auctionnegative policy is caused by small increase of subscribers and Previously, Regulator took decision to delay the WiMAXsmall domestic market. In addition, POSDATA, which was one license Auctions in 2007, which was announced in order to waitof the main equipment Service Providers, gave up on this until the local manufacture industry is ready [26]. Moreover,business due to the above reasons [7]. there might be another possibility behind the reason of this decision, such in order to protect the incumbent Telecoms 2. Spectrum Allocation Operators and Internet Service Providers, as the WiMAXWiMAX Forum decided to standardize WiMAX device to implementation will collide with the current services because itsupport supporting global roaming until 2009 but KT and SKT can provide cheaper Internet and telecommunication accesswere excluded in this global roaming project because the two across the country [27]. Thus it is natural if there will be ancompanies used different frequencies and bandwidths. In Korea, objection from several incumbents in order to protect theirthe allocated service bandwidth is 8.75MHz less than 10MHz current service investments [28, 29].and the 2.3MHz frequency is also different from foreigncountries using 2.5MHz. Therefore, the government tried to 2. Spectrum Allocationadjust the bandwidth and frequencies but it failed [7]. There is an issue in Fixed WiMAX frequency band 3.5 GHz in Indonesia, as this frequency is used for Telkom‟s satellite and Table 2. Key WiMAX Frequencies [7] PSN for IDR and Broadcast TV. Thus, the WiMAX Frequency 2.5 GHz 3.5 GHz 5.8 GHz implementation in frequency 3.5 GHz will potentially cause a problem, mainly in satellite network [20]. Indonesia Telecom‟s Allocation Licensed Unlicensed/ Licensed Regulator has taken the right path in choosing other frequency Light bands rather than 3.5 GHz. licensed However, this decision leads to the next problem, as Regulator intended to only allow Fixed WiMAX implementation, but chose to use 2.3 GHz frequency, which are required by the WiMAX forum to be used for Mobile WiMax, not Fixed WiMax [7]. Actually, this unusual usage of this frequency will not just make Service Providers face difficulties on implementing international roaming, but also the economies
  5. 5. 5of scale will be reduced because it is not globally recognized while Fixed WiMAX doesn‟t implement this standard [15].frequency band [44]. As Indonesia‟s Government has signed There is skepticism among these local Vendors, which theagreements for International Roaming with the countries of usage of Nomadic WiMAX would not last longer and willAsia-Pacific, and most of these APEC countries support Mobile be switched to Mobile WiMAX sooner [25]. Fixed WiMAXWiMAX, thus the regulation to use Fixed WiMAX in this is claimed not to have a clear road-map, thus the CPEfrequency will violate this agreement [15, 21, 31]. cannot be used in the next short following years, which means it will not be interactive and profitable for the User 3. Regulation Consistency and Provider [15, 30].In mid 2010, Regulator then released statement that the range of b. There is a problem on the implementation of TKDN rule forbands to back the LTE mobile broadband system has been this WiMAX technology, as these local Vendors are notprepared [32]. This decision was taken, as there is expectation fully supported by the domestic upstream industry onthat the LTE will be adopted as part of 4G strategies in the producing the device [15, 25]. Thus they can only get 30%country, so it can be put as commercial service within the next supply from domestic while the 70% of the components still2-3 years. In the press release, it was mentioned that this must be imported [25]. This makes the investment to followdecision is taken to enhance the country‟s Internet the rule become huge, makes its implementation would notDevelopment Index (IDI) from 4G cellular networks, by be maximum as the prize for CPE and Base Station toreplace WiMAX broadband system to LTE [11]. implement WiMAX technology become high. Later, this Later, In November 2010, the Regulator then announced its will cause the Service Provider have put higher investmentconsideration to review the country‟s BWA regulation [19]. In to develop their network, and push them to market theFebruary 2011, the companies who actually won the tender in product to users in uncompetitive price, compared to the2009 for Fixed WiMAX were then given a signal to allow the other related technology [30].implementation of Mobile WiMAX technology, with the c. Market Limitation: implement domestic content standard isoption of prize taking (paying more) and being moved to the unfavorable for several Operators and Vendor Mobilerest of the band 2.3 GHz in the tender [25]. This decision was WiMax is mainly used in other 146 countries rather thanannounced due to the reason that most of the Service Providers Fixed WiMAX [15, 21]. Thus, several Vendors are notwho won BWA tender in 2009 still did not apply or failed for really interested to produce device for Fixed WiMAX, dueUji Laik Operasi / ULO (Operation Acceptance Test) process in to the limited market, which will lead to a high andorder to obtain the operating license for WiMAX service, even uncompetitive price, not profitable and economic scale [20,though the deadline given by the government ended on 15, 25].November 2010 [19, 30, 33]. There are several parties (Service Provider and Vendor) Later, these issues seem to lead most of the Servicewho objected to the idea to only implement Fixed WiMAX and Providers to hesitate on continuously implementing Fixedinsist to implement Mobile WiMAX technology [15, 20]. WiMAX or Mobile WiMAX as these Vendors also demand theFurthermore, after 2 years since the auction, there are only 2 Regulator to change the regulation on WiMAX usage standardService Providers who have taken action, which are First Media, and switch to Mobile WiMAX [25]. Thus, after 2 years after thewith service called Sitra [34, 35, 36, 37] and Berca Hardaya auction, none of these Service Providers have launched theirPerkasa, with service called Wigo [34, 38]. product for commercialize purpose. There is also a possibility This then leads to polemic as not all the companies who that these Service Providers are disappointed with the domesticwon the tender in 2009 agreed to this change [39]. As the tender Vendor, which are pointed by the Regulator as representativeswas done specifically for Fixed WiMAX technology of Industri Dalam Negeri / IDI (Domestic Industry). There areimplementation, then the companies followed the process and several reasons behind this based on the assessment made bydo the calculation (frequency and component) based on the the member of Badan Regulasi Telekomunikasi Indonesia /required technological specifications (Fixed WiMAX) [29]. BRTI (Indonesia‟s Telecommunication Regulatory Body), and Hasil Uji Petik (Test results) of Ristek (Ministry of Research 4. Relation between Service Provider and Vendor and Technology) [25]:There are several vendors, which were already pointed by the a. Incapability of the domestic Vendor on showing the roadRegulator to support the Service Provider on implementing map of the device, which must be used by the ServiceFixed WiMAX service in Indonesia, intend to develop the Providers.products for Mobile WiMAX [22]. Actually, there are b. The domestic vendor has lack of commitment and does nottechnological and economical reasons behind this: meet the minimum requirements to deploy commerciala. Mobile WiMAX adopts IPv6 for Internet access, which will network, as there is incapability on producing their product mainly be used in the future of the broadband technology, in economic scale.
  6. 6. 6 V. RECOMMENDATION a. Strictly implement the Fixed WiMAX first, and then afterA. South Korea the market maturate, hold an auction for Mobile WiMAX on the remaining frequency, in band 60 MHz [40]. 1. Technology Combination b. Service restrictions: both allowing implementation of FixedKT tried to combine WiBro with 3G networks to compensate and Mobile WiMAX, but there are restrictions on theshort coverage and unsupported voice service. With this effort, services types that can be provided over Mobile WiMAX,KT launched a new service, which is “3G+WiBro” and this as what has been done in Sweden and UK [44]. This can beservice can use 3G networks for voice and WiBro for data done, for example: mobility option is allowed only withinservice. In addition, KT supports hand-over technology the same cell, and seamless handovers between basebetween 3G and WiBro network for seamless connection. stations are not permitted) [44].However, it is still a problem that this technology does notsupport hand-over from 3G to WiBro network. If the last option is used, then the Regulator also should give an opportunity and protection to the Service Provider that has 2. Device Diversity already put their investment in for the research andThe important thing for spreading this service is to launch development of the Fixed WiMAX service, by providingvarious kinds of WiBro devices. There were a few types of market protection based on zone. For example the FixedWiBro devices such as a USB stick and WiBro+HSDPA WiMAX should only be implemented in several big cities, as itmodems, small laptops [7]. is also more suitable for cooperates‟ need, considering the electrical power and average income factor, while the Mobile 3. New service model WiMAX service should be implemented across the ruralThe Service Providers should supply new service models for regions in the country.customers to increase profit and subscribers. Combinedservices approach can be good alternatives for this, such as 2. Government SubsidiesDMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) service with WiBro. Indonesia‟s Government can also consider the option ofSo far, the absence of various services is the main reason of the Subsidy Program, where there are some grants and low costunpopularity of WiBro among people. loans provided for certain infrastructure projects in rural areas, such as for WiMAX products or connectivity. This option can 4. Telecom Policy Consistency be run, for example by setting a funding initiative to improveThe government usually changed mobile communication the availability of equitably priced broadband services inpolicies whenever there is a change of regime so Service certain public facilities, schools or libraries where it possible toProviders and customers could not expect consistent policies purchase "internal connections" which might include wirelessand regulations. To develop its communication industry, communications equipment [44]. The government could alsoconsistent policies are essential. allow Service Providers to cut the price and provide additional service to boost the number of subscribers, like what has beenB. Indonesia done in South Korea [6]. After remarked issues that raised in the implementation of This is important, not just because the equipment for thisthe WBA in South Korea, analyze how South Korean technology is still expensive, which would make it is notGovernment have overdue some of those mentioned problem, affordable especially for people in rural areas where the incomeand then consider the specific characteristic of the market and is likely much lower, but also to introduce and educate thesituation in Indonesia, we formulate several recommendation public about this new technology. Indeed, It would also helpthat can be implemented in Indonesia: the government on achieving its target for 50 million broadband 1. Spectrum and mobility Restriction users in 2015, in order to push Internet literacy in remote areasThe restrictions on how spectrum can be used are among other and then boost the domestic economy.key factors that influence the implementation of wirelessnetworks, as it play a role in the success of this technology. It is 3. Market Protectionimportant to create a regulation, which allows the operator to Indonesia has particularly big challenges to confront inimplement WiMAX as sustainable technologies so there is no building the necessary broadband infrastructure to cover itsneed to spend more investment on the new technology uniquely complex and broad geography, social diversity, anddeployment. Indonesia‟s market actually needs a sustainable political and economic issues. Moreover, the implementation ofand complementary ICT infrastructure, to create attractiveness 3G services still also could not reach rural areas across theand commitment in a long-term investment; which can be country as a result of national license regulation for all theimplemented by the Government with several options: mobile Operators, while the LTE implementation still needs
  7. 7. 7time to be mature in the next few years. Thus the create relationships that later will be equally beneficial for theimplementation of both Fixed and Mobile WiMAX are the right business environment within the country. Severalpath to overdue these mentioned problems. recommendations to overdue the problems mentioned have However, there is also an urgent need so the implementation been discussed and one of which is by taking into account theand business model for WiMAX will not disrupt the current specific characteristic of the market, industry and the politicalbusiness climate in the domestic area, especially the Internet situation in each country.and Telecommunication market environment. These issuesincluding WiMAX versus existing telecommunication and REFERENCESInternet industry, and the Fixed WiMAX versus Mobile [1] "WiMax Forum - Technology". Retrieved 2008-07-22. [2] WiMAX Forum. “Mobile WiMAX – Part I: A Technical Overview andWiMAX. WiMAX may very well disruptive to traditionally Performance Evaluation, August 2006”. [Online]. Available:telephony if it is able to provide fixed and mobile voice services http://www.wimaxforum.org/technology/downloads/Mobile_WiMAX_Pto data subscribers via VoIP, while the implementation of art1_Overview_and_Performance.pdf [May. 01, 2011] [3] WiBro. “WiBro overview” [Online]. Available:Mobile WiMAX may collide with mobile telecommunication http://www.wibro.or.kr/new/overview01.jsp [May. 01, 2011]industry as currently the Operator‟s main income is from [4] Internet World Stats. “Korea
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