Child-Centered Design of Mobile Educational Games for Arab Preschoolers


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Child-Centered Design of Mobile Educational Games for Arab Preschoolers

  1. 1. LAILA HUSSEIN SHOUKRY 03.01.2013 Child-Centered Design of Mobile Educational Games for Arab Preschoolers
  2. 2. Child Computer Interaction
  3. 3. Mobile Touch Technology
  4. 4. What are the design requirements and evaluation strategies for a mobile educational game for preschoolers - with application on teaching them the Arabic Alphabet - for it to fit the needs and abilities of, be usable by and of benefit to Arab (Egyptian) preschoolers? Primary Research Question
  5. 5. Developing Our Project Thesis Overview Interviews Survey Evaluation Study Evaluating Our Project Pre-MEGa Framework Interaction Design 4 Preschoolers Design Requirements & Evaluation Strategies 4 Arabic Mobile Educational Game 4 Egyptian Preschoolers IMM Project Steps & Challenges 4 Presch. Preschoolers IMM Use: Here vs. Abroad Arabic vs. English Early Literacy Software Arabic Alphabet Learning Evaluation Strategies Preschoolers’ IMM Use Abroad
  6. 6. Interviews Interviews
  7. 7. Interviews Interviews
  8. 8.  Some Results: Preschoolers (age 3-5):  prefer IM to traditional toys  68% use IM >1 h a day  35% own their own device  Most used : websites & mobile apps  Favorite device: tablet devices  Favorite activity: games  Easiest use: touch screens Survey: Arab Preschoolers & Interactive Media SurveyInterviews
  9. 9.  Some Results: Preschoolers (age 3-5):  Order of features which attracts them:  Cartoon characters  Audio and Songs  Colors and Design  Containing more activities  Simplicity and Ease of Use Survey: Arab Preschoolers & Interactive Media SurveyInterviews
  10. 10.  Some Results: Parents:  87% let their preschoolers use their devices  64% prefer content in English over Arabic  78% download pirated software Survey: Arab Preschoolers & Interactive Media SurveyInterviews
  11. 11.  How Egyptian Parents rate English Software teaching Alphabet  How they rate Arabic Software teaching Alphabet SurveyInterviews Survey: Arab Preschoolers & Interactive Media
  12. 12.  Some Results: Early Literacy:  64% prefer content in English over Arabic  50% don’t learn Arabic Alphabet at nursery  65% can’t sing the whole Arabic Alphabet song  25% can’t associate any Arabic letter with its sound Survey: Arab Preschoolers & Interactive Media SurveyInterviews
  13. 13.  Limitation: Represents only a certain social class Survey: Arab Preschoolers & Interactive Media SurveyInterviews
  14. 14. Study: Qulity of Available Early Literacy Software SurveyInterviews Evaluation Study
  15. 15. Study: Qulity of Available Early Literacy Software SurveyInterviews Evaluation Study
  16. 16. Study: Quality of Available Early Literacy Software SurveyInterviews Evaluation Study
  17. 17.  Status of most Arabic software even worse than that of their English counterparts back in 1993 Study: Quality of Available Early Literacy Software SurveyInterviews Evaluation Study
  18. 18.  Solutions:  Creation of Higher Quality Authentic Content  More research  Fund  Public-private partnerships  Addressing piracy  Localization of Foreign Content  Involving local educators and experts  Narrations by native speakers  Adapting multimedia elements  Testing in local context Problem: Threat to Cultural Identity
  19. 19. Designing Mobile Educational Games for Preschoolers Fun Usability Learning Mobility Preschooler s’ age Design Requirements/ Heuristics Premega
  20. 20. SEEM Premega
  21. 21.  The HECE Framework of Usability Heuristics for Child E-Learning Applications  The Enali Framework for Pedagogical Agents  J.P.Hourcade’s chapter on Interaction design and children  “Playability Heuristics for Mobile Games “  “Heuristic evaluation for games: usability principles for video game design. “  “Designing and testing mobile interfaces for children. “  “Design Principles of Educational Virtual Worlds for Preschool Children”  “A comparison of the mouse and touch screen for children's use of computers. “  “The role of usability research in designing children's computer products”  “Conducting game user experience research with preschoolers.”  “Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model.”  “Gender differences in children's creative game play.”  The effects of interactive media on preschoolers' learning.  A Dad’s Plea To Developers Of iPad Apps For Children Premega
  22. 22.  Screen Design  Navigation & Control  Ease of Use  Responsiveness  Game Design  Learning Potential  Instructions  Feedback  Difficulty Level  Content Delivery & Presentation  Pedagogical Agent  Customization  Security  Accessibility  Value Proposed Framework: Pre-MEGa • Guidelines/Heuristics for design and evaluation of Preschoolers’ Mobile Educational Games •15 categories with sub-categories: Premega
  23. 23. Proposed Framework: Pre-MEGa Premega
  24. 24. Hamza Arabic Alphabet Game Main objectives: •Preschoolers will actually play with it! •Preschoolers will prefer it over available English games. •Preschoolers will love the Arabic Alphabet. •Not complete, but a minimal working example. Main constraints: Time and cost. Story of the game: •Hamza has lost his beloved letters and wants to collect them. •The player should help Hamza pick all his letters again. •This is done using several games and then they play together with the letters. •All this repetition is meant to teach them the Alphabet in an indirect way. Developing Our Project
  25. 25. Hamza Arabic Alphabet Game Actual Project Timeline Developing Our Project
  26. 26. Hamza Arabic Alphabet Game Storyboard Developing Our Project
  27. 27. Game Design  Combine simple exploratory non-goal-oriented games with more sophisticated goal-oriented games  Support different playing styles  Include collaboration options Game Type and Scope  Supports game play and is encouraging.  Offers a social experience  Fosters imagination  Provides positive role models and messages Game Story Developing Our Project
  28. 28. Game Design  Clear, fun goal which quick sub-goals  Clear, fun and physically age-appropriate actions to reach the goals  Balancing challenge, strategy and pace  No repetitive or boring tasks  Reminder of progress  Convenient, flexible, game controls  No loss of any hard-owned possessions Challenge Elements Developing Our Project  Activities resembling adults' which look "difficult“  Include suspense and "danger" without leading to fear or frustration Difficulty Level
  29. 29. Pedagogical Agent  Context-appropriate visual representation  Attractive  Free of gender or ethnic bias  Establishes credibility and trustworthiness  Establishes a role and relationship to child and the game  Polite and positive Characteristics  Using a song with simple Egyptian Arabic Language  Clearly owned by agent  Complete and specific  Describes feelings by figure of speech Message Developing Our Project
  30. 30. Screen Design  Clear picture menus without text  Consistent design  Layout efficient and visually pleasing  Similar learning objects are organized in a similar style Developing Our Project  Visually meaningful  Large, easy to select  No phantom icons Icons Menus
  31. 31. Mobile & Touch Screen Specifics  Cautious Response with tilt functionality  No buttons near screen edges  Simplified screens, adaptable to different sizes  Using device interface and game interface for their own purposes  Consistent control keys following standard conventions  Interruptions are handled reasonably Developing Our Project
  32. 32. Learning  Dividing letters into ranges  Using verbal rehearsal to foster memorization  Varying activities during learning sessions to avoid boredom  Introducing concepts through many entry points  Including Self-Assessments Developing Our Project
  33. 33. Content Delivery & Presentation  Theme meaningful to children, Egyptian scenery  Embedded in fantasy contexts  Based on real-life experience  Personifying the letters  High quality graphics, audio and visual effects  Using music and songs  Multimedia elements assist and are consistent with the learning process  No graphics detracting from educational intention  Using "Surprises" and employing random generation techniques  Giving kids unusual powers Developing Our Project
  34. 34. Navigation & Control  Simple one layer menus with direct access  Consistent, logical and minimalist controls  Help Kids know where they are  Remember things already discussed  Choices to select strategies (even if instructionally irrelevant)  Control over rate and order of display  Clear exits from all sub-games  Main menu accessible everywhere  No irreversible errors Developing Our Project  Short, interruptible routines and animations  Let kids accidentally•succeed in the first 30 seconds  Quick, clear response to touch and no stagnation Responsiveness
  35. 35. Instructions & Feedback  Age-appropriate, easy to understand and remember  Supportive rather than distracting  Using clear-speech  Integrated in the context of the problem Instructions Feedback  Frequent, variable, age-appropriate, context-related  Employs meaningful graphics and/or sound  Descriptive, non-evaluative Positive:  Motivational  Attractive, fun, humorful Negative:  Let children know if they made a mistake  Offer helpful hints to correct actions Developing Our Project
  36. 36. Customization  Experience adaptable to gender  Customized, individualized instructions and feedback (Arabic language addressing different genders)  Offers choice of scope, themes and playing styles. Ease of Use  Require age-appropriate skills only  Bigger areas for selecting, dragging and tracing  Enable independent use after first use  Consistent responses to user actions Developing Our Project
  37. 37.  Ensures privacy of personal information  Free from ethnic bias, violence, scariness, inappropriate language or behavior  Free from inappropriate ads, ads which detract from content, or that lead to accidental purchases Accessibility Security  Can be used on a variety of devices, also a windows version is available  Working on versions with different languages Value  It’s FREE! Developing Our Project
  38. 38.  Creating a 3D effect in the racing game using 2D  Making the car game more efficient in terms of memory consumption  Keeping choices of gender and alphabet range throughout transitions  Enhancing navigation experience  Graphics Scalability  Handling interruptions of mobile devices like calls and defining actions for control buttons  Adjusting volume ratios so that music and sound effects don't interfere with the learning experience or distract from the learning content. Design Challenges Developing Our Project
  39. 39. Hamza on Google Play Developing Our Project
  40. 40. Field Study  At a nursery  Participants: 12 preschoolers, several sessions each Evaluating Our Project Developing Our Project
  41. 41. User Reviews Evaluating Our Project Developing Our Project
  42. 42. More than 100 responses! Online Evaluation Form Evaluating Our Project Developing Our Project
  43. 43. Some Results Evaluating Our Project Developing Our Project Best Ratings for Idea, Design, Usability and Fun!
  44. 44. Some Results Evaluating Our Project Developing Our Project
  45. 45. Game Updates: Navigation
  46. 46. Other Game Updates  Adding a letters test game  More repetition of the letters sounds in racing  Enlarging buttons which were difficult to hit  Increasing the area for dragging and for dropping the alphabets into the bag  Reducing the speed of the racing game and the tilt reaction.  Enhancing audio quality  Adding more instruction for bag game and animating the bag saying the instructions  Making the letter names be pronounced in formal Arabic instead of Egyptian Arabic
  47. 47. Hamza2
  48. 48.  Validating, extending, using Pre-MEGa framework  More research on Egyptian children’s interaction with new technologies  More research on game preferences of Egyptian children and how to design and test applications for and with them.  Using more smart technologies in mobile literacy applications.  Enhancing our application  Applying similar research on school children and integrating technology to accompany the Egyptian curriculum.  Encouraging companies and individuals to invest in quality research-based interactive products for young children  Establishing a research community for Digital Games-Based Learning, with a focus group targeting young children.  Use of new technologies in eradicating illiteracy among Egyptian children Recommendations
  49. 49.  For more information, read our papers:  Shoukry, L.H., Sturm, Ch., Galal-Edeen, G.H., " Arab Preschoolers, Interactive Media and Early Literacy Development", The proceedings of The International Conference on E-Learning and E-Technologies in Education (ICEEE), Technical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Sept. 24- 26, 2012,, Pages: 43-48.  Shoukry, L.H., Sturm, Ch., Galal-Edeen, G.H., “Pre-MEGa: A Proposed Framework for the Design and Evaluation of Preschoolers' Mobile Educational Games”, The proceedings of the CISSE virtual conference, Dec. 2012, Publications
  50. 50.  About Me: Laila Hussein Shoukry Master's Student Digital Media Engineering & Technology German University in Cairo Egypt Thank you