Network Interface Card (NIC) Commonly referred to as ETHERNET CARD and LAN ADAPTER Provides the physical connection from a computer or network component to a wired or wireless layer 2 LAN media.
NIC Components Interrupt Request Line (IRQ) Input/Output (I/O) address in memory A driver(software that interfaces with the NIC) MAC address
Cabling Types LANs typically use either copper or fiber-optic cabling. COPPER CABLING can include on strand of copper across which an electrical voltage is transmitted or many strands of copper. FIBER OPTIC CABLING uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers to transmit data.
COPPER CABLINGThe Ethernet standards define three types of copper cabling: THICKNET THINNET UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (UTP)
THICKNET also known as 10BASE5 or IEEE 802.3-1985 an Ethernet standard that requires a specialized coaxial cable to transmit Ethernet frames at a rate of 10Mbps. It derives its nickname, which is a portmanteau of "Thick Ethernet," from the thick coaxial cable it uses, which is 0.375 inches in diameter
THINNET also known as 10BASE2, IEEE 802.3, or "CheaperNet," an early Ethernet standard that makes use of industry- standard RG-58 coaxial communications cables connected to BNC T-connectors. The standard has been nicknamed as such due to the thin and relatively inexpensive coaxial cables or "thinwire" used, which are 5 millimeters (0.2 inches) in diameter; "ThinNet" is a portmanteau of "Thin Ethernet."
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR Unshielded Twisted (why?) pairs of insulated conductors Covered by insulating sheath
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR UTP cable is a 100 ohm copper cable that consists of 2 to 1800 unshielded twisted pairs surrounded by an outer jacket.
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR They have no metallic shield. This makes the cable small in diameter but unprotected against electrical interference. The twist helps to improve its immunity to electrical noise and EMI.
DISADVANTAGES OF COPPER CABLING It is susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) Distances of the cable are limited to a short haul
UTP CATEGORIESCategory 1 Voice only (Telephone)Category 2 Data to 4 Mbps (Localtalk)Category 3 Data to 10Mbps (Ethernet)Category 4 Data to 20Mbps (Token ring)Category 5 Data to 100Mbps (Fast Ethernet)Category 5e Data to 1000Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet)Category 6 Data to 2500Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet)
RJ-45 CONNECTOR The two endpoints of a UTP cable have an RJ-45 connector. Similar to a telephone connector (RJ-11), except that the RJ-45 is about 50% larger in size.
UTP PINOUT COLORS Color Pin (T568B) White/Orange 1 Orange 2 White/Green 3 Blue 4 White/Blue 5 Green 6 White/Brown 7 Brown 8
STRAIGHT-THROUGH All order of the wirings is the same as the other side. 1→8 1 2345 678 1 2345 678
Fiber-Optic Fiber optics (optical fibers) are long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances
Fiber-Optic Parts Core - Thin glass center of the fiber where the light travels Cladding - Outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light back into the core Buffer coating - Plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and moisture Hundreds or thousands of these optical fibers are arranged in bundles in optical cables. The bundles are protected by the cables outer covering, called a jacket
Fiber-Optic Cabling Used to provide very high speeds and to span connections across very large distances. Advantage: Great with 100Gbps and distances greater than 10kilometers Disadvantage: Expensive to implement, difficult to troubleshoot and difficult to install
Two Types of Fiber Multimode (MMF) Singlemode (SMF)
Multimode Fiber Transmits 850 to 1300 nanometer wavelengths of light Fiber thickness is 62.5/125 microns The core and cladding diameter is in the 50 to 100 micron Light is transmitted using LED
Singlemode Fiber Transmits 1300 to 1550 nm light and uses a laser as the light source.
Cable Type ComparisonsCable Distance Data Rates ComparisonUTP 100 meters 10 Mbps – 1 Gbps Easy to install but is susceptible to interferenceCoaxial 500 meters 10 – 100 Mpbs Easy to install but its difficult to troubleshootFiber 10 kilometers 10 Mbps – 100 Gpbs Difficult and expensive to install, difficult to troubleshoot, but can span very long distances and is not susceptible to interference.
10Mb Ethernet PropertiesEthernet Type Distance Limitation Cable Type Interface Physical Logoical Type Topology Topology10Base5 500 meters Thicknet AUI BUS BUS10Base2 185 meters Thinnet BNC BUS BUS10BaseT 100 meters UTP RJ45 STAR (HUB) BUS100BaseTX 100 meters UTP CAT 5 Rj45 STAR (HUB) BUS100BASEFX 400 meters halfduplex MMF 62.5/125 Rj45 STAR (HUB) BUS 2000 meter full duplex micron with SC and ST connectors100BaseT4 100 meters UTP CAT 3, 4,5 Rj45 STAR (HUB) BUS