Chapter 4

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  • Things we can touch..tactile; compared to software which is like invisible information
  • The control unit is within the Central Processing Unit and…
  • RAM is installed in most contemporary computers through a dual line memory module
  • Ram is like the working information it needs to be saved
  • The first Uniform Resource Locator or URL has apx 498 characters….way too big! But for demonstration purposes I included it here so that I could show you a great resource on the web for turning long URL into a tiny one
  • Humans speech is analog, meaning that it uses continuous signals to represent data and information
  • And now a little help from our friends Tim and Moby to explain further
  • Hence the term universal
  • Chapter 4

    1. 1. Hardware For Educators<br />Chapter 4: October 11, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Input<br />Processing<br />Output<br />Storage<br />Hardware ComponentsUsed for:<br />
    3. 3. Box like case that houses the electronic components<br />Made out of metal or plastic<br />Protects the electronic components<br />The System Unit<br />
    4. 4. The System Unit<br />The System Unit is a box-like case made from metal or plastic that houses the computer electronic components a computer uses to process data.<br />All types and sizes of computers have a system unit.<br />
    5. 5. Motherboard<br />CPU=Central Processing Unit<br />Memory<br />Expansion slots<br />Expansion cards<br />Removable memory devices<br />Components of the System Unit<br />
    6. 6. Central Processing Unit=most important chip in the motherboard<br />CPU=carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer<br />Also referred to as the processor <br />CPU<br />
    7. 7. Directs traffic with in the CPU<br />Repeats 4 basic operations:<br />Fetch=obtaining instruction from memory<br />decoding=translating instructions into commands<br />Executing=carries out commands<br />Storing=writes the result into memory<br />Control Unit<br />
    8. 8. With in the control unit there is a system clock<br />System clock=controls the timing of all computer operations<br />Clock speed= measured in GHz<br />Giga=one billion<br />Hertz=per second cycle<br />4 GHz= FOUR Billion clock cycles or ticks in ONE second!!<br />System Clock<br />
    9. 9. The components of the system unit include the motherboard, CPU, memory and ports and connectors.<br />Motherboard<br />RAM = Random Access Memory<br />RAM is Volatile, which means data stored in RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off.<br />CPU Process<br />ROM= Read-only Memory<br />ROM is nonvolatile because it retains its contents even when the power is turned off.<br />Ports and Connectors<br />
    10. 10. Volatile=lost when the computer turns off (RAM)<br />Nonvolatile=not lost (ROM)<br />RAM=Random Access Memory<br />The more RAM a computer has the more programs and files it can work on at once<br />ROM=Read Only Memory: stores info and instructions that do NOT change.<br />2 Types of Memory<br />
    11. 11. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/inside-computer-1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://computer.howstuffworks.com/inside-computer.htm&usg=__fMxZnkZwlOPPHMv7aKOBE6bBHg0=&h=300&w=300&sz=17&hl=en&start=32&sig2=AKcMeHJcjT-67lUSndzqyg&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=Fkuj6hNg1e1yLM:&tbnh=116&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcomputer%2Bhardware%26start%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7SKPB_en%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=eoEyTN78OIO8lQfw-um-Cw<br />http://tinyurl.com/36vsb2b<br />TinyURL.com<br />
    12. 12. Humans count with the decimal system which is between 0 and 9<br />A computers job is to process data electronically<br />Understands only two states: On & OFF; this is referred to as digital.<br />These two states are represented by electronic circuits represented by 1 or 0<br />Computers use BINARY=2 digits <br />Data Representation<br />
    13. 13. Binary Digit<br />Bit=Binary DigiT<br />The on or off value is represented by a bit<br />Represents the smallest unit of data the computer can handle<br />Not informative by itself but 8 bits = a byte<br />Provides combinations of 0s and 1s<br />Creates over 256 characters<br />
    14. 14. American Standard for Information Interchange<br />Most widely used coding scheme<br />Make it possible for humans to interact with a machine that uses only ones and zeros or BITS<br />Happens so fast<br />http://www.brainpop.com/technology/computersandinternet/binary/<br />ASCII<br />
    15. 15. What is Input<br /><ul><li> Any item entered into the memory of a computer.</li></ul>It can be categorized in four types: <br /><ul><li>Data
    16. 16. Commands
    17. 17. Programs
    18. 18. User Response.</li></ul>Data- is a collection of unprocessed items.<br /> Commands- is an instruction given to a computer program.<br />
    19. 19. What are Input Devices?<br /><ul><li> Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer.</li></ul>Input devices include:<br /><ul><li>Keyboards
    20. 20. Pointing devices
    21. 21. Scanners and reading devices
    22. 22. Digital cameras
    23. 23. Audio and video input devices
    24. 24. Input devices for students with special needs</li></ul>A popular keyboard used in k-12 classrooms is a wireless keyboard. It is a battery-operated device that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio waves.<br />Digital cameras allows you to take pictures and store the images digitally instead of on traditional film.<br />
    25. 25. What is Output<br /><ul><li>Data that has been processed into a useful form called information.</li></ul>Four common types of output are:<br /><ul><li>Text
    26. 26. Graphics
    27. 27. Audio
    28. 28. Video</li></ul>Text- consist of characters that that are used to create words, sentences, and paragraphs.<br />Graphics- are digital representations of nontext information, such as images, drawing, charts, pictures, and photographs.<br />Audio- is any music, speech, or other sound that is stored and produced by the computer.<br />Video- consist of photographic images that are played back at speeds that provide the appearance of full motion in real time.<br />
    29. 29. What Are Output Devices?<br />Display Devices<br />Printers<br />Any computer component capable of conveying information to a user. <br />This includes:<br />Multifunction <br />Devices<br />Data Projectors<br />Facsimile Machines<br />Speakers, Headphones,<br /> and Earphones<br />
    30. 30. Display Devices<br />The core of most monitors is made up of a <br />cathode ray tube (CRT) <br />A pixel is a single point in<br /> an electronic image<br />
    31. 31. What is Storage?<br />Storage stores data, instructions, and <br />information when they are not being <br />Processed.<br />Storage Media and Devices<br />Magnetic Disks<br />Mini Mobile Storage Devices<br />Optical Disc<br />
    32. 32. A storage medium that consists of a flat round portable disc made of metal, plastic and lacquer that is written to and read from a laser<br />CDs & DVDs<br />R=recordable<br />CD-RW<br />CD-R<br />CD-ROM<br />DVD=digital with much larger storage capabilities<br />Optical Discs<br />
    33. 33. Universal Serial Bus Port can connect up to 127 different devices with a single connector<br />Including: mouse, printer, digital camera, media players, smart phones etc.<br />http://www.brainpop.com/technology/computersandinternet/datastoragedevices/<br />USB<br />
    34. 34. Open Microsoft Word <br />Create a table for a database<br />Insert header with name<br />Footer with date<br />4 Columns labeled: Web-site, address/URL summary, uses/ideas<br />10 Rows:<br />Lab 2 Web-site Database<br />

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