Chapter 4
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Chapter 4






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  • Things we can touch..tactile; compared to software which is like invisible information
  • The control unit is within the Central Processing Unit and…
  • RAM is installed in most contemporary computers through a dual line memory module
  • Ram is like the working information it needs to be saved
  • The first Uniform Resource Locator or URL has apx 498 characters….way too big! But for demonstration purposes I included it here so that I could show you a great resource on the web for turning long URL into a tiny one
  • Humans speech is analog, meaning that it uses continuous signals to represent data and information
  • And now a little help from our friends Tim and Moby to explain further
  • Hence the term universal

Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Presentation Transcript

  • Hardware For Educators
    Chapter 4: October 11, 2010
  • Input
    Hardware ComponentsUsed for:
  • Box like case that houses the electronic components
    Made out of metal or plastic
    Protects the electronic components
    The System Unit
  • The System Unit
    The System Unit is a box-like case made from metal or plastic that houses the computer electronic components a computer uses to process data.
    All types and sizes of computers have a system unit.
  • Motherboard
    CPU=Central Processing Unit
    Expansion slots
    Expansion cards
    Removable memory devices
    Components of the System Unit
  • Central Processing Unit=most important chip in the motherboard
    CPU=carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
    Also referred to as the processor
  • Directs traffic with in the CPU
    Repeats 4 basic operations:
    Fetch=obtaining instruction from memory
    decoding=translating instructions into commands
    Executing=carries out commands
    Storing=writes the result into memory
    Control Unit
  • With in the control unit there is a system clock
    System clock=controls the timing of all computer operations
    Clock speed= measured in GHz
    Giga=one billion
    Hertz=per second cycle
    4 GHz= FOUR Billion clock cycles or ticks in ONE second!!
    System Clock
  • The components of the system unit include the motherboard, CPU, memory and ports and connectors.
    RAM = Random Access Memory
    RAM is Volatile, which means data stored in RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off.
    CPU Process
    ROM= Read-only Memory
    ROM is nonvolatile because it retains its contents even when the power is turned off.
    Ports and Connectors
  • Volatile=lost when the computer turns off (RAM)
    Nonvolatile=not lost (ROM)
    RAM=Random Access Memory
    The more RAM a computer has the more programs and files it can work on at once
    ROM=Read Only Memory: stores info and instructions that do NOT change.
    2 Types of Memory
  • Humans count with the decimal system which is between 0 and 9
    A computers job is to process data electronically
    Understands only two states: On & OFF; this is referred to as digital.
    These two states are represented by electronic circuits represented by 1 or 0
    Computers use BINARY=2 digits
    Data Representation
  • Binary Digit
    Bit=Binary DigiT
    The on or off value is represented by a bit
    Represents the smallest unit of data the computer can handle
    Not informative by itself but 8 bits = a byte
    Provides combinations of 0s and 1s
    Creates over 256 characters
  • American Standard for Information Interchange
    Most widely used coding scheme
    Make it possible for humans to interact with a machine that uses only ones and zeros or BITS
    Happens so fast
  • What is Input
    • Any item entered into the memory of a computer.
    It can be categorized in four types:
    • Data
    • Commands
    • Programs
    • User Response.
    Data- is a collection of unprocessed items.
    Commands- is an instruction given to a computer program.
  • What are Input Devices?
    • Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer.
    Input devices include:
    • Keyboards
    • Pointing devices
    • Scanners and reading devices
    • Digital cameras
    • Audio and video input devices
    • Input devices for students with special needs
    A popular keyboard used in k-12 classrooms is a wireless keyboard. It is a battery-operated device that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio waves.
    Digital cameras allows you to take pictures and store the images digitally instead of on traditional film.
  • What is Output
    • Data that has been processed into a useful form called information.
    Four common types of output are:
    • Text
    • Graphics
    • Audio
    • Video
    Text- consist of characters that that are used to create words, sentences, and paragraphs.
    Graphics- are digital representations of nontext information, such as images, drawing, charts, pictures, and photographs.
    Audio- is any music, speech, or other sound that is stored and produced by the computer.
    Video- consist of photographic images that are played back at speeds that provide the appearance of full motion in real time.
  • What Are Output Devices?
    Display Devices
    Any computer component capable of conveying information to a user.
    This includes:
    Data Projectors
    Facsimile Machines
    Speakers, Headphones,
    and Earphones
  • Display Devices
    The core of most monitors is made up of a
    cathode ray tube (CRT)
    A pixel is a single point in
    an electronic image
  • What is Storage?
    Storage stores data, instructions, and
    information when they are not being
    Storage Media and Devices
    Magnetic Disks
    Mini Mobile Storage Devices
    Optical Disc
  • A storage medium that consists of a flat round portable disc made of metal, plastic and lacquer that is written to and read from a laser
    CDs & DVDs
    DVD=digital with much larger storage capabilities
    Optical Discs
  • Universal Serial Bus Port can connect up to 127 different devices with a single connector
    Including: mouse, printer, digital camera, media players, smart phones etc.
  • Open Microsoft Word
    Create a table for a database
    Insert header with name
    Footer with date
    4 Columns labeled: Web-site, address/URL summary, uses/ideas
    10 Rows:
    Lab 2 Web-site Database