CHAPTER 4
MICROBIOLOGY
OBJECTIVES
With successful completion of this chapter, students will
be able to:
1. Define the term microbiology
2. State ...
MICROBIOLOGY
• The study of
microorganisms.
The science which
treats the nature, life
and action of
microorganisms.
• Cent...
INFECTION CONTROL
Primary function of Central Service
Department is :
Infection control
• Patient Safety
• Protect patient...
WORKER SAFETY
• Central Service Technicians
must also have a basic
understanding of
microbiology to protect
themselves fro...
INFECTION CONTROL
SERVICES INCLUDE
• Cleaning
• Disinfection
• Sterilization
• Sterility
Maintenance
IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO SEE MICROORGANISMS
WITHOUT A MICROSCOPE
MUST LEARN TO SEE
MICROORGANISMS WITH
THEIR “MIND’S EYE”
CENTRAL SERVICE
TECHNICIANS
LOOKING THROUGH A
MICROSCOPE
• A magnified picture
of a contaminated
needle illustrates
what the naked eye
cannot see.
• M...
TOR INFECTED BY CONTACT WITH INFECTIOUS
ORGANISMS OR OTHER MATERIAL.
CONTAMINATION
TO EFFECTIVELY CONTROL MICROORGANISMS,
CS TECHNICIANS MUST UNDERSTAND
• Basic facts about
microorganisms
• How microorgani...
BASIC FACTS ABOUT MICROORGANISMS
NOT ALL MICROORGANISMS ARE
HARMFUL
• Microorganisms are
necessary for our
existence.
• Microorganisms help
with:
• Food De...
SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF
BACTERIA
• Most bacterial
cells are 1-2
microns in size.
• A micron is
1/25,000 of an
inch.
A MICROORGANISM CAPABLE OF
FORMING A THICK WALL AROUND ITSELF
THAT ENABLES IT TO SURVIVE IN ADVERSE
CONDITIONS; A RESISTAN...
COMMON WAY TO IDENTIFY AND
CLASSIFY MICROORGANISMS INCLUDE
• Bacteria are often classified by their:
• Shape
• Color Chang...
CLASSIFICATION BY SHAPE
• Bacteria are divided into 3 main groups by
shape:
• Cocci are round or spherical shaped and occu...
SHAPES
• COCCI
(round)
i.e.:
Staphylococcu
s Aureus
• BACILLUS
(rods)
i.e.:
Pseudomona
s Aeruginosa
• SPIRILLUM
(Spirals)
...
BACTERIA ARE CLASSIFIED BY
COLOR CHANGE
• Bacteria are normally clear, color change
occurs when bacteria are subjected to
...
THE GRAM STAIN
• In 1884, Hans
Christian Gram, a
Danish doctor
working in Berlin,
developed a process
to divide bacteria
i...
GRAM STAIN PROCEDURE
• The Gram stain is the most commonly used differential stain
for determining cell morphology. Differ...
BACTERIA ARE CLASSIFIED BY
THEIR NEED FOR OXYGEN
• Aerobic Bacteria – Capable of growing in
the presence of free oxygen. R...
NEED THE RIGHT CONDITIONS TO GROW.
BACTERIA
TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS
FOR BACTERIA
Name Description Optimum Growth Temperatures
Psychrophiles Likes Cold
Temperatures
5...
BACTERIAL REPRODUCTION
• Bacteria reproduce by dividing.
• This occurs approximately every 20 minutes.
• This process is c...
SOME MICROORGANISMS ADAPT AND CHANGE TO INCREASE THEIR
CHANCES OF SURVIVAL
RESISTANT
MICROORGANISMS
MRSA USUALLY OCCURS IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE
BEEN ON ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR A LONG TIME
METHICILLIN-RESISTANT
STAPHYLOCCUS AUR...
ENTEROCOCCUS BACTERIA THAT ARE NO LONGER SENSITIVE
TO VANCOMYCIN
TRANSMISSION CAN OCCUR BY DIRECT CONTACT, OR
INDIRECTLY V...
VIRUSES, PROTOZOA, AND FUNGI
NON-BACTERIAL
ORGANISMS
ONE OF A GROUP OF MINUTE INFECTIOUS
AGENTS THAT ONLY GROW IN LIVING TISSUE
OR CELLS
VIRUS
VIRUSES ARE TINY
• Viruses are about 1000
times smaller than bacteria.
• If you were to enlarge a
virus to the size of a
b...
COMMON VIRAL DISEASES
• Smallpox
• Rabies
• Yellow Fever
• Influenza
• Measles
• Acquired Immune
Deficiency
Syndrome (AIDS...
HEPATITIS
• Five distinct viruses, A, B,
C, D, and E.
• A is often implicated in
foodborne illnesses.
• B, C, D, and E are...
HSV & HIV
• Recurrent skin and
mucous membrane
infections.
• HSV Type 1 is associated
with cold sores and fever
blisters.
...
ANY ONE-CELLED ANIMAL-LIKE
MICROORGANISM IN THE SUB-
KINGDOM OF PROTOZOA
PROTOZOAN
FUNGI
• Plant-like organism
group that includes
molds, mushrooms, and
yeasts without
chlorophyll
• They live by feeding of...
SUPERFICIAL FUNGI
• Attack mainly
epidermis, hair, nails,
and mucosal surfaces.
• For example, Ringworm
and Athlete’s Foot.
TRANSMISSION OF
MICROORGANISMS
• Microorganisms cannot move by themselves, but
they have been called the World’s Greatest
...
FACTS ABOUT MICROORGANISMS
• We come in contact with thousands of types
of microorganisms each day.
• Only about 1% are ha...
DISEASE-PRODUCING
CENTRAL SERVICE TECHNICIANS PROTECT PATIENTS FROM
PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS
PATHOGENIC
FOR OUR PATIENTS
•The hospital
is a very
dangerous
place.
OUR JOB IS TO PROTECT
THEM!
BREAKING THE CHAIN
OF INFECTION
• The infectious disease
process is a complex
relationship between the
source, the host, a...
THE CHAIN OF INFECTION
Causative
Agent
Reservoir
of the
Agent
Portal of Exit
Of the Agent
from the
Reservoir
Mode of
Trans...
CAUSATIVE AGENT
• The microorganism that causes an infectious
disease.
• Characteristics that make microorganisms capable
...
BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION BY:
• Eliminating the Causative Agent.
• That can be accomplished by:
• Avoiding cross-contam...
THE PLACE WHERE AN INFECTIOUS
AGENT CAN SURVIVE
RESERVOIR OF THE AGENT
BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION BY:
• Reducing Reservoirs
• Central Service Technicians can Reduce
Reservoirs by:
• Practicin...
THE PATH BY WHICH AN INFECTIOUS
AGENT LEAVES THE RESERVOIR
PORTAL OF EXIT
PORTALS OF EXIT
• Respiratory Tract - Through sneezing and coughing.
• Genitourinary Tract – Through urine, vaginal secret...
BREAK THE CHAIN OF
INFECTION BY:
• Protecting yourself and others from exposure.
• Central Service Technicians should:
• P...
THE METHOD OF TRANSFER OF AN
INFECTIOUS AGENT FROM THE RESERVOIR TO
A SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
• Contact – Direct contact from person-to-person or
droplet contact from coughing or sneezing
• Comm...
BREAK THE CHAIN OF
INFECTION BY:
• Central Service Technicians can disrupt the
Mode of Bacterial Transmission by:
• Mainta...
THE PATH USED BY AN INFECTIOUS
AGENT TO ENTER A SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
PORTAL OF ENTRY
PORTALS OF ENTRY
• Respiratory Tract
• Genitourinary Tract
• Gastrointestinal Tract
• Skin/Mucous Membranes
• Transplacent...
BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION BY:
• Central Service Technicians can disrupt the
Chain of Infection by:
• Ensuring that equi...
A PERSON OR ANIMAL THAT LACKS THE
ABILITY TO RESIST INFECTION BY AN
INFECTIOUS AGENT
SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
HOST SUSCEPTIBILITY IS
AFFECTED BY:
• Age
• Disease
• Nutritional status
• Compromised immune
status
• Trauma
THE CHAIN OF INFECTION*
*(FROM A CS PERSPECTIVE)
Bacteria
Surgical
Instrument
Instrument
Inadequately
Sterilized
Between
P...
WHAT WE CAN’T SEE CAN HURT US!
•Millions of tiny
bacteria, too
small to see,
inhabit our
work area.
UNDERSTANDING
MICROORGANISMS HELPS CENTRAL
SERVICE TECHNICIANS:
• Prevent them from Reproducing
• Control their Transmissi...
PREPAREDNESS
• Understanding the
basics about
microorganisms is
the first step in
being prepared to
fight them.
Chapter 4  microbiology
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Chapter 4 microbiology

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 MICROBIOLOGY
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES With successful completion of this chapter, students will be able to: 1. Define the term microbiology 2. State the facts about various microbes; bacteria virus and fungi 3. Identify and classify bacteria according to its shape, color change and need for oxygen. 3. Describe transmission of microorganisms and discuss chain of infection. 4. Review basic procedures of infection control and discuss the important role of CS technician in controlling infection.
  3. 3. MICROBIOLOGY • The study of microorganisms. The science which treats the nature, life and action of microorganisms. • Central Service Department protects patients from harmful microorganisms. • CS Tech • Must understand basic microbiological principles to provide that protection.
  4. 4. INFECTION CONTROL Primary function of Central Service Department is : Infection control • Patient Safety • Protect patients from infection
  5. 5. WORKER SAFETY • Central Service Technicians must also have a basic understanding of microbiology to protect themselves from pathogens that may be present during their routine duties.
  6. 6. INFECTION CONTROL SERVICES INCLUDE • Cleaning • Disinfection • Sterilization • Sterility Maintenance
  7. 7. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO SEE MICROORGANISMS WITHOUT A MICROSCOPE
  8. 8. MUST LEARN TO SEE MICROORGANISMS WITH THEIR “MIND’S EYE” CENTRAL SERVICE TECHNICIANS
  9. 9. LOOKING THROUGH A MICROSCOPE • A magnified picture of a contaminated needle illustrates what the naked eye cannot see. • Microorganisms can pose a threat to both patients and employees.
  10. 10. TOR INFECTED BY CONTACT WITH INFECTIOUS ORGANISMS OR OTHER MATERIAL. CONTAMINATION
  11. 11. TO EFFECTIVELY CONTROL MICROORGANISMS, CS TECHNICIANS MUST UNDERSTAND • Basic facts about microorganisms • How microorganisms are identified and classified • How they grow • What conditions they need to grow and reproduce • How they are transmitted from person-to-person and place-to-place • How they can be controlled and killed
  12. 12. BASIC FACTS ABOUT MICROORGANISMS
  13. 13. NOT ALL MICROORGANISMS ARE HARMFUL • Microorganisms are necessary for our existence. • Microorganisms help with: • Food Development • Decay of Leaves and other natural waste • Sewage Treatment • And more.
  14. 14. SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA • Most bacterial cells are 1-2 microns in size. • A micron is 1/25,000 of an inch.
  15. 15. A MICROORGANISM CAPABLE OF FORMING A THICK WALL AROUND ITSELF THAT ENABLES IT TO SURVIVE IN ADVERSE CONDITIONS; A RESISTANT FORM OF BACTERIA *BACTERIAL SPORES POSE SPECIFIC CHALLENGES TO CS TECHNICIANS SPORE
  16. 16. COMMON WAY TO IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY MICROORGANISMS INCLUDE • Bacteria are often classified by their: • Shape • Color Change • Need for Oxygen
  17. 17. CLASSIFICATION BY SHAPE • Bacteria are divided into 3 main groups by shape: • Cocci are round or spherical shaped and occur in pairs, clusters, or chains. • Rods (bacilli) may be large and brick-shaped or small and stick-like. • Spirals vary from comma-shaped to longer bacteria with many twists.
  18. 18. SHAPES • COCCI (round) i.e.: Staphylococcu s Aureus • BACILLUS (rods) i.e.: Pseudomona s Aeruginosa • SPIRILLUM (Spirals) i.e.: Helicobacte rPyroli
  19. 19. BACTERIA ARE CLASSIFIED BY COLOR CHANGE • Bacteria are normally clear, color change occurs when bacteria are subjected to certain tests (stains). • Common Stain Tests • Gram Stain • Ziehl-Neilson Stain
  20. 20. THE GRAM STAIN • In 1884, Hans Christian Gram, a Danish doctor working in Berlin, developed a process to divide bacteria into two groups.
  21. 21. GRAM STAIN PROCEDURE • The Gram stain is the most commonly used differential stain for determining cell morphology. Differential stains allow for distinguishing certain characteristics of cells, and the stains commonly use two or more stains. The Gram stain, which divides most clinically significant bacteria into two main groups, is the first step in bacterial identification. • The Gram stain process: • 1. crystal violet, the primary stain: followed by iodine, which acts as a mordant by forming a crystal violet- iodine complex, then alcohol, which decolorizes, followed by safranin, the counterstain. • G+ organisms are purple • G- organisms are red
  22. 22. BACTERIA ARE CLASSIFIED BY THEIR NEED FOR OXYGEN • Aerobic Bacteria – Capable of growing in the presence of free oxygen. Requires Oxygen. • Anaerobic Bacteria – Capable of growing in the absence of free oxygen. Does not Require Oxygen.
  23. 23. NEED THE RIGHT CONDITIONS TO GROW. BACTERIA
  24. 24. TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR BACTERIA Name Description Optimum Growth Temperatures Psychrophiles Likes Cold Temperatures 59o F to 68o F (15o C to 20o C) Mesophiles* Likes Moderate Temperatures 68o F to 113o F (20o C to 45o C) Thermophiles Likes Warm Temperatures 122o F to 158o F (50o C to 70o C) *Mesophiles are often pathogenic to humans and grow well at body temperature.
  25. 25. BACTERIAL REPRODUCTION • Bacteria reproduce by dividing. • This occurs approximately every 20 minutes. • This process is called Binary Fission. • This illustration above shows how E. coli reproduces.
  26. 26. SOME MICROORGANISMS ADAPT AND CHANGE TO INCREASE THEIR CHANCES OF SURVIVAL RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS
  27. 27. MRSA USUALLY OCCURS IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE BEEN ON ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR A LONG TIME METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) Staphyloccus aureus bacteria that have developed a resistance to Methicillin, the drug of choice
  28. 28. ENTEROCOCCUS BACTERIA THAT ARE NO LONGER SENSITIVE TO VANCOMYCIN TRANSMISSION CAN OCCUR BY DIRECT CONTACT, OR INDIRECTLY VIA THE HANDS OF PERSONNEL VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS (VRE)
  29. 29. VIRUSES, PROTOZOA, AND FUNGI NON-BACTERIAL ORGANISMS
  30. 30. ONE OF A GROUP OF MINUTE INFECTIOUS AGENTS THAT ONLY GROW IN LIVING TISSUE OR CELLS VIRUS
  31. 31. VIRUSES ARE TINY • Viruses are about 1000 times smaller than bacteria. • If you were to enlarge a virus to the size of a baseball, the average bacterium would be the side of a pitcher’s mound, and one single cell from the human body would be the size of the entire ballpark. (www.Mayoclinic.com)
  32. 32. COMMON VIRAL DISEASES • Smallpox • Rabies • Yellow Fever • Influenza • Measles • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) • Mumps • Polio • Common Colds • Shingles • Cold Sores • Warts • Hepatitis
  33. 33. HEPATITIS • Five distinct viruses, A, B, C, D, and E. • A is often implicated in foodborne illnesses. • B, C, D, and E are transmitted in body fluids. • There are vaccines available for A & B. • Hepatitis B Vaccine is strongly recommended for Central Service Technicians.
  34. 34. HSV & HIV • Recurrent skin and mucous membrane infections. • HSV Type 1 is associated with cold sores and fever blisters. • HSV Type 2 is associated with genital infections. • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • Causes AIDS • Occurs when the virus enters the blood stream.
  35. 35. ANY ONE-CELLED ANIMAL-LIKE MICROORGANISM IN THE SUB- KINGDOM OF PROTOZOA PROTOZOAN
  36. 36. FUNGI • Plant-like organism group that includes molds, mushrooms, and yeasts without chlorophyll • They live by feeding off living or dead organisms • Fungi are involved in the production of most kinds of antibiotics • Several species of fungi can cause respiratory disease in humans who inhale spores through dust, bird droppings, soil and other sources
  37. 37. SUPERFICIAL FUNGI • Attack mainly epidermis, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. • For example, Ringworm and Athlete’s Foot.
  38. 38. TRANSMISSION OF MICROORGANISMS • Microorganisms cannot move by themselves, but they have been called the World’s Greatest Hitchhikers. • Microorganisms can be transmitted by air currents, dust particles, in liquids, on solid objects like instruments and equipment…and by humans (us).
  39. 39. FACTS ABOUT MICROORGANISMS • We come in contact with thousands of types of microorganisms each day. • Only about 1% are harmful to humans. • However, any microorganism can be harmful to patients whose defenses are compromised due to illness, injury or invasive procedure.
  40. 40. DISEASE-PRODUCING CENTRAL SERVICE TECHNICIANS PROTECT PATIENTS FROM PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS PATHOGENIC
  41. 41. FOR OUR PATIENTS •The hospital is a very dangerous place.
  42. 42. OUR JOB IS TO PROTECT THEM!
  43. 43. BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION • The infectious disease process is a complex relationship between the source, the host, and the environment. • Central Service Technicians can protect patients from infection by disrupting that process.
  44. 44. THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Causative Agent Reservoir of the Agent Portal of Exit Of the Agent from the Reservoir Mode of Transmission Portal of Entry Into the Host Susceptible Host
  45. 45. CAUSATIVE AGENT • The microorganism that causes an infectious disease. • Characteristics that make microorganisms capable of causing disease: • Invasiveness • Pathogenicity • Virulence • Infectious Dose • Viability in a free state. • Ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents.
  46. 46. BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION BY: • Eliminating the Causative Agent. • That can be accomplished by: • Avoiding cross-contamination. • Thorough Cleaning • Disinfection • Sterilization
  47. 47. THE PLACE WHERE AN INFECTIOUS AGENT CAN SURVIVE RESERVOIR OF THE AGENT
  48. 48. BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION BY: • Reducing Reservoirs • Central Service Technicians can Reduce Reservoirs by: • Practicing Good Personal Hygiene and Health Habits • Properly cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing equipment, instruments, and utensils
  49. 49. THE PATH BY WHICH AN INFECTIOUS AGENT LEAVES THE RESERVOIR PORTAL OF EXIT
  50. 50. PORTALS OF EXIT • Respiratory Tract - Through sneezing and coughing. • Genitourinary Tract – Through urine, vaginal secretions, and semen. • Gastrointestinal Tract – Through vomit or stools. • Skin/Mucous Membrane – Through mucous or wound drainage. • Blood – Through Blood transfusions or contact with blood. • Transplacental – Through the placenta from mother to baby.
  51. 51. BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION BY: • Protecting yourself and others from exposure. • Central Service Technicians should: • Practice proper waste disposal • Wear appropriate Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) when they may come in contact with infectious substances.
  52. 52. THE METHOD OF TRANSFER OF AN INFECTIOUS AGENT FROM THE RESERVOIR TO A SUSCEPTIBLE HOST MODE OF TRANSMISSION
  53. 53. MODES OF TRANSMISSION • Contact – Direct contact from person-to-person or droplet contact from coughing or sneezing • Common Vehicle – Occurs when infectious agents are present in a vehicle such as food, blood, or water • Airborne – Infectious agents found in tiny droplet nuclei or dust that are suspended in the air and may travel. For example, through a ventilation system • Vector-borne – carried by insects (rare in U.S. Hospitals)
  54. 54. BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION BY: • Central Service Technicians can disrupt the Mode of Bacterial Transmission by: • Maintaining good hand hygiene • Following good work practices for cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization. • Following airflow control guidelines. • Following Standard Precautions guidelines.
  55. 55. THE PATH USED BY AN INFECTIOUS AGENT TO ENTER A SUSCEPTIBLE HOST PORTAL OF ENTRY
  56. 56. PORTALS OF ENTRY • Respiratory Tract • Genitourinary Tract • Gastrointestinal Tract • Skin/Mucous Membranes • Transplacental • Parenteral
  57. 57. BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION BY: • Central Service Technicians can disrupt the Chain of Infection by: • Ensuring that equipment, utensils and instruments are properly cleaned, disinfected, and/or sterilized. • Following Standard Precautions when handling contaminated items.
  58. 58. A PERSON OR ANIMAL THAT LACKS THE ABILITY TO RESIST INFECTION BY AN INFECTIOUS AGENT SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
  59. 59. HOST SUSCEPTIBILITY IS AFFECTED BY: • Age • Disease • Nutritional status • Compromised immune status • Trauma
  60. 60. THE CHAIN OF INFECTION* *(FROM A CS PERSPECTIVE) Bacteria Surgical Instrument Instrument Inadequately Sterilized Between Patients Patient # 1 Instrument Introduced Into Patient # 2 Patient # 2 Infected
  61. 61. WHAT WE CAN’T SEE CAN HURT US! •Millions of tiny bacteria, too small to see, inhabit our work area.
  62. 62. UNDERSTANDING MICROORGANISMS HELPS CENTRAL SERVICE TECHNICIANS: • Prevent them from Reproducing • Control their Transmission • Destroy them. • Protect Patients, employees and ourselves.
  63. 63. PREPAREDNESS • Understanding the basics about microorganisms is the first step in being prepared to fight them.

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