The large intestine to the anus


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The large intestine to the anus

  1. 1. Created by: Kristen Benish,Anastacia Arabie, Gloria LopezAnd Victoria HerbinDr. GlothfeltyA&P 1 AM Class
  2. 2. Large Intestine The shape and place: The colon is shaped like an U. The colon (large intestine) is housed within the abdominal cavity. It starts in the lower right quarter of the abdominal cavity, it is in the waist area. The colon runs along the rightBy Victoria Herbin side of the body. It reaches just below the
  3. 3. The Part of the colon The function and purpose: The colon is also called the large intestine is a 6ft muscular tube. This tube is connected to the small intestine. There are four main parts. They are: cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and the sigmoid colon which is all connected to the rectum.
  4. 4. The Function Of The Colon (LargeIntestine) The large intestine is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels. Waste that is left over from digestive process it passes through the colon by peristalsis. First it is in a liquid state and then ultimately it comes to a solid form. The stool passes through the colon, and then the water is removed. Then the stool is stored in the sigmoid colon until it becomes a mass movement. It then empties into the rectum once or twice a day. When the descending colon is full with stool or feces it then empties all of its contents in to the rectum. That is where
  5. 5. • The Large Intestine is the second to last part of the digestive system, the final stage of the alimentary canal is the anus. The function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible foodBy: Anastacia matter, and then to pass Arabie useless waste material from the body. The Large Intestine takes 32 hours to finish up the remaining process of the digestive system. Food is not broken down any further in this stage of digestion.
  6. 6. • The Large Intestine is simply there to absorb vitamins that are created by the bacteria inhabiting the colon. It also absorbs water and compacts feces, and stores fecal matter in the rectum. The Large Intestine is wider than the small intestine, and the longitudinal layer of the muscularis is a 3 strap like structures known as the taeniae coli, each are about 5mm wide. The wall of the Colon is lined with simple columnar epithelium.
  7. 7. • . The Colon houses over 700 • These bacteria also produce species of bacteria that perform large amounts of a variety of functions. vitamins, especially vitamin K Undigested polysaccharides and Biotin (a B vitamin), for (fiber) are metabolized to short- absorption into the blood. chain fatty acids by bacteria in Although this source of the large intestine and vitamins generally provides absorbed by passive diffusion. only a small part of the daily The bicarbonate the large requirement, it makes a intestine secretes helps to significant contribution when neutralize the increased acidity dietary vitamin intake is low. resulting from the formation of The most prevalent bacteria these fatty acids. are the bacteroides, which have been implicated in the initiation of colitis and colon cancer. Bifidobacteria are also abundant, and are often described as friendly bacteria.
  8. 8. • Parts of the large intestine • Locations along the colon are: are:• Cecum – the first part of the • The ascending colon large intestine • The right colic flexure• Taeniae coli – three bands of (hepatic) smooth muscle • The transverse colon• Haustra – bulges caused by • The transverse mesocolon contraction of taeniae coli • The left colic flexure• Epiploic appendages – small (splenic) fat accumulations on the • The descending colon viscera • The sigmoid colon – the v- shaped region of the large intestine
  9. 9. The rectum is a straight chamber that is 8-inches long that connects to the colon to the anus. The job of the rectum is to receive stool from the colon to let the person know that there is a stool to be evacuated. WhenBy: Kristen anything such as gas or stool comesBenish into the rectum it sends a message to the brain, then decides if the rectalinfo/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041 contents can be released the sphincters relax and the rectum then contracts, disposing its feces. The spinal cord regulates the nerve impulses that initiate the reflexive contractions of the rectum that result in
  10. 10. The walls of the rectum is smoothand flexible allowing it to expandto accommodate collected fecalmaterials. The rectum is also afrequent site of vulnerable cancer.The rectum is a muscular ring thatis at the end of the large intestine.The rectum also acts as atemporary storage site for fecalmatter before it is eliminated fromthe body. The food we eat is thenbroken down and nutrients areabsorbed in the stomach. Fecalmatter is made up of digestivejuices, bacteria, and fibercontinues to move into therectum. The rectum holds thefeces until you push it out of yourbody.
  11. 11. • The anus controls the expulsion of the feces. The flow of feces through the anus is controlled by theBy: Gloria anal sphincter muscle. The internal and external sphincter muscle relax, allowing the feces to be passed by muscles and pulling the anus up over the exiting feces.
  12. 12. • Feces is temporarily stored in the rectum and expelled from the body via the anus. An anal fissure is a tear or split in the lining of the anus {anal mucosa}. The symptoms and signs include pain when passing a bowel motion and bright red blood from the anus.
  13. 13. • The problem is common • Around half of cases in children younger than heal by themselves with one year, and affects proper self-care and around eight out of ten avoidance of babies. A person’s constipation. However susceptibility to anal healing can be a fissures tend to decline problem if the pressure with age. Common of passing bowel motion causes in adults include constantly reopens the constipation and trauma fissure. Treatment to the anus {such as options include surgery. difficult childbirth}.
  14. 14. • Anal pain• Pain when passing a motion and for some time afterward• Bright red blood from the anus• Blood on the surface of the stool• Blood smears on the toilet paper