User Centric Change ManagementService Design Network Global Conference, Paris Oct 2012Christian Lafrance, Innovation Direc...
http://www.cpsu.org.au/multiattachments/18769/Image/change-management1.jpg                                                ...
Staff who deliver on themdislike changes
User centric change management up-fronts staffparticipationTraditional change management   User centric change management
User centric change management process              Co-designing   Co-designingNew service                                ...
User centric change management process              Co-designing         Co-designingNew service                          ...
User centric change management process              Co-designing   Co-designingNew service                                ...
User centric change management process              Co-designing    Co-designingNew service                               ...
User centric change management process              Co-designing   Co-designingNew service                                ...
Co-designing change stateTransforming the retail banking experience
Validating the new branch format from a customer… and a staff perspective
Enactment is key inexploring best practicesand staff needs
Seeing is believing
Strategise for reluctant      staff participation
Outcomes              Co-designing        Co-designingNew service                                          Embedding      ...
Co-designing change methodsEnabling call centre staff to deliver a new home loan sales experience
Change management triggered by newcustomer experience strategy
User centred artefacts are   not enough to change              behaviours
You need more than lolliesto fuel participatory design
Change fatigue can                                              scupper your projectphoto http://www.programasdeincentivos...
Outcomes              Co-designing   Co-designingNew service                                       Embedding         Benef...
Is it really for service designers?
The drover-designerhybrid
Thank youSpecial thanks to my amazing colleagues: Anthony Colfelt, Bec Purser, EmmaReeves, Erietta Sapouniakis, Kate Symon...
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User centric change management

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Ever wondered if and how service design techniques could be applied to change management? This presentation at the Service Design Global Conference 2012 in Paris will show how research, co-design and immersive testing techniques with stakeholders and users can mitigate the risk of rejection and the cost of change failure. I shared the successes (and failures!) in the approaches they used in recent change management projects. I also proposed a framework for user centric change management to provide robust and replicable practices and tools to support effective change.
Refer to notes as the slides are just headlines.

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  • Unlike products and websites, service Design requires people to deliver the desired customer experience. As service designers we often try to innovate, and we require staff, the people who are actually the vehicle for that, to change their current behaviours and practices. Who thinks service innovation is for the better?
  • And like most on the population, staff, don’t like change. Not because they are yours, because they dislike them because they're changes. Changes are unknown and risky. And we are instinctively made to be risk averse So, if we want to see our improved service experiences implemented, change management becomes very important. At Different, we’ve been involved in several change management initiatives. As true user-centred designers, we applied our methodologies heavy on user involvement to these projects.
  • Like all user centred design approaches, User centric change management up-fronts user participation. Benefits: Increasing ownership of change; Increased compliance rates; Increased adoption speed; Reduced cost of rework; Increased staff satisfaction; Reduced risk of lack of motivation; reduced risk of reduced output and quality; reduced risk of increased absenteeism / attrition.
  • This the process how we’ve formalised user centred practices can be formalised for change management. It starts when you’ve designed a new service experience for customers or decided on an initiative to change some aspects of it’s delivery by staff. Up-fronting staff participation happens it the first two steps that differentiate from expert driven approaches:
  • This change state co-creation step accelerates change implementation by establishing the behavioural solutions and models, renegotiating the future state to prevent solutions that are not viable, and highlighting where to focus the change management activities on what matters most for staff. Learning about co-designing the future state Enactment is key in exploring best practices and staff needs Seeing is believing Strategise for reluctant staff participation
  • This step enables to go beyond change management communication and artefacts towards experiential learning. Communication plays an important role, but it is often not enough alone to empower staff to completely comprehend what they need to do differently in the future state. So you need to design the learning and implementation of these artefacts also need to be designed so that they can actually foster the new behaviours and truly implement change. Learning I’ll share about Co designing the change methods: - User centred artefacts are not enough to change behaviours ; - You need more than lollies to fuel participatory design ; - Change fatigue can scupper your project.
  • The traditional change management activities resume: Embedding the change: deploying the communications, artefacts and tools
  • Measuring the benefits: so that you can prove the effectiveness of the change and the new design This presentation will focus on our learning from the first two steps because they represent the core of the difference between expert driven change management and user centric approach.
  • A client approached us to test and validate the customer experience of a new branch design and that led us to also identify the staff needs that a change management program should address .
  • This Australian bank was looking at reducing their retail footprint, ie the size of their branch by 50%: Following the diminishing amount of transactions in branch; Focusing the branch on sales conversations. So we prototyped the new branch in cardboard and got staff and customers to enact service interactions in the space to understand its viability from both perspectives.
  • Enactment enables to explore best practices: An example; ATM self-serve coaching. Recommendations: Role play variations Role play more difficult challenging service interactions Enactment highlights the needs of staff: An example represented here is a junior staff attempting to start discussing a $300K home loan in the waiting area. you see by yourselves the client trying to shut them off You can inventory all the points that staff will need coaching on to avoid gotcha when the design is released. That’s the essence of dry run. Recommendations: - Dry-run everything new; Feed these into change management briefs.
  • Involve key and senior stakeholders so that they can see what is not working by themselves: Example of one core assumption underpinning the design that was challenged: Ability for staff to work effectively in the front office of the branch. when we role played it, we observed all the problems in terms of managing expectations on the customer side (you are there doing stuff instead of serving me) and on the staff side (workarounds to maintain privacy of what they are working on) Recommendations: - Even if you know it is not working, just prototype it and wait for testing to kill ideas. you need the evidence; Involve senior stakeholders so that they can realize by themselves and buy-in more easily into challenging recommendations; Build in enough iterations in your project plan. Prototyping and role playing alternatives in parallel accelerates learning curve How do you validate your intuitions? We had the intuition that a meeting room with lounge style furniture would be better than the traditional desk to foster a good conversation between staff and customers. Prototyping both options and role playing conversations in both settings enabled to have an evidence based decision to evolve the design. Recommendations: Prototype/role play several options rather than one (Frame these a side experiment); Then provide recommendation based on evidence;
  • Getting staff out of their job is hard (and way harder than recruiting customer participants) Through all the projects involving staff I’m always acutely reminded how hard it is to get access to front line staff to participate in testing/design sessions. we consider it as exiting or a break from the routine, or as a necessary evil worth it, they consider it as an operational disruption. Recommendations: Plan well in advance; Trade off carefully staff time against your time; Provide detailed timeline of workshop (by 15min increments) to avoid workshop duration being arbitrarily reduced by client. Participating staff feel they are punished when participating in workshops/pilots Once you get staff it’s just the start, time they spend with you, is time they are not spending selling to customers and meet their KPIs. Pilot programs can be perceived as a cost to the participating staff. There was concern that performance bonuses (and income) would be affected. A member of the pilot withdrew from the group explicitly stating: "I can't afford to be on this project". Recommendations: Respect and value their contribution to your work; Try to negotiate KPI freeze during trials and bonus incentives; Consider incentives.
  • This change state co-creation step accelerates change implementation by establishing the behavioural solutions and models, renegotiating the future state to prevent solutions that are not viable, and highlighting where to focus the change management activities on what matters most for staff.
  • Unlike the previous one, most of change management project don’t come out of the blue. In this project, we were involved in a previous piece of work to define the experience strategy . That experience strategy was aimed at customers, not aimed at staff.
  • It was defined through a thorough customer centred design process involving contextual enquiries, journeys… It set the vision of what to achieve for the bank to regain competitive advantage. What behaviors, processes and systems need to change to enable staff to deliver the experience The change for staff was: Shifting from short term transactional sales model to proactively offer advice Offering a channel of choice for customer to interact with the bank Objective: deliver the tolls for CC staff to deliver the right experience to customers
  • Iterating user centric tools is essential to focus their value for staff: One of the value of UCCM is to refine and iterate these tools so that you can focus their value for the staff who is going to use them We spend a lot of time creating artefacts to help staff learn about their customers: personas customer life cycle Process Reminders These artefacts were a strong improvement on the types of materials they were usually given for change initiatives. previous research indicated that: Current training material was considered boring in content and format. eLearning training can be ignored with users being able to bypass content and jump to question sections. Staff feel overwhelmed by the amount of content they are given to read. We realised that by themselves they don’t stand on their own particularly to impart soft skills Workshops and role plays are the most effective training method to impart soft skills. Staff enjoy and respond to soft skills training in customer service including how and what open questions to ask Many of the concepts developed for the project focussed on written material. While responses to the different concepts varied it was found that staff prefer scannable, easy reference guides. Consideration should be made for the different learning modes of staff (do individuals prefer to read, listen, watch, discuss, or learn by doing) in the design of training materials and the implementation of any new written material.
  • So, we set up participatory design workshops with staff to define the activities to embed these user centric artefacts: Participating staff tended to reuse existing training activities if they didn’t work When asked to imagine activities to learn about the user centred artefacts, team meetings were often referred to. From previous research we knew that were not used effectively by team leads. So we had to ask participants to go in more details and tell in more details how these meeting could work for them. Recommendations: You need to probe in detail how activities have worked in the past You need to push staff beyond and challenge them Consider using gamification techniques to break usual thinking boundaries Hierarchy stifles staff creativity For practicality miscommunication reasons, some workshops included team members and their managers. We observed that they weren’t really contributing and just deferring to their managers and avoided any tension. Recommendations: Plan workshops accordingly with staff without managers Build trust with participating staff to avoid being percieved as a manager
  • For call centre staff, you are just another passing change In the call centre we were, we quickly discovered that new ‘strategic’ initiatives ran on a quasi monthly basis: month of the credit card cross sell, month of the fixed rate loan… Change can be seen as a new fad from management and can be politely dimmed until the new strategic direction coming the next month Recommendations: - Carrot: you are an ally to help them achieve their KPIs - Stick: Emphasized the power of the hierarchy with the risk of non-compliance (bosses kicking their butts) - Present that right with senior stakeholders (two ways of presenting the pilot had dramatic impact on staff engagement
  • This exemplifies the need for service designers to go beyond the design of staff-centric change management communications and tools. The learning and implementation of these artefacts also need to be designed so that they can actually foster the new behaviours and truly implement change.
  • Can Service designers really play a role here? YES! particularly upfront Your projects need you: otherwise change is often imposed on staff in a dictatorial way. we often heard: they’ll have to do it. the service experience you designed may not actually be delivered
  • Drover has to Know where we’re going Corral the team toward the destination Be aware of the team’s needs: water, rest, medical attention Make sure nobody is left behind
  • User centric change management

    1. 1. User Centric Change ManagementService Design Network Global Conference, Paris Oct 2012Christian Lafrance, Innovation Director, Different
    2. 2. http://www.cpsu.org.au/multiattachments/18769/Image/change-management1.jpg Our recommendations & innovations imply change
    3. 3. Staff who deliver on themdislike changes
    4. 4. User centric change management up-fronts staffparticipationTraditional change management User centric change management
    5. 5. User centric change management process Co-designing Co-designingNew service Embedding Benefits change change change experience change realisation state methods
    6. 6. User centric change management process Co-designing Co-designingNew service Embedding Benefits change change experience change realisation state methods Early prototyping and enactment of the future state to elicit new behavioural solutions and amend the future state
    7. 7. User centric change management process Co-designing Co-designingNew service Embedding Benefits change change change experience change realisation state methods Design change management communications, artefacts and experiential learning activities
    8. 8. User centric change management process Co-designing Co-designingNew service Embedding Benefits change change experience change realisation state methods Deploying the change methods & trainings (communications, artefacts and tools)
    9. 9. User centric change management process Co-designing Co-designingNew service Embedding Benefits change change experience change realisation state methods Proving the effectiveness of the change and the new design
    10. 10. Co-designing change stateTransforming the retail banking experience
    11. 11. Validating the new branch format from a customer… and a staff perspective
    12. 12. Enactment is key inexploring best practicesand staff needs
    13. 13. Seeing is believing
    14. 14. Strategise for reluctant staff participation
    15. 15. Outcomes Co-designing Co-designingNew service Embedding Benefits change change experience change realisation state methods Future practices & processes refined Change needs validated Stakeholder & staff buy-in Identification of issues in a controlled environment
    16. 16. Co-designing change methodsEnabling call centre staff to deliver a new home loan sales experience
    17. 17. Change management triggered by newcustomer experience strategy
    18. 18. User centred artefacts are not enough to change behaviours
    19. 19. You need more than lolliesto fuel participatory design
    20. 20. Change fatigue can scupper your projectphoto http://www.programasdeincentivos.com/
    21. 21. Outcomes Co-designing Co-designingNew service Embedding Benefits change change experience change realisation state methods Validated training approaches, artefacts and communications Staff buy-in
    22. 22. Is it really for service designers?
    23. 23. The drover-designerhybrid
    24. 24. Thank youSpecial thanks to my amazing colleagues: Anthony Colfelt, Bec Purser, EmmaReeves, Erietta Sapouniakis, Kate Symons, Monique Rappell, Ron WongTwit me @madeinlafrance, Twit Different @DifferentUX

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