The Scientific Method An overview
What is Science? <ul><li>“ Science” derived from Latin ‘to know’ </li></ul><ul><li>Way of asking and answering questions <...
Forms of Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Discovery or Descriptive Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Types of Logic <ul><li>Inductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive generalizations based on specific observations </l...
Types of Logic <ul><li>Inductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive generalizations based on specific observations </l...
Forms of Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Discovery or Descriptive Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Scientific Design <ul><li>Scientific knowledge begins with an observation and a proposed explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex...
 
Theories and Natural Laws <ul><li>Theory :  a description of the world that covers a relatively large number of phenomena ...
Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>We use the scientific method in everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Example:  </li></ul><u...
Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>You got in your car to drive up here and turned the key but...
Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>You got in your car to drive up here and turned the key but...
Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Test predictions:  turn on headlights, check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank <...
Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Test predictions:  turn on headlights, check  spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank ...
Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Test predictions:  turn on headlights, check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank <...
<ul><li>Important terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Independent (manipulated) variable : condition or event under study (choose 1) ...
<ul><li>experimental group :  group(s) subjected to the independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>control group :  group not ...
Example <ul><li>Hyp:  King’s collar repels fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Pred:  dogs wearing King’s collar will have fewer fleas...
Experimental Design <ul><li>Obtain 500 dogs of various breeds from local shelters.  Have vet weed out the 200  dogs with t...
<ul><li>Results:  the dogs wearing the King collars were virtually free of fleas after the 2 wk period compared to the dog...
<ul><li>Assumptions:  factors thought to be true for the investigation but have not been verified or controlled </li></ul>...
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Scientific method ppt

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Scientific method ppt

  1. 1. The Scientific Method An overview
  2. 2. What is Science? <ul><li>“ Science” derived from Latin ‘to know’ </li></ul><ul><li>Way of asking and answering questions </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking answers to questions about natural phenomena (we are therefore limited to what kinds of questions we ask) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific thinking reduces emotional reactions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Forms of Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Discovery or Descriptive Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative vs. Quantitative data </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Logic <ul><li>Inductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive generalizations based on specific observations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Logic <ul><li>Inductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive generalizations based on specific observations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>- Specific predictions follow from general premise </li></ul>
  6. 6. Forms of Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Discovery or Descriptive Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative vs. Quantitative data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis-Based Science </li></ul>
  7. 7. Scientific Design <ul><li>Scientific knowledge begins with an observation and a proposed explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation called a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis is testable and falsifiable </li></ul><ul><li>In science hypotheses are tested by using them to make predictions about how a particular system will behave </li></ul>
  8. 9. Theories and Natural Laws <ul><li>Theory : a description of the world that covers a relatively large number of phenomena and has met many observational and experimental tests </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Nature : theory (or group of theories) that has been tested extensively and seems to apply everywhere in the universe-they become part of the conceptual framework of a particular field </li></ul>
  9. 10. Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>We use the scientific method in everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>You got in your car to drive up here and turned the key but the car wouldn’t start (observation) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>You got in your car to drive up here and turned the key but the car wouldn’t start (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: There is something wrong with the car </li></ul>
  11. 12. Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>You got in your car to drive up here and turned the key but the car wouldn’t start (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: There is something wrong with the car </li></ul><ul><li>Predictions: battery dead, ignition problem, </li></ul><ul><li>out of gas </li></ul>
  12. 13. Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Test predictions: turn on headlights, check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank </li></ul>
  13. 14. Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Test predictions: turn on headlights, check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze results: headlights work, strong ignition spark, no gas on dip stick-gas gauge reads half full </li></ul>
  14. 15. Scientific Method in Action <ul><li>Test predictions: turn on headlights, check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze results: headlights work, strong ignition spark, no gas on dip stick-gas gauge reads half full </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusion: gauge inaccurate, out of gas </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Important terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Independent (manipulated) variable : condition or event under study (choose 1) .Graphing-x axis </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent (responding) variable : condition that could change under the influence of the independent variable (measure this). Y-axis </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled variables : conditions which could effect the outcome of the experiment so they must be held constant between groups. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>experimental group : group(s) subjected to the independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>control group : group not subjected to the independent variable, used as measuring stick </li></ul><ul><li>reproducibility : producing the same result consistently to verify result. It is therefore important to describe your experimental design in enough detail for others to perform the same experiment. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Example <ul><li>Hyp: King’s collar repels fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Pred: dogs wearing King’s collar will have fewer fleas than those without collar </li></ul><ul><li>IV: King’s collar DV: presence of fleas </li></ul><ul><li>CV’s: anything that might effect the number of fleas on the dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Can we think of some??? </li></ul>
  18. 19. Experimental Design <ul><li>Obtain 500 dogs of various breeds from local shelters. Have vet weed out the 200 dogs with the most fleas. Randomly assign individuals to 2 groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Board the dogs in identical environments and treat them the same except that one group gets to wear the King collar and the other group does not </li></ul><ul><li>After 2 wks. The dogs are examined by a vet for fleas. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Results: the dogs wearing the King collars were virtually free of fleas after the 2 wk period compared to the dogs without the collars which had about the same number of fleas as when the experiment began </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Assumptions: factors thought to be true for the investigation but have not been verified or controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly accepted information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought to be held constant but not controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors beyond the investigators control because of technical or time considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes called confounding variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorrect assumptions invalidate an experiment! </li></ul>
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