Animal atlas power point for 6th six weeks


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  • Cephalization is the concentration of sense organs, mouth, and brain (if present) at one end.
  • Animal atlas power point for 6th six weeks

    1. 1. Kingdom Animalia
    2. 2. Animals are <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Cells lack cell walls </li></ul>CSCOPE
    3. 3. ~ Characteristics ~ <ul><li>Have a nervous system to respond to their environment - sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion relates to ability to obtain food </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals develop from a zygote becoming an embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>A single layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled space forming a hollow ball of cells called a gastrula . </li></ul>
    4. 4. ~ Body Plans ~ <ul><li>Animals that are irregular in shape are asymmetrical . </li></ul><ul><li>Animals that are regular in shape are symmetrical . </li></ul>
    5. 5. ~ Body Plans ~ <ul><li>An animal has radial symmetry if it can be divided along any plane, through a central axis, into equal halves. </li></ul><ul><li>An animal has bilateral symmetry if it can be divided down its length into similar right and left halves forming mirror images of each other. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Which figure has bilateral symmetry? Which has radial symmetry?
    7. 7. ~ Protection and Support ~ <ul><li>Though not all animals have a skeleton, those that do can be divided into two groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with an exoskeleton – a hard, waxy coating on the outside of the body that protects internal organs, provides a framework for support, and a place for muscle attachment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros? Cons? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with an endoskeleton – support framework within the body that protects some organs and a brace for muscles to pull against. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros? Cons? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Major Phyla <ul><li>Porifera – Sponges </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidaria – Corals and Jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>Platyhelminthes – Flatworms </li></ul><ul><li>Nematoda – Roundworms </li></ul><ul><li>Mollusca – Clams and Octopus </li></ul><ul><li>Annelida – Earthworms </li></ul><ul><li>Arthropoda – Insects, Spiders, and Crabs </li></ul><ul><li>Echinodermata – Starfish and Sea Urchins </li></ul><ul><li>Chordata – Vertebrates including Mammals </li></ul>CSCOPE
    9. 9. ~Invertebrates~ <ul><li>8 main phyla </li></ul><ul><li>No backbones </li></ul><ul><li>95% of all animals are in this group </li></ul>
    10. 10. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~ <ul><li>Sponges </li></ul><ul><li>simplest form of animal life </li></ul><ul><li>live in water </li></ul><ul><li>Do not move around </li></ul><ul><li>no symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Pores (holes) all over body </li></ul><ul><li>5000 species </li></ul>
    11. 11. Porifera <ul><li>Simple animals </li></ul><ul><li>Live anchored to a rock or the ocean bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Marine or freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Filter-feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Lack tissues or organ system </li></ul>CSCOPE
    12. 12. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~ <ul><li>Filter Feeders: a sponge filters particles of food from water using collar cells and then pumps the water out the osculum. </li></ul>
    13. 13. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~ <ul><li>Examples: Tube Sponge, Glass Sponge, Sea Sponge </li></ul>
    14. 14. ~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~ <ul><li>Live in water </li></ul><ul><li>Most have tentacles </li></ul><ul><li>catch food with stinging cells </li></ul><ul><li>gut for digesting </li></ul>
    15. 15. Cnidaria <ul><li>Named for their stinging cells </li></ul><ul><li>Marine or freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrostatic Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Jellyfish, hydra, obelia, Portuguese man-of war, sea anemone, and corals </li></ul>CSCOPE
    16. 16. ~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~ <ul><ul><li>2 different shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medusa - like a jellyfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyp - like a hydra </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. ~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~ <ul><li>Examples - Jellyfish, Hydra, sea anemones, and corals </li></ul>
    18. 18. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~ <ul><ul><li>Flatworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat, ribbon-like body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live in water or are parasites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bilateral symmetry </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Platyhelminthes <ul><li>Flattened bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Lack an anus </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest animals to exhibit cephalization </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworms, flukes, and tapeworms </li></ul>CSCOPE CDC
    20. 20. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~ <ul><ul><li>Examples: Planaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eyespots detect light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food and waste go in and out the same opening </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~ <ul><ul><li>Examples: Tapeworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasite that lives in intestines of host absorbing food </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~ <ul><ul><li>Examples: Fluke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lives inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of host </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. ~Invertebrate Phylum Nematoda ~ <ul><li>Roundworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Round, tubular body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small or microscopic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bilateral symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have both a mouth and anus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live in water or are parasites </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Nematoda <ul><li>Free living in soil or water with many parasitic forms </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Most have a digestive tract with two openings </li></ul><ul><li>Hookworms, pinworms, ascaris, and trichinosis worm </li></ul>CSCOPE CDC CDC CDC
    25. 25. ~Invertebrate Phylum Nematoda ~ <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hookworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trichinella </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ <ul><ul><li>Segmented worms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body divided into segments(sections) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live in water or underground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have a nervous and circulatory system </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Annelida <ul><li>Segmented worms </li></ul><ul><li>Setae for locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Clamworms, earthworms, leeches </li></ul>CSCOPE
    28. 28. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ <ul><li>Class Earthworms </li></ul><ul><li>eat soil and breakdown organic matter, wastes provide nutrients to soil </li></ul>
    29. 29. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class bristleworms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ <ul><li>Class leeches </li></ul><ul><li>parasites that feed on blood of other animals </li></ul>
    31. 31. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ <ul><li>Soft bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Shells </li></ul><ul><li>Live on land or in water </li></ul><ul><li>have a circulatory system and a complex nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Important food source for humans </li></ul>
    32. 32. Mollusca <ul><li>Soft bodied organisms often covered with a calcareous shell </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Most have a ventral muscular foot for locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Chitons, snails, limpets, clams, octopus, and squid </li></ul>CSCOPE
    33. 33. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ <ul><ul><li>Class Gastropoda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>snails and slugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may have 1 shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stomach-footed - move on stomach </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ <ul><ul><li>Class Bivalves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 shells hinged together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clams, oysters , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scallops and mussels </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ <ul><ul><li>Class Cephalopods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>squids and octopuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal mantel </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. ~Invertebrate Phylum Echinodermata ~ <ul><li>Hard, spiny skin </li></ul><ul><li>Live in salt water </li></ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>name means ‘spiney skinned’ </li></ul><ul><li>endoskeleton </li></ul>
    37. 38. Echinodermata <ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Calcareous plates often with external spines </li></ul><ul><li>Water vascular system with tube feet for locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Sea lilies, starfish, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers </li></ul>CSCOPE
    38. 39. ~Invertebrate Phylum Echinodermata ~ <ul><li>Examples: seastar, sea urchin, sand dollar and sea cucumber </li></ul>
    39. 40. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ <ul><li>Body divided into sections/segments </li></ul><ul><li>Exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Jointed legs </li></ul><ul><li>well developed nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>largest group of organisms on earth </li></ul>
    40. 41. Arthropoda <ul><li>Body is composed of a head, thorax, and abdomen with three or more pairs of joined legs </li></ul><ul><li>Chitinous exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Molt </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp, crabs, barnacles, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, ticks, horseshoe crabs, and crayfish </li></ul>CSCOPE
    41. 42. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ <ul><li>3 subphylums: </li></ul><ul><li>Classified into classes according to the number of legs, eyes and antennae they have. </li></ul>
    42. 43. <ul><li>Subphylum Chilicerata </li></ul><ul><li>is divided into 3 classes </li></ul><ul><li>Arachnida – spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites </li></ul><ul><li>Merostomata – horseshoe crabs </li></ul><ul><li>Pycnogonida – sea spiders </li></ul>~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~
    43. 44. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata <ul><li>Class – Arachnida </li></ul><ul><li>no antennae </li></ul><ul><li>4 pairs of legs </li></ul><ul><li>2 body regions - cephalothorax & abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>spiders, scorpions, mites & ticks </li></ul>
    44. 46. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata <ul><li>Class Merostomata </li></ul><ul><li>Horseshoe crabs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient group of species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed little over 350 million years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic, mostly found on Atlantic & gulf coasts of United States. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 48. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata <ul><li>Class Pycnogonida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea spider </li></ul></ul>
    46. 49. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum - Crustacea <ul><li>5 Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic ones have gills </li></ul><ul><li>2 antennae </li></ul><ul><li>2 body regions or segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp, lobsters, crabs, barnacles, isopods </li></ul><ul><li>Many species taste delicious in butter </li></ul>
    47. 51. <ul><li>Subphylum Uniramia : 3 classes </li></ul><ul><li>Class Insecta (insects) </li></ul><ul><li>Class Chilopoda (Centipedes) </li></ul><ul><li>Class Diplopoda (Millipedes) </li></ul>
    48. 52. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia <ul><li>Class Insecta </li></ul><ul><li>no antennae </li></ul><ul><li>3 pairs of legs </li></ul><ul><li>2 body regions - head, thorax & abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>grasshoppers, ants, butterflies, bees </li></ul>
    49. 54. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia <ul><li>Class Diplopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Millipedes </li></ul><ul><li>segmented animals </li></ul><ul><li>Have 2 pairs of legs per segment </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily herbivores & decomposers </li></ul>
    50. 56. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia <ul><li>Class Chiopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Centipedes Usually terrestrial carnivores </li></ul><ul><li>Have 1 pair of antennae </li></ul><ul><li>Are often poisonous, using modified front claws to immobilize prey </li></ul>
    51. 58. ~ Phylum Chordata ~ subphylum Vertebrata <ul><ul><li>5 classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reptiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 59. Chordata <ul><li>Notocord for support of the body at some stage of development </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal, tubular nerve cord </li></ul><ul><li>Tunicate, lancelets, and vertebrates </li></ul>CSCOPE
    53. 60. Chordata – Class Osteichthyes <ul><li>Bony fishes </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized structures and behaviors to maintain homeostasis with regard to water balance </li></ul><ul><li>Some have swim bladders </li></ul>CSCOPE
    54. 61. Chordata – Class Amphibia <ul><li>Amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>Most live in water as a larva and on land as an adult </li></ul><ul><li>Moist skin </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms </li></ul><ul><li>Frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians </li></ul>CSCOPE
    55. 62. Chordata – Class Reptilia <ul><li>Reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>Dry, scaly skin </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms </li></ul><ul><li>Lizards, snakes, crocodilians, turtles, tortoises, and tuatara </li></ul>CSCOPE
    56. 63. Chordata – Class Aves <ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Endotherms </li></ul><ul><li>Outer covering of feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Two legs with scales </li></ul><ul><li>Modified front limbs (wings) </li></ul><ul><li>Eagle, cardinal, penguin, duck, etc. </li></ul>CSCOPE
    57. 64. Chordata – Class Mammalia <ul><li>Mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Produce milk in mammary glands to feed their young </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe air </li></ul><ul><li>Four-chambered heart </li></ul><ul><li>Endotherms </li></ul><ul><li>Duck billed platypus, marsupials, cows, dogs, humans, etc. </li></ul>CSCOPE